The History of Ireland - ENDNOTES.

ENDNOTES.

1. Sean-Ghaill: i.e. the first Norman invaders of Ireland in the twelfth century and their descendants: distinguished carefully by Keating from the Nua-Ghaill, i.e. the more recent English settlers, and the planters of his own time.
2. Gaedhil: i.e. the Gael, the native inhabitants of Ireland.
3. Gall, foreigner, contrasted with Gael; applied to Danes, French, Normans, and later to the English: see preceding notes.
4. Alba in Gaelic, a name which possibly in earlier times indicated the whole island of Britain (gen. Alban).
5. The Gael, both of Ireland and Scotland, are usually called Scots by early mediæval writers.
6. Cruithnigh, i.e. Picti.
7. Laighin, pl.; gen. Laighean.
8. Mumha.
9. Omnium virtutum ignari.
10. Horum quae commemoramus, dignos fide testes non habemus.
11. Apum est tanta multitudo, ut non solum in alveariis sed etiam in arborum truncis et terrae caverns reperiantur.
12. Jus belli socialis.
13. Hibernia nunquam subiacuit externae ditioni.
14. Hibernia ab initio ab omni alienarum gentium incursu libera permansit.
15. Cum suum Romani imperium undique propagassent, multi, procul dubio, ex Hispania, Gallia, et Britannia hic se receperunt, ut iniquissimo Romanorum iugo, colla subducerunt.
16. Ego animum via inducere possum ut hanc regionem in Romanorum potestatem ullo tempore concessisse credam.
17. Ulaidh, pl.: dat. Ultaibh.
18. Est autem gene haec, gene inhospita.
19. Sunt sane homines hospitalissimi, neque illis ulla in re magis gratificari potes, quam vel sponte ac voluntate eorum domos frequentare.
20. Midhe.
21. Breithfne.
22. Siuir, Feoir, Bearbha.
23. Sliabh Bladhma.
24. Sliabh Aildiuin.
25. Ui Cairin.
26. i.e. the race of Conall; the tribe-name of the chiefs of Tirconaill.
27. Oirghialla, pl.
28. Tuath Mhumha.
29. Cairbre.
30. Brandubh or Brandúth.
31. or Tuathghal.
32. i.e. Uí Cinnsiolaigh.
33. In the south of Co. Wexford.
34. Uisneach.
35. Innbhear Slainghe; i.e. the firth (or fiord) of Slaney: meaning strictly the mouth of the Slaney, or Wexford Haven.
36. Loch-gCarman.
37. Ceatharlach.
38. Leithghlinn.
39. New Ross, Co. Wexford.
40. Fine Gall, i.e. Fingall.
41. Colonorum omnium ultimus qui in Anglica provincia habitat filiam suam vel nobilissimo Hibernorum principi in matrimonium non daret.
42. riabhach, swarthy.
43. Ur Mhumha
44. Deas Mhumha.
45. mór, great.
46. Sacsa, England; i Sacsaibh, dat. pl., i.e. among the English.
47. In musicis solum instrumentis commendabilem invenio gentis istius diligentiam, in quibus, prae omni natione quam vidimus incomparabiliter est instructa.
48. Tam suavi velocitate, tam dispari paritate, tam discordi concordia, consona redditur et completur melodia.
49. Mileadh, Latinised Milesius: Clanna Mhileadh (or Mhilidh), the descendants of Milesius: i.e. the Gael.
50. In his detur sua antiquitati venia.
51. Non immerito haec insula Ogygia, id est perantiqua, Plutarcho dicta fuit.
52. A profundissima enim antiquitatis memoria historias suas auspicantur, adeo ut prae illis omnis omnium gentium antiquitas sit novitas aut quodammodo infantia.
53. Lochlonn, the country of the Danes or Norsemen i.e. Vikings: possibly a plural form like other ancient names.
54. Qui de purgatorio dubitat, Scotiam pergat, purgatorium Sancti Patricii intret, et de purgatorii poenis amplius non dubitabit.
55. i.e. Giolla már or mór, see III above.
56. Seanchaidhe, i.e. an antiquary.
57. Fiann, coll., dat. Féinn, Fianna Eireann, the Fenians.
58. Athcliath (Duibhlinne); Loch-gCarman; Portlairge; Corcach; Luimneach.
59. Written incorrectly Rory or Roderick O'Connor.
60. Bangor.
61. The Ards.
62. Dalnárry or Dalaradia, obsolete name of a district partly in Antrim, partly in Down, from the tribe named.
63. Fragiles domos ad altitudinem hominis exitant, sibi pecorique communes.
64. Prima eat, nequid falsi dicere audeat.
65. Deinde nequid veri dicere non audeat, neque suspitio gratiae sit in scribendo, neque simultatis.
66. Si qui religiosi se consecrant, religiosa quadam austeritate ad miraculum usque se continent, vigilando, orando, et jejuniis se macerando.
67. Est autem terrae illius clerus satis religione commendabilis, et inter varies quibus pollet virtutes, castitatis praerogativa praeeminet atque  praecellit.
68. Hibernici etiam magna ex parte sunt religionis summe colentes.
69. Gallóglach i.e. a mercenary soldier in mediæval Ireland.
70. Gen haec corpore valida et in primis agilis, animo forti et elato, ingenio acri, bellicosa, vitae prodiga, laboris, frigoris et inediae patiens, veneri indulgens, hospitibus perbenigna, amore constans, inimicis implacabilis, credulitate levis, gloriae avida, contumeliae et iniuriae impatiens.
71. In laboribus ex omni hominum genere patientissimi, in rerum angustiis raro fracti.
72. Tanaiste, i.e. the elected successor of the same family.
73. Gabhdil cinidh i.e. division of property between near kindred.
74. Eiric, i.e. blood-fine or satisfaction.
75. Ollamh, a sage, a doctor.
76. Tanaisteacht.
77. Cion comhgais lit. crime of relationship; an 'eric,' levied, as described, by way of vicarious punishment.
78. Eineaclann, honour-price.
79. Breitheamh, a judge.
80. Habent hi magnates suos iuridicos, quos vocant Brehonos, suos historicos qui res gestas describunt, medicos, poetas, quos bardos vocant, et citharaedos, quibus singulis sua praedia assignata sunt, et singuli aunt in unoquoque territorio, et d certis et singulis familiis; scilicet, brehoni unius stirpis et nominis, historici alterius, et sic de coeteris, qui suos liberos sive cognatos in sua qualibet arte erudiunt, et semper successores habent.
81. Ollamh, a sage, professor, doctor.
82. Draoi, i.e. magus.
83. Feis, assembly, festival.     
84. Teamhair (Teamhrach, gen.), Tara.
85. Ard Macha.
86. Saltair, Psalterium, Duanaire.
87. Caiseal.
88. See O'Curry's 'MS. Materials' for an account of this and other books mentioned.
89. Clonenagh in Queen's County.
90. Laoigheas.
91 i.e. of the Verses.
92. Céile De.
93. Gleann-da-loch.
94. Or the 'Dun,' the original Leabhar na hUidhre.
95. Cluain-mic-nois.
96. i.e. the headings of the separate tracts.
97. Aos here possibly means caste, or grade.
98. Seems to have been a treatise on verifying dates.
99. Dinnseanchus, Onomasticon, or topography.
100. Interpretation of names, perhaps Etymology.
101. Rudiments (of Grammar) probably.
102. Panegyric or Elóge.
103. Seanchus, antiquity, archæology compilation of ancient law or history.
104. Hibernia, ab initio, ab omni alienarum gentium incursu libera permansit.
105. The Septuagint.
106. Saltair na Rann.
107. Céile Dé.
108. Collection of poetry.
109. Foras feasa, groundwork or foundation of knowledge: elements of history. Seanchus, historical narrative or compilation: ancient record.
110. Éire, gen Éireann the native name of Ireland.
111. i.e. Moynalty.
112. Explained as the country of the remote limits, or extreme bounds.
113. Ancestor of Mileadh, or Milesius; glas, grey or green.
114. Sons of, or families descended from, Mileadh.
115. Alba, gen. Alban, the native name of Scotland.
116. geasa, prohibitions, tabús.
117. Teamhair gen. Teamhrach.
118. 'Kinay or Keneth O'Hartagan,' H.
119. Loch gCarman, i.e. Wexford.
120. Or, possibly, Múich-inis, isle of mist or fog, which Haliday and O'Mahony prefer. See Múich-chiach in the verses on Cashel, below. Coneys gives Múig Inis; múig, gloom.
121. Cine Scuit: 'Scota, Scyta,' note in MS.
122. Ebro.
123. i.e. Heber.
124. Uaigh.
125. i.e. Grianán Ailigh, near Derry.
126. i.e. Dublin.
127. Great Island (Barrymore) in Cork Harbour.
128. Maaree, Clarin-bridge near Galway.
129 i.e. Gaillimh.
130. Tory Island, off Donegal.
131. Boinn.
132. Laighin (pl.): Ulaidh (pl.): Connachta (pl.). When the word Cúigeadh (province, lit. fifth) is expressed before these names, they are in the gen. pl.
133. In quinque enim portiones (inquit) fere aequales antiquitus haec regio divisa fuit; videlicet, in Momoniam duplicem, Borealem et Australem, Lageniam, Ultoniam, et Conaciam.
134. i.e. Rúry.
135. i.e. Drogheda.
136. An old name of Waterford Harbour: the confluence of three rivers.
137. A place near Cork, as above: (the way of Cú-glas).
137. The river Drowes, between Donegal and Leitrim (Bundrowse).
138. Dublin and Galway: Eisgir riadha, the Esker, a line of hills between these points.
139. Inver Colpa, near Drogheda.
140. i.e. Limerick of Munster.
141. i.e. Dunseverick.
142. i.e. hundred fighter, or hundred-battled.
143. i.e. servant or devotee of Nuadha: called also Eogan Mór.
144. Conn's half.
145. Mógh's half.
146. i.e. the hill of Usna, in Westmeath.
147. i.e. Midhe.
148. Triocha or triocha-céd, a cantred, a district.
149. A townland, a farm-stead.
150. A plowland.
151. Meidhe.
152. A district.
153. Siona.
154. Athcliath (Duibhlinne).
155. The Rye Water.
156. Cloncurry.
157. A ford of the Boyne near Clonard.
158. Clonard.
159. The Togher or Causeway of Carbury, Co. Kildare.
160. Crannach, a place (of trees) near Géisill in King's Co.
161. Drumcullen, near Birr.
162. Owenacharra, near Ballymahon.
163. i.e. Loch Ree.
164. Loch Boderg, on the Shannon.
165. Mohill.
166. Athlone.
167. Scariff (?).
168. Drumlane.
169. Moy (?).
170. Clones.
171. A mountain, Co. Armagh.
172. Killeavy, Co. Armagh.
173. Liffey.
174. 'Teffia,' a district in Westmeath.
175. Magh Breagh, or Breaghmhagh, the plain between Liffey and Boyne.
176. Annagassan, in Co. Louth. This line is very obscure.
177. i.e. Connor or Conachar.
178. Teamhair.
179. i.e. vulg. Connaught.
180. i.e. Luimneach, as above.
181. Baile biadhtaigh, a division of land in ancient Ireland.
182. Clann, i.e. children, race, descendants: clanna, pl.
183. Connachta, a plural form, like Laighin, Ulaidh, Breagha, &c.
184. Erris, Co. Mayo.
185. Cruachan, i.e. Rathcroghan in Roscommon.
186. Drowes, as above.
187. Innbhear Cholptha (or Colpa), the 'inver,' i.e. 'fiord' or firth of Colpa, the mouth of the Boyne.
188. Ulster, plural form.
189. i.e. Emania, or the 'Navan' fort, near Armagh.
190. i.e. Grianán Ailigh, near Derry.
191. Leinster, plural form.
192. Dark (or black) foreigners, probably from Gaul.
193. Gall here has its original meaning, a native of Gaul.
194. An ancient seat of the kings of Leinster, near Leighlin.
195. Nás (Laighean), i.e. Naas.
196. The eastern half of Munster, so named from a king: Eochaidh, gen. Eachach.
197. i.e. Corcach gen. -aighe, dat. -aigh, fem.; Luimneach, gen. -nigh, masc.
198. Dungrod, in the glen of Aherlow: Cathair-Dúin-iasgaigh is the full name of Cahir.
199. Near Cork, as above.
200. Near Duntryleague, Co. Limerick. See Book of Rights, notes, pp. 92, 93.
201. Brúghriogh, i.e. Bruree.
202. Lughaidh, gen. Luighdheach.
203. These three names 'Fairy-ridge': 'Flagstone of the hundreds'; and 'Woody ridge' were given to Carraig Chaisil, or the Rock of Cashel: also called Carraig Phádraic or St. Patrick's Rock. Caiseal signifies the enclosing wall or rampart of a monastery or city: caisléan (dim.), a castle or stone fort. The derivation cíos-dil, quoted above, is not tenable.
204. i.e. Muskerry Tire, also called Ormond.
205. The fort of the heroes.
206. Thomond. i.e. Thuadhmhumha.
207. Cuchulainn's Leap, now 'Loop Head'
208. One of the great ancient roads. Osraidhe, i.e. Ossory.
209. Now corruptly Slieve Aughty, near Loch Derg.
210. Sleive Eelim or Slieve Phelim
211. i.e. the present Co. Clare.
212. Dalcassians, i.e. the tribe of Cas.
213. Urmhumha, or Ormhumha, i.e. Ormond.
214. Gowran.
215. 'Knawhill,'(H.), Cleghile, near Tipperary.
216. i.e. Tiobruid Árann.
217. Now vulgarly the 'Devil's bit'. Éile comprised parts of Tipperary and King's County.
218. A small island near Bunmahon, Co. Waterford.
219. lit. Middle of Munster.
220. Now Slieve Lougher, near Castleisland.
221. Near Kilfinane.
222. Desmond, i.e. Deasmhumha.
223. i.e. Iarmhumha: called Ciarraighe (Kerry).
224. A valley near Kenmare bay.
225. Gion, power: O'Reilly quotes go gion gaoi is cloidheamh.
226. i.e. Mizen Head.
227. Cloghastucan, a tall rock in the sea near Glenarm.
228. The mouth of the Ovoca river at Arklow.
229. Erris in Mayo.
230. Referred to in O'Curry's MSS. Mat., p. 163.
231. rann, verse, stave, stanza.
232. Probably Ardamine, Co. Wexford.
233. Ancient name of the mouth of the Bann.
234. Probably Dúnnamark near Bantry (Joyce).
235. Corkaguiney, Co. Kerry: O'Donovan and O'Mahony think Corca Luighe is the name intended here, which is in West Cork.
236. Not satisfactorily identified: Carn Uí Néid is Mizen Head: see Joyce.
237. Probably Ardamine, Co. Wexford.
238. Near Monaghan.
239. Tonntinna, a hill near Killaloe.
240. The barony of Ara, Co. Tipperary.
241. Loch Derg.
242. An old name of Waterford Harbour: the confluence of three rivers.
243. In Co. Waterford.
244. Now Seefin, near Kilfinane.
245. In Co. Roscommon.
246. Leanán-Síthe, a fairy follower, vulgo Lenaunahee.
247. Of Scripture.
248. Vulgo Lough Ree in Ormond, an expansion of the Shannon.
249. i.e. Cashel.
250. Or guided by an oracle (?).
251. i.e. Ireland: this probably has reference, as O'Mahony conjectures, to an ancient usage observed in taking possession of land.
252. The Bay of Kenmare.
253. A small island in the Erne.
254. Only a mere guess can be made at these lines.
255. A plain in Co. Carlow.
256. Ben Edar, afterwards called Howth.
257. Old place-name in Donegal.
258. Foghmhorach, a sea-rover.
259. Old name of Malahide Bay, Co. Dublin.
260. or hairy-legged?
261. Now Loch Gara, in Mayo.
262. Old name of Sliabh Domhanghoirt, i.e. Sliav Donard.
263. Exact spot not known.
264. The Barony of Moygoish, in Westmeath.
265. Old name (now lost) between Armagh and Monaghan.
266. In Cremorne, Co. Monaghan.
267. Co. Armagh.
268. A district including Monaghan and Louth, 'Oriel.'
269. Old name of Dundrum Bay.
270. I.e. Strangford loch.
271. Old name of the lower Shannon.
272. Old name of Tralee Bay.
273. Tralee.
274. Loch Ceara, Co. Mayo.
275. Barony of Erris, Co. Mayo.
276. i.e. the Bush, in Antrim.
277. See note, p. 53.
278. Dalriada, or Rúta, in Antrim, from the river Bush north to the sea.
279. River of Life (name of the district): Liffey: ancient name Rurthach.
280. The descendants of Niall, northern and southern, indicating the territory they inhabited.
281. Lee.
282. i.e. the district of Muskerry, Co. Cork.
283. The rivet at Sligo.
284. Old name for the Erne.
285. i.e. the Moy, river at Ballina.
286. The northern part of Co. Mayo; sometimes called 'Hy' Fiachra.
287. The Mourne, in Tyrone.
288. A second river Bush, between Tyrone and Donegal, is mentioned in C, but not in other authorities.
289.Or Tyrconnell.
290.Territories lying east and west of the Bann, south of Cúlrathain or Coleraine.
291. Perhaps slinne, from slin, a flat stone, or slate, is intended.
292. Barrow.
293. Old name of part of Strangford Loch.
294. The old plain of the flocks of Eder, extending inland from Howth.
295. Moynalty.
296. These two lines are very obscure and the translation of the verse can be but tentative.
297. See Section II.
298. Lios, an enclosure: houses, apartments, or other dwellings within a fortification.
299. Lear, gen. Lir, a sea divinity; poetically, the sea.
300. i.e. Gaelic.
301. The Black Sea; but possibly the Baltic is meant as O'Mahony conjectures.
302. The Riffean or Riphean, i.e. the Ural, mountains.
303. The name of this 'narrow sea' does not appear.
304. Perhaps on some great river.
305. Red-sided.
306. Ancient name of Lochgeal or Loughall, barony of O'Neilland, Co. Armagh.
307. Loch Ramor.
308. Two lakes in Westmeath, now called Derravaragh and Ennell.
309. i.e. Armagh.
310. Near Derrylee, barony O'Nialland, Co. Armagh.
311. Near Island Magee, Co. Antrim.
312. i.e. Rinn Seimhne, old name of Island Magee.
313. i.e. Thick-necked.
314. Derrylee, Co. Armagh.
315. Barony of Carra, Co. Mayo.
316  In barony of Kilmaine, Co. Mayo.
317. In Co. Roscommon.
318. i.e. Tyrone, but the place here mentioned seems to be in Inisowen, Co. Donegal.
319. or Magh mBrensa: Haliday and other authorities add 'in Leinster.'
320. Near Loch Neach.
321. i.e. 'Teffia,' see above.
322. Near Island Magee.
323. Now part of Co. Louth.
324. 'Bregia,' now part of Meath and Louth: see above.
325. 'Oriel,' now part of Louth, Monaghan, and Armagh counties.
326. i.e. Sliev Bawn, Co. Roscommon.
327. i.e. Rosreaghan, Co. Mayo.
328. i.e. Murlough Bay, Co. Antrim.
329. Said to be Camross, Co. Carlow.
330. Críoch Liatháin i.e. the district round Castlelyons, Co. Cork.
331. i.e. Tory Island, off Donegal.
332. The festival of Samhain at the beginning of November.
333. i.e. the plain lying between the rivers 'Drowse' and 'Erne,' south of Ballyshannon, Co. Donegal.
334. i.e. Magh gCeudna: this explanation is not tenable.
335. Explanation not admitted.
336. Some northern region is intended (? Bothnia).
337. 'Stony plain,' see above.
338. These speculations are of no value.
339. Or 'Thracia,' as above.
340. See O'Curry's 'MS. Materials,' Lect. I.
341. Ancient record or archæology.
342. Lit. 'in our wake,' 'after us.'
343. The poet's idea may be that the first start, at any rate, was made in 'currachs,' or small boats covered with skins, or leather, as above, until they procured more seaworthy craft.
344. Doimhne.
345. Erris, Co. Mayo.
346. The strand of the bay of Dundrum, Co. Down.
347. Innbhear in the text here, is in MSS. and H., being possibly an error for Iorrus. Refer to O'Curry's Lect. MS. Mat., pp. 385 and 402, and App., p. 485.
348. rann, 'verse, stanza.'
349. See section V of the introduction, above.
350. Brugh-na-Boinne, a very ancient monument in Meath.
351. Bóinn, the Boyne.
352. Freamhainn of Meath, a hill on the shore of Loch Uair in Westmeath.
353. i.e. white-headed.
354. In Co Louth.
355. Two plains of this name, i.e., north, in Co. Sligo: south, near Cong, in Co. Mayo: scenes of great prehistoric battles, traces of which have been found.
356. A celebrated place of assembly in Meath, where Aonach Taillteann used to be held: Tailltin or 'Teltown.'
357. i.e. Silver-handed.
358. near Ballysadare, Co. Sligo.
359. Aran islands in Galway bay.
360. Islay, off the west coast of Scotland.
361 'Rathlin' or 'Raghery' island, off the coast of Antrim.
362. The Hebrides, west of Scotland.
363. The famous king and queen of Connacht.
364. Now known as Loch 'Hacket', Co. Galway.
365. Now 'Tawin' Point, Co. Galway.
366. A peninsula, south of Galway.
367. Now Loch 'Cooter,' near Gort.
368. In Crich Aidhne, barony of Kiltartan, Co. Galway.
369. An ancient stone fort in the great island of Aran in Galway bay.
370. Now 'Moyre,' near Tulla, Co Clare.
371. Old name of Tory hill, near Croom, Co. Limerick.
372. i.e. Maonmhagh, the plain around Loughrea, Co. Galway.
373. Now Loch 'Owel,' near Mullingar. [See Joyce].
374. 'Rath' an earthen rampart.
375. i.e. the river 'Suck.'
376. i.e. the country of
377. 'Offaly' in Leinster.
378 'duan' or 'duain,' poetical composition: 'rann,' verse, stanza.
378. ? Bothnia, (O'Mahony).
379. Mountain ash or rowan: O'Mahony says 'cornel wood.'
380. See Section 1, above, and notes.
381. These terms are stated to be equivalent.
382. Ni fallat fatum, Scoti quocunque locatum
     Invenient lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem.
383. Sacsa, -san, -sain, England: i Saxaibh, among the English.
384. i.e. the two kings named.
385. i.e. Long-handed.
386. Or critically, for the advancement of learning (?), or civilization.
387. Béaltaine, the May festival of the Irish.
388. Draoideacht, art magic, sorcery.
389. i.e. Sliev-an-ierin, the Iron mountain, in Co. Leitrim.
390. Near Cong, Co. Mayo.
391. lit. broken.
392. Or 10,000 in other copies.
393. Sect. IX., above.
394. In Co. Sligo, see note 355
395. I.e. the isle of Man.
396. Two mountains called the 'Paps,' near Killarney.
397. I.e. Sliev Luachar, near Castleisland.
398. Tuath, a tribe; a district.
399. A lord.
400 lordship.
401. i.e. the two female chiefs.
402. i.e. Gods.
403. i.e. magi, diviners.
404. i.e. art of any sort; verse as the form in which their secrets were transmitted.
405. i.e. handicraft
406. i.e. we have here a genealogical enumeration of distinguished personages.
407. This sentence is very obscure, and the translation is merely tentative.
408. i.e. the plain of Feimheann, above which rises Sliabh-na-mban (Feimhin), [Slievenamon] Co. Tipperary.
409. This is obscure, and doubtful whether a personal or a place-
name.
410. Not identified.
411. These names are added in some copies.
412. i.e. Tuatha Dé Danann, as described.
413. Lit. broke.
414. i.e. with the Fomorians at North Magh Tuireadh, 30 years after the other.
415. i.e. a festival of the ancient Irish on 1st August, marking one of the divisions of their year.
416. From this to end of sentence added from Haliday.
417. Old name for the hill of Usna in Westmeath.
418. Hazel, Plough, Sun.
419. Now Loch Corrib, in Galway.
420. Loch, lake, improperly written lough.
421. Sraith or Sreath, i.e. 'strath,' a level space by a river.
422. See Introduction, Sec. IX.
424. An ancient record, not now known. See Sect. V. above, and also O'Curry's Lecture on the lost books, p. 13. Druim Sneachta, "Snow-capped hill or mountain-ridge," in the present Co. of Monaghan, according to O'Curry.
425. Lit., where am I with it?
426. Haliday and O'Mahony read, 'Buchanan': the MS. has 'Becanus.'
427. Haliday and O'Mahony read 'Baronius': the MS. has 'Boemus.'
428 "Volumine primo, generatione 16a."
429. Scythae ipsi perpetuo ab alieno imperio aut intacti aut invicti mansere: Darium regem Persarum turpi a Scythia submovere fuga; Cyrum cum omni exercitu trucidarunt; Alexandri magni ducem Zophyron a pari ratione cum copiis universis deleverunt; Romanorum audivere sed non sensere arma.
430. Míleadh or Míle, Latinized Milesius; Clanna Míleadh, the Milesian race: Gaedheal, Gaodhal (Gadding), his ancestor; Clans Gaedheal the Gadelian or Gaelic race; the Gaedhil or Gael; the Scots:
431. ? Two.
432. Or Setim.
433. i.e. 'Land of Thorns.'
434. Gaedheal here signifies the individual, the eponymous ancestor, whence we have in the next line sliocht Gaedhil for his posterity: also aicme Ghaedhil, in this section, Gaedhil being genitive singular. We have also in the same way clann Ghaedhil and clanna Ghaedhil, the children of Gaedheal: but clanna Gaedheal (gen. plural), the children of the Gaels, all the clans or families of the Gaelic or Scotic race. Compare clanna Míleadh; clanna Neimheadh; fine Gaedheal (above): see notes 113 and 430. The 'Gaedheal' or 'Gael' is used collectively for the race, as Israel for the children of Israel.
435. Magna diu inter Aegyptios et Scythis contentio fuit in quo certamine superatis Aegyptis Scythae antiquores visi sunt.
436. Aegyptiis in Mare Rubrio submerses, illi qui superfuerunt expulkerunt a se quemdam nobilem Scyticum qui degebat apud eos ne dominem super eos invaderit; expulsus ille cum familia pervenit ad Hispaniam ubi er habitavit per anos multos et progenies ipsius familiae multae mutiplicata est nimis et inde venerunt in Hiberniam
437. Tanais fluvius dividens Asiam ab Europa enumeratur inter flumina quod apud Scitas sunt.
438. Gaelica locuta est in usu in Hibernia ab adventu Nemedii anno 630 a Diluvio in hunc usque diem.
439. Dico ergo a quibuscunque Hibernici originem ducere ab iisdem scoti exordium capiunt.
440. Procedente autem tempore Britannia post Britones et Pictos tertiam Scotorum nationem in Pictorum parte receipt qui duce Rheada de Hibernea egressi vel amicitia vel ferro sibimet inter eos sedes quas hactenus habentc vindicarunt.
441. Scotos Hibernorum proles et ipsi et omnes optime norunt eodemque nomine a nostratihus scilicet Gaidhil appellantur.
442. Unde et gens ab his propagata et specificato vocabulo Scotica vocata usque in hodiernum.
443. Lingua Scotica, seu Hibernica quae eadem est, utuntur.
444. Ab adventu Ibernensium usque ad obitum Sancti patricii sunt anni mille octingenti.
445. The translation strictly should read 'Was won by Eireamhon over Eibhear'; but the question intended and actually answered is not precisely why Eireamhon won the battle, but why he fought it at all; the sense is this: 'Why did Eireamhon fight this battle which he won over Eibhear'.
446. Contingit gentem Pictorum de Scythia (ut perhibent) longis navibus non multis oceanum ingressum, circumagente flatu ventorum. Extra fines omnes Britanniae Hiberniam pervenisse, eiusque septmetrionales oras intrasse, atque inventia ibi gente Scotorum sibi quoque in partibus illius sedes petiisse nec impetrare potuisse.
447. Poem given in Todd's Nennius, Appendix, p. xix., taken from B.Lec., fol. 286.
448. Poem in Todd's Nennius, p. 274, taken from Mac Firbis's copy, R.I.A.
449. The quotation marks are of course not in text. In the translation 'a black fleet' is a strictly verbal rendering: the meaning is 'a fierce company of exiles'.
450. Ceangal na gcúig gcaol, the binding of the five smalls, that is, of the wrists, the ankles, and the neck: so Haliday; so also Young, Trans R.I.A. 1. Antiquities P.71, where he gives 'bound neck, hands and heels' as a translation of sa cuig caol san aon ceangal, taken from the lay of Conn mac an Deirg. See on this subject Sternem Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie, Band Vi, Haft I, p.188. Ceangal na dtrí gcaol is also sometimes met with. The three caols appear to be caol an duirn, caol an droma, caol na coise, Ibid.
451. Scoti ex Hispania in Hiberniam quarta aetate venerunt
452. Columbanus qui est Columba vocatur in Hibernia ortus est; eam Scotorum gens incoluit.
453. Hibernia propria Scotorum patria est.
454. Sanctus Kilianus et duo socii eius ab Hibernia Scotorum insula venerunt.
455. Hibernia a Scotorum gentibus colitur.
456. Beatus Kilianus Scotorum genere et relqa.
457. Hibernia enim antiquitus Scotia dicta est, de qua gene Scotorum Albaniam Britanniae maiori proximam quae ab eventu modo Scotia dicitur inhabitans, originem duxit et progressum habuit.
458. Etiamsi hodie Scotia proprie vocetur ea Britanniae pars quae ipsi Angliae contingens ad Septentrionem vergit, olim tamen eo nomine Hiberniam notatam fuisse ostendit D. Beda, cum e Scythia Pictorum gentem in Hiberniam venisse ait ibique Scotorum gentem invenisse.
459. Qui de Purgatorio dubitat, Scotiam pergat, Purgatorium Sancti Patricii intret, et de Purgatorii poenis amplius non dubitabit.
460. Hibernia Scotiae sibi nomen etiam vindicabat, quia tamen ex Hibernia ista Scotorum pars qu edam egressa est in eaque Britanniae ora quam Picti iam habebant onsederunt; ii quidem principio a duce suo Rheuda Dalrheudini dicti uerunt, ut ait V. Beda; postea tamen Pictos inde ipsos exegerunt, et boreale totum illud latus obtinuerunt, eique vetus gentis suae nomen indiderunt. Ita ut Scotorum gens una fuerit, sed Scotia duplex facta sit, una vetus et propria in Hibernia, recentior altera in septentrionali Britannia.
461. Scoti omnes Hiberniae habitatores initio vocabantur ut indicat Orosius, nec semel Scotorum ex Hibernia transitum in Albiam factum nostri annales referunt.
462. Principio cum utrique, id est Hiberniae incolae et coloni eorum in Albiam missi, Scoti appellarentur, ut discrimine aliquo alteri ab alteris distinguerentur, initio coepere alteri Scoti Ierni, alteri Scoti Albani, vocari.
463. Repellent barbari ad mare, repellit mare ad barbaros, inter haec oriuntur duo genera funerum, aut ingulamur aut mergimur.
464. Anno 500 a Caesaris ingressu Britannia Pictorum et Scotorum immanitati relinquitur.
465. Revertuntur impudentes grassatores Hiberni domum post non longum tempus reversuri.
466. Multa ignoramus quae non laterent si veterum lectio nobilis esset familiaris.
467. Britanni facti sumt tributarii Scotis et Pictis anno Christi 446.
468. Hibernia nunquam externae subiacuit ditioni.
469. Patricius Brito natus in oppido Nemptor in Campo Taburno .i. tabernaculorum, ex parentibus devotis et religiosis ortus.
470. Cum Scoti de Hibernia sub rege suo Naoighiallach diversas provincias Britanniae contra Romanum imperium multum devastabant, contendere incipientes aquilonalem Britanniae plagam tandem, ejectis veteribus colonis, ipsi Hibernenses eam occupaverunt et habitaverunt.
471. Hoc autem tempore quaedam classis Hibernica depredavit patriam in qua morabatur D. Patricius et, consueto Hibernorum more, multi inde captivi ducti sunt, inter quos erant D. Patricius aetatis suae anno decimo sexto et duae eius sorores Lupida et Darerca; et ductus est Patricius in Hiberniam captivus anno nono Néill regis Hiberniae qui potenter 27 annis regnavit ac Britanniam et Angliam usque ad mare quod est inter Angliam et Galliam devastavit.
472. Hiberni initio statim post Religionem acceptam se suaque omnia in Pontificis Romani ditionem dederant, nec quemquam alium supremum principem Hiberniae ad illud usque tempus praeter unum Romanum Pontificem, agnoverant.
473. Írial propheta per decem annos regnavit, et antequam regula Christi per Patricium seminata esset in Hibernia, de semine eiusdem Regis quinquaginta septem reges regnaverunt super Hiberniam, et post Patricium de prole illius quinquaginta reges.
474. Ab adventu Sancti Particii usque ad Feldemidii Regis tempora triginta tres reges per quadringentos annos in Hibernia regnaverunt; tempore autem Feldemidii Noruaegienses duce Turgesio terram hanc occuparunt.
475. A tempore Turgesii usque ad ultimum monarchum Rodericum Conatiae Regem septemdecem reges in Hibernia fuerunt.
476. Moriardacho glorioso gratia Dei Regi Hiberniae, Anselmus servus Ecclesiae Cantuariensis.
477. Lanfrancus peccator et indignus Dorobernensis Ecclesiae archiepiscopus magnifico Regi Hiberbiae Terdeluaco benedictionem cum servitor et orationibus.
478. Mandavit mihi Rex Hiberniae per breve suum et Burgenses Dublinae quod elegerunt hunc Gregorium in Episcopum et eum tibi mittunt consecrendum. Unde tibi mando ut petitioni eorum satisfaciens eius consecrationem sine dilatione expleas.
479. Anno quadrigentesimo tricesimo Paladius ad Scotos in Christum credentes a Coelistino Papa primus mittitur episcopus.
480. Benedictus Patricius itinere longo de regione longinqua peracto, praesentia sui suos exhilarabat et triginta episcopos ex transmarinis partibus congregatos et a se consecratos in Dominicam messem, eo quod esset multa et operarii pauci, destinabat.
481. Omnes ergo mares monachos, feminas sanctimoniales, efficiens, numerosa monasteria aedificavit, decimamque portionem terrarum ac pecudum eorum sustentationi assignavit.
482. Ecclesias 355 fundavit, episcopos ordinavit eo numero, 355, presbiteros autem ad tria millia ordinavit.
483. It would appear from the quatrain here that the orders conferred on the crutharnaigh were episcopal orders, if the Irish seancha is to be understood as agreeing with Nennius. If fifty-five be added to three hundred we get Nennius's number. The word crutharnaigh or crutharnaidh I have not met elsewhere. But it is possible that the ordination intended by the seancha is that of the priesthood; 55 bishops would not be such a fabulous number, especially if we consider some of them as succeeding to the sees of others, but 355 seems an excessive number; see however a list of 276 extinct sees in Mac Firbis's tract in Rawlinson 400 (Copy in R.I.A. 24 C.7). Nennius MSS. give 365 and 345. See Stevenson's Ed. p.45.
484. Mutantur et multiplicantur Episcopi pro libitu Metropolitani, ite ut unus episcopatus uno non esset contentus, sed singulae pene ecclesiae singulos haberent episcopos.
485. Dum vero in Momoniam proficisceretur, venit obviam ei Rex Momoniae, Aonghus mac Natfraoich in campo Feimhean in terra na nDéise, eumque duxit gaudens in civitatem regalem nomine Caiseal, quae est in regione Eoghanacht, ibique credidit rex Aonghus et baptisatus est.
486. Cumque Sanctus Patritius regem stando benedixisset cuspis baculi Sancti fixa est in pede Regis.
487. this quatrain is also in Annals of the Four Masters, Vol. I, p. 144.
488. Habere autem solet (inquit) ipsa Insula rectorem semper Abbatem presbiterem cuius iuri et omnis provincia et ipsi etiam episcopi ordine inusitato debeant esse subiecti iuxte exemplum primi doctoris illius qui non episcopus sed presbiter extitit et monachus.
489. Columba erat primus doctor fidei Catholicae Transmontanis Pictis ad aquilonem primusque fundator monasterii quod in Hii Insula multis diu Scotorum Pictorumque populis venerabile mansit.
490. See Ann. F.M. Vol. I. p. 226 for a version of this quatrain.
500. The quatrain is gien in Ann. F.M. p.229, and in the Annals of Ulster, Vol. I. p.82.
501. Ruanuidh: Keating equates this word with deargthach blushing or bashful, but the meaning of the word is valiant, champion-like, of course used here ironically. The translation given therefore is ad mentem auctorem.
502. Ab adventu Sancti Patricii usque ad Feilimidii regis tempora 33 reges per quadringentos annos in Hibernia regnaverunt. Tempore antem Feilimidii Noruaegienses duce Turgesio terram hanc occuparunt.
503. Optimus sapiens et anachorita Scotorum quievit.
504. The enumeration of rents, etc., given in text, is abridged from the Book of Rights. See O'Donovan's edition, p. 32.
505. Post obitum Turgesii de Noruaegiae partibus, quasi sub pacis intuitu et mercaturae exercendae praetextu, tres fratres Amelanus, Cyracus et Iuarus cum sua sequela in hanc insulam appulerunt, et de consensu Ibernorum otio deditorum, maritima loca occupantes, tres civitates, viz., Waterfordiam, Dubliniam et Limericum construxerunt qui tamen numero succrescentes contra indigenas frequenter insultabant.
506. The acount of Cormac son of Cuileannain's death given in this section closely resembles that given in the "Three Fragments of Annals," p. 200 et seq.
507. The story of the Crosans was published in the Gaelic Journal (G.J.), Vol. IV. P.106 by K. Meyer from the MS. D IV 2 (fol.51b) of the Stowe collection R.I.A., date of MS. Being A.D. 1300. The same story is found in Mac Firbis's Book of Genealogies (Fir.) p. 778 (O'Curry's transcript R.I.A.).
As to the meaning of the word crosán, O'Don. Supp. to O'Reilly's Dict. gives crossán to mean scurra, that is a jester or buffoon, and Todd has the following note on the word, Irish nennius p. 182: "They were the cross-bearers in religious processions, who also combined with that occupation the profession, if we may so call it, of singing satirical poems against those who had incurred Church censure, or were for any other cause obnoxious." The name crosántacht is given to the species of metre in which the lay sung by them is written. This kind of metre is much more common than O'Curry (H. & S. Cat. 555) makes it out to be. He states that he only knew three specimens of this sort of metre, one being the present poem, another a poem by Andrew Mac Criutin, the third a poem by O'Bruadar.
508. Number too high by twenty.
509. Dr. Reeves (Ecc. Ant. Of Down and Connor, p. 139) explains the absence of the boundaries of the diocese of Dun da Leathglas (Down) from the list by understanding the see of Dun da Leathglas to be included in that of Cunnaire (Connor). See also Cambriensis Eversus Vol II. Addendum C.
510. Baginbun: for some account of this place and name see paper by Mr. Goddard H. orpen, also papers by Mr,. orpen in Jour. R.S.A.I. 1898, p. 155, and 1904, p. 354.
511. Herimont Morti, that is, Hervey of Mount Maurice; Iarala O' Stranguell, that is, the Earl of Strigul, also called Strongbow; see other varieties of these names in the Irish version of Cambrensis' Expugnatio Hibernica, Ed. Stokes, English Historical review, Vol xx. P. 77 et seq.
512. There are variations in the list of names in several MSS. Thus O'Mahony (Translation, pp. 651-652) gives a much longer list than that in the text. Perhaps certain scribes wrote in their favourite family names. It is on the whole probable that the author did not put his own name in the list. The names in their modern English forms are: Fitzgeralds and Burkes, Butlers and Barrys, De Courcys and Roches, Powers, FitzMaurices and Graces and Prendergasts, Flemings, Purcells and Prestons, Nugents and Walshes, Toblins and Shortals and Blanches, Birminghams, Condons, Cantwells, Devereauxes, Darcys and Dillons, Morrises, Esmonds, De Lacys, Browns and Keatings.

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