Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 103. THE TRIAL OF JOHN HUSS

103. THE TRIAL OF JOHN HUSS

The fifth day of June, the cardinals, bishops, and the rest of the priests, almost all that were in Constance, assembled to a great number, at the convent of the Franciscans in Constance; and there it was commanded, that before John Huss should be brought forth, in his absence they should rehearse the witnesses and articles, which they had slanderously gathered out of his books; the which articles, with John Huss's answer, we will hereafter repeat. By chance there was then present a certain notary, named Peter Mladoniewitz, the which bare great love and amity unto the said Huss; who, as soon as he perceived that the bishops and cardinals were already determined and appointed to condemn the said articles in the absence of John Huss, he went with all speed unto Master Wencelate de Duba, and John of Clum, and told them all the matter, who incontinent made report thereof to the emperor, who, understanding their intent, sent Louis, the county Palatine of Heidelburgh, and the Lord Frederic, burgrave of Nuremberg, to signify unto them which ruled the council, that nothing should be resolved or done in the case of John Huss before that it were first heard with equity, and that they should send him all such articles as were laid against the said Huss, which were either false or heretical; and he would do so much, that the said articles should be examined by good and learned men. Then, according to the emperor's will, the judgment of the principals of the council was suspended, until such time as John Huss were present.

In the mean season, these gentlemen, Master Wencelate of Duba, and John of Clum, did give unto the two princes, which the emperor had sent, certain small treatises which the said John Huss had made, out of the which they had drawn certain articles to present unto them which ruled the council; under this condition, that they would render them again, when they should demand them. The intent and meaning of these barons was, that by this means the adversaries of John Huss might the more easily be reproved, the which, of a naughty and corrupt conscience, had picked out corrupt sentences out of the said books of John Huss. The books were delivered unto the cardinals and bishops; and, that done, John Huss was brought forth, and the princes which were sent by the emperor departed back again. Afterwards they showed the books unto John Huss, and he confessed openly, before the whole assembly, that he had made them; and that he was ready, if there were any fault in them, to amend the same.

Now hearken a little to the holy proceedings of these reverend fathers, for there happened a strange and shameful matter. With much ado they had scarcely read one article, and brought forth a few witnesses upon the same against him, but, as he was about to open his mouth to answer, all this mad herd or flock began so to cry out upon him, that he had not leisure to speak one only word. The noise and trouble was so great and so vehement, that a man might well have called it a bruit or noise of wild beasts, and not of men; much less was it to be judged a congregation of men gathered together to judge and determine so grave and weighty matters. And if it happened that the noise and cry did never so little cease, that he might answer any thing at all out of the Holy Scriptures or ecclesiastical doctors, by and by be should hear these goodly replies upon him, "That maketh nothing to the purpose."

Besides all this, some did outrage in words against him, and other some spitefully mocked him; so that he, seeing himself overwhelmed with these rude and barbarous noises and cries, and that it profited nothing to speak, he determined finally with himself to hold his peace and keep silence. From that time forward, all the whole rout of his adversaries thought that they had won the battle of him, and cried out all together, "Now he is dumb, now he is dumb; this is a certain sign and token, that he doth consent and agreE unto these his errors." Finally, the matter came to this point, that certain of the most moderate and honest among them, seeing this disorder, determined to proceed no further, but that all should be deferred and put off until another time. Through their advice, the prelates and others departed from the council for that present, and appointed to meet there again the morrow after to proceed in judgment.

The next day, which was the seventh of June, on which day the sun was almost wholly eclipsed, somewhat after about seven of the clock, this same flock assembled again in the cloister of the Friars Minor, and by their appointment John Huss was brought before them, accompanied with a great number of armed men. Thither went also the emperor, whom the gentlemen, Master Wencelate of Duba, and John of Clum, and the notary named Peter, which were great friends of the said Huss, did follow to see what the end would be. When they were come thither, they heard that in the accusation of Michael de Causis, they read these words following: "John Huss hath taught the people divers and many errors both in the chapel of Bethlem, and also in many other places of the city of Prague, of the which errors, some of them he hath drawn out of Wickliff's books, and the rest he hath forged and invented of his own head, and doth maintain the same very obstinately and stiffly.

"First, that after the consecration and pronunciation of the words in the supper of the Lord, there remaineth material bread." And this is proved by the witness of John Protyway, parish priest of St. Clement's in Prague; John Pecklow, preacher at St. Giles in Prague; Benise, preacher in the castle of Prague; Andrew Brode, canon of Prague, and divers other priests. Unto this John Huss, taking a solemn oath, answered that he never spake any such word; but thus much he did grant, that at what time the archbishop of Prague forbade him to use any more that term or word, bread, he could not allow the bishop's commandment; forasmuch as Christ, in the 6th chapter of John, doth oftentimes name himself the bread of angels, which came down from heaven, to give life unto the whole world; but as touching material bread, he never spake any thing at all. Then the cardinal of Cambray, taking a certain bill in his hand, which he said he received the day before, said unto John Huss: "Will you put any universalities, as touching the thing? "When John Huss answered, that he would, because St. Anselm and divers others had so done, the cardinal did proceed to gather his argument in this manner.

"It followeth then," said he, "that after the consecration is made, there remaineth the substance of material bread; and that I do thus prove: that the consecration being done, while the bread is changed and transubstantiated into the body of Christ, as you say, either there doth remain the common substance of material bread, or contrariwise. If the substance do remain, then is our purpose at an end. If contrariwise, then it doth follow, that by the decision of the singularity, the universal ceaseth any more to be." John Huss answered, "Truly it ceaseth to be, in this singular material bread, by means of this transubstantiation, by which it is changed and transubstantiated into the body of Christ; but, notwithstanding, in other singularities it is made subject."

Then a certain Englishman by that argument would prove out of the first position, that there remained material bread. Then said John Huss, "That is a childish argument, which every boy in schools knoweth:" and thereupon gave a solution. Then another Englishman would prove, that there remained material bread in the sacrament, because the bread after the consecration was not annihilate. Unto whom John Huss answered, "Although," said he, "that the bread be not annihilate or consumed, yet singularly it ceaseth there to be by means of the alteration of its substance into the body of Christ." Here another Englishman stepping forth, said; "John Huss seemeth unto me to use the same kind of crafty speech which Wickliff used, for he granted all these things which this man hath done, and yet in very deed was fully persuaded that material bread remained in the sacrament after the consecration." The which when John Huss had denied, saying, that he spake nothing but only sincerely and uprightly, according to his conscience; the Englishman proceeded to demand of him again, whether the body of Christ be totally and really in the sacrament of the altar. Whereunto John Huss answered, "Verily, I do think that the body of Christ is really and totally in the sacrament of the altar, even that body which was born of the Virgin Mary, suffered, died, and rose again, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty." When they had disputed a good while to and fro, as touching universalities, the Englishman, which before would prove that material bread remained in the sacrament, because that the bread was not annihilate, interrupting and breaking their talk, said: "To what purpose is this disputation upon universalities, the which maketh nothing to the purpose, as touching faith? For as far as I can perceive or hear, this man holdeth a good opinion as touching the sacrament of the altar." Then another Englishman, named Stokes, said, "I have seen at Prague a certain treatise, the which was ascribed unto this man John Huss, wherein it was plainly set forth, that after the consecration there remained material bread in the sacrament." "Verily," said John Huss, "saving your reverence, that is not true."

Then they returned again unto the witnesses of them which were spoken of a little before, who, every man for himself, affirmed, with an oath, that which he had said; amongst whom John Protyway, parish priest of St. Clement's in Prague, when be should come to confirm his testimony, added more, that John Huss should say, that St. Gregory was but a rhymer, when he did allege his authority against him. Unto whom John Huss answered, that in this point they did him great injury, forasmuch as he always esteemed and reputed St. Gregory for a most holy doctor of the church.

These contentions and disputations being somewhat appeased, the cardinal of Florence turned himself toward John Huss and said: "Master, you know well enough that it is written, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses, all witness is firm and stable; and here you see now almost twenty witnesses against you, men of authority and worthy of credit, amongst the which some have heard you teach these things themselves, the other by report and common bruit or voice do testify of your doctrine; and all together, generally, bring firm reasons and proofs of their witness, unto the which we are forced and constrained to give credit; and, for my part, I see not how you can maintain and defend your cause against so many notable and well-learned men." Unto whom John Huss answered in this manner: "I take God and my conscience to witness, that I never taught any thing, neither was it ever in my mind or fantasy to teach in sort or manner, as these men here have not feared to witness against me that which they never heard. And albeit they were as many more in number as they are, for all that I do much more esteem, yea, and without comparison regard, the witness of my Lord God, before the witness and judgment of all mine adversaries, upon whom I do in no point stay myself."

Then said the cardinal again unto him, "It is not lawful for us to judge according to your conscience; for we cannot choose, but that we must needs stay ourselves upon the firm and evident witness of these men here. For it is not for any displeasure or hatred, that these men do witness this against you, (as you do allege,) for they allege and bring forth such reasons of their witness, that there is no man that can perceive any hatred in them, or that we can, in any case, be in doubt thereof. And as touching Master Stephen Paletz, whereas you say, you do suspect him that he hath craftily and deceitfully drawn out certain points or articles out of your books to betray them afterwards; it seemeth that in this point you do him great wrong, for in mine advice he hath used and showed a great fidelity and amity toward you, in that he hath alleviated and moderated many of your articles much more than they are in your own books. I understand also that you have like opinion of divers other notable men, and specially you have said, that you do suspect Master Chancellor of Paris, than whom there is no more excellent and Christian man in all the whole world."

Then was there read a certain article of accusation, in the which it was alleged, that John Huss had taught, and obstinately defended, certain erroneous articles of Wickliff's in Bohemia. Whereunto Huss answered, that he never taught any errors of John Wickliff's, or of any other man's. "Wherefore, if it be so that Wickliff hath sowed any errors in England, let the Englishmen look to that themselves." But to confirm their article, there was alleged that John Huss did withstand the condemnation of Wickliff's articles, the which were first condemned at Rome. And afterwards also, when the archbishop of Swinco, with other learned men, held a convocation at Prague for the same matter, when they would have there been condemned for this cause, that none of them were agreeing to the catholic faith or doctrine, but were either heretical, erroneous, or offensive; he answered, that he durst not agree thereunto, for offending his conscience, and especially for these articles, that Silvester the pope, and Constantine, did err in bestowing those great gifts and rewards upon the church. Also, that the pope or priest, being in mortal sin, cannot consecrate nor baptize. "This article," said he, "I have thus determined, as if I should say, that he doth unworthily consecrate or baptize, when he is in deadly sin, and that he is an unworthy minister of the sacraments of God." Here his accusers, with their witnesses, were earnest and instant that the article of Wickliff was written by the very same words of the treatise which John Huss made against Stephen Paletz. "Verily," said John Huss, "I fear not to submit myself, even under the danger of death, if you shall not find it so as I have said." When the book was brought forth, they found it written as John Huss had said. He added also, moreover, that he durst not agree unto them which had condemned Wickliff's articles, for this article, "The tenths were pure alms." Here the cardinal of Florence objected unto him this argument, as touching the alms: "It is required that it should be given freely without bond or duty. But tenths are not given freely without bond or duty; therefore are they no alms." John Huss, denying the major of this syllogism, brought this reason against him: "Forasmuch as rich men are bound, under the pain of eternal damnation, unto the fulfilling of the six works of mercy, which Christ repeateth in the 25th chapter of Matthew, and these works are pure alms; ergo, alms are also given by bond and duty." Then an archbishop of England, stepping up, said, "If we all be bound unto those six works of mercy, it doth follow that poor men, which have nothing at all to give, should be damned." "I answer," said Huss, "unto your antecedent, that I spake distinctly of rich men, and of those which had wherewithal to do those works. They, I say, were bound to give alms under pain of damnation."

He answered, moreover, unto the minor of the first argument, that tenths were at first given freely, and afterward made a bond and duty; and when he would have declared it more at large, he could not be suffered. He declared also divers other causes why he could not, with safe conscience, consent unto the condemnation of Wickliff's articles. But howsoever the matter went, he did affirm and say, that he did never obstinately confirm any articles of Wickliff's, but only that he did not allow and consent that Wickliff's articles should be condemned before that sufficient reasons were alleged out of the Holy Scripture for their condemnation. "And of the same mind," saith John Huss, "are a great many other doctors and masters of the university of Prague; for when Swinco the archbishop commanded all Wickliff's books to be gathered together in the whole city of Prague, and to be brought unto him, I myself brought also certain books of Wickliff's which I gave unto the archbishop, desiring him, that if he found any error or heresy in them, he would note and mark them, and I myself would publish them openly. But the archbishop, albeit that he showed me no error nor heresy in them, burned my books, together with those that were brought unto him, notwithstanding that he had no such commandment from Pope Alexander the Fifth. But, notwithstanding, by a certain policy, he obtained a bull from the said pope by means of Jaroslaus, bishop of Sarepta, of the order of Franciscans, that all Wickliff's books, for the manifold errors contained in them, (whereof there were none named,) should be taken out of all men's hands. The archbishop, using the authority of this bull, thought he should bring to pass that the king of Bohemia and the nobles should consent to the condemnation of Wickliff's books; but therein he was deceived. Yet nevertheless, calling together certain divines, he gave them in commission to sit upon Wickliff's books, and to proceed against them by a definitive sentence in the canon law. These men, by a general sentence, judged all those books worthy to be burned; the which when the doctors, masters, and scholars of the university heard report of, they all together, with one consent and accord, (none excepted but only they which before were chosen by the archbishop to sit in judgment,) determined to make supplication unto the king to stay the matter. The king, granting their request, sent by and by certain unto the archbishop to examine the matter. There he denied that he would decree any thing, as touching Wickliff's books, contrary unto the king's will and pleasure. Whereupon, albeit that he had determined to burn them the next day after, yet for fear of the king, the matter was passed over. In the mean time Pope Alexander the Fifth, being dead, the archbishop, fearing lest the bull which he had received of the pope, would be no longer of any force or effect, privily calling unto him his adherents, and shutting the gates of his court round about him, being guarded with a number of armed soldiers, consumed and burned all Wickliff's books.

Illustration -- The burning of John Huss's books

Besides this great injury, the archbishop, by means of his bull aforesaid, committed another no less intolerable; for he gave out commandment, that no man after that time, under pain of excommunication, should teach any more in chapels. Whereupon I did appeal unto the pope; who being dead, and the cause of my matter remaining undetermined, I appealed likewise unto his successor John the Twenty-third: before whom when, by the space of two years, I could not be admitted by my advocates to defend my cause, I appealed unto the high Judge, Christ.

When John Huss had spoken these words, it was demanded of him whether he had received absolution of the pope or no? He answered, "No." Then again, whether it were lawful for him to appeal unto Christ or no? Whereunto John Huss answered; "Verily I do affirm here before you all, that there is no more just or effectual appeal, than that appeal which is made unto Christ, forasmuch as the law doth determine, that to appeal, is no other thing than in a cause of grief or wrong done by an inferior judge, to implore and require aid and remedy at a higher judge's hand. Who is then a higher judge than Christ? Who, I say, can know or judge the matter more justly, or with more equity? when in him there is found no deceit, neither can he be deceived; or, who can better help the miserable and oppressed than he?" While John Huss, with a devout and sober countenance, was speaking and pronouncing those words, he was derided and mocked of all the whole council.

Then was there rehearsed another article of his accusation, in this manner; that John Huss, to confirm the heresy which he had taught the common and simple people out of Wickliff's books, said openly these words: "That at what time a great number of monks and friars, and other learned men, were gathered together in England, in a certain church, to dispute against John Wickliff, and could by no means vanquish him, or give him the foil; suddenly the church door was broken open with lightning, so that with much ado Wickliff's enemies hardly escaped without hurt." He added, moreover, that he wished his soul to be in the same place where John Wickliff's soul was. Whereunto John Huss answered, that a dozen years before that any books of divinity of John Wickliff's were in Bohemia, he did see certain works of philosophy of his, the which, he said, did marvellously delight and please him. And when he understood the good and godly life of the said Wickliff, he spake these words: "I trust," said he, "that Wickliff is saved; and albeit that I doubt whether he be damned or no, yet, with a good hope, I wish that my soul were in the same place where John Wickliff's is." Then again did all the company jest and laugh at him.

It is also in his accusation, that John Huss did counsel the people, according to the example of Moses, to resist with the sword against all such as did gainsay his doctrine. And the next day after he had preached the same, there were found openly, in divers places, certain intimations that every man, being armed with his sword about him, should stoutly proceed; and that brother should not spare brother, neither one neighbour another. John Huss answered, that all these things were falsely laid unto his charge by his adversaries; for he at all times, when he preached, did diligently admonish and warn the people, that they should all arm themselves to defend the truth of the gospel, according to the saying of the apostle, with the helmet and sword of salvation; and that he never spake of any material sword, but of that which is the word of God. And as touching intimations, or Moses's sword, he never had any thing to do withal.

It is moreover affirmed in his accusation and witness, that many offences are sprung up by the doctrine of Huss. For first of all, he sowed discord between the ecclesiastical and the political state; whereupon followed the persecution, spoiling, and robbery of the clergy and bishops; and moreover, that he, through his dissension, dissolved the university of Prague. Hereunto John Huss briefly answered, that these things had not happened by his means or default; for the first dissension that was between the ecclesiastical and political state, sprang and grew upon this cause, that Pope Gregory the Twelfth promised at his election, that at all times, at the will and pleasure of the cardinals, he would depart from and give over his seat again; for under that condition he was elect and chosen. This man, contrary and against Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia, and was then also king of the Romans, made Louis, duke of Bavaria, emperor.

A few years after it happened, when Pope Gregory would not refuse and give over his seat and office at the request of the cardinals, that the whole college of cardinals sent letters to the king of Bohemia, requiring him, that, together with them, he would renounce and forsake his obedience unto Pope Gregory, and so it should come to pass, that by the authority of a new bishop he should recover again his imperial dignity. For this cause the king consented to the will of the cardinals as touching a neutrality; that is to say, that he would neither take part with Pope Gregory, neither yet with Benedict the Twelfth, bishop of Avignon, who was then named pope, as it doth appear by chronicles. In this cause then, forasmuch as the archbishop Swinco with the clergy were against the king, and abstaining from the divine service, many of them departed out of the city, and the archbishop himself, breaking down the tomb of the Lord Wencelate, contrary and against the king's will, did also take Wickliff's books and burned them. Thereupon the king, without any gainsaying, suffered that certain goods of theirs, which of their own wills were fled away, should be spoiled; because they should not consent or accord with the bishop. Whereupon it is easy to be understood and known that John Huss was falsely accused for that matter. Howbeit a certain man, one Naso, rising up, said: "The clergy did not abstain from the divine service, because they would not swear to consent unto the king; but because that they were spoiled and robbed of their goods and substance." And the cardinal of Cambray, who was one of the judges, said: "Here I must say somewhat which is come into my mind. When I came from Rome, the same year that these things were done, by chance I met on the way certain prelates of Bohemia: whom, when I demanded what news they had brought out of Bohemia, they answered, that there was happened a wonderful cruel and heinous fact; for all the clergy were spoiled of all their substance, and very ill entreated and handled."

Then John Huss, alleging the same cause which he did before, went forward unto the second part of the article which was objected against him, denying, also, that it happened through his fault, that the Germans departed from the university of Prague. "But when the king of Bohemia, according to the foundation of Charles the Fourth, his father, granted three voices unto the Bohemians, and the fourth unto the Germans; whereat the Germans grudging that they should be exempted from their voices, of their own accord departed and went their ways; binding themselves with a great oath, and under a great penalty, both of their fame, and also money, that none of them should return again unto Prague. Notwithstanding, I am not ashamed to confess, that I did approve and allow the doings of the king, unto whom of duty I owe obedience for the commodity and profit of my country. And because you shall not think that I have spoken any untruth, here is present Albert Warren Trapius, which was deacon of the faculties, who had sworn to depart with the rest of the Germans; he, if that he will say the truth, shall easily clear me of this suspicion."

But when Albert would have spoken, he could not be heard. But the aforesaid Naso, of whom before is made mention, after he had asked leave to speak, said: "This matter do I understand well enough, for I was in the king's court when these things were done in Bohemia, when I saw the masters of the three nations, of the Germans, Bavarians, Saxons, and Silesians, amongst whom the the Polonians were also numbered, most humbly come unto the king, requiring that he would not suffer the right of their voices to be taken from them; then the king promised them that he would foresee and provide for their requests: but John Huss and Jerome of Prague, with divers others, persuaded the king that he should not so do. Whereat the king at the first, being not a little moved, gave him a sore check, that he and Jerome of Prague did so much intermeddle themselves, and moved such open controversies, insomuch that he threatened them, that except they would foresee and take heed, he would bring it to pass that the matter should be determined and decreed by fire. Wherefore, most reverend fathers, you shall understand that the king of Bohemia did never favour with his heart these men, whose unshamefacedness is such, that they feared not even of late to entreat me evil, being so much in the king's favour and credit." After him stepped forth Paletz, saying, "Verily, most reverend fathers, not only the learned men of other nations, but also of Bohemia itself, are, through the counsel of John Huss and his adherents, banished out of Bohemia, of the which number some remain yet in exile in Moravia." Hereunto John Huss answered: "How can this be true," said he, "since I was not at Prague at that time, when these men you speak of departed and went away from thence?" These things were thus debated the day aforesaid as touching John Huss.

This done, the said John Huss was committed to the custody of the bishop of Reggio, under whom Jerome of Prague was also prisoner. But before that he was led away, the cardinal of Cambray calling him back again, in the presence of the emperor, said, "John Huss, I have heard you say, that if you had not been willing of your own mind to come unto Constance, neither the emperor himself, neither the king of Bohemia, could have compelled you to do it." Unto whom John Huss answered: "Under your licence, most reverend father, I never used any such kind of talk or words. But this I did say, that there was in Bohemia a great number of gentlemen and noblemen, which did favour and love me, the which also might easily have kept me in some sure and secret place, that I should not have been constrained to come into this town of Constance, neither at the will of the emperor, neither of the king of Bohemia." With that the cardinal of Cambray, even for very anger, began to change his colour, and despitefully said: "Do you not see the unshamefacedness of the man here?" And as they were murmuring and whispering on all parts, the Lord John de Clum, ratifying and confirming that which John Huss had spoken, said, that John Huss had spoken very well; "for on my part," said he, "which, in comparison of a great many others, am but of small force in the realm of Bohemia, yet always, if I would have taken it in hand, I could have defended him easily by the space of one year, even against all the force and power of both these great and mighty kings. How much better might they have done it which are of more force or puisance than I am, and have stronger castles and places than I have!" After that the Lord de Clum had spoken, the cardinal of Cambray said, "Let us leave this talk; and I tell you, John Huss, and counsel you, that you submit yourself unto the sentence and mind of the council, as you did promise in the prison; and if you will do so, it shall be greatly both for your profit and honour."

And the emperor himself began to tell him the same tale, saying, "Albeit that there be some which say, that the fifteenth day after you were committed to prison, you obtained of us our letters of safe-conduct; I can well prove, by the witness of many princes and noblemen, that the said safe- conduct was obtained and gotten of us by my lords de Duba and de Clum, before you were parted out of Prague, under whose guard we have sent for you, to the end that none should do you any outrage or hurt, but that you should have full liberty to speak freely before all the council, and to answer as touching your faith and doctrine: and, as you see, my lords the cardinals and bishops have so dealt with you, that we do very well perceive their good will towards you; for the which we have great cause to thank them. And forasmuch as divers have told us, that we may not, or ought not, of right to defend any man which is a heretic, or suspected of heresy; therefore, now we give you even the same counsel which the cardinal of Cambray hath given you already, that you be not obstinate to maintain any opinion, but that you do submit yourself under such obedience as you owe unto the authority of the holy council, in all things that shall be laid against you, and confirmed by credible witnesses; the which thing if you do according to our counsel, we will give order that, for the love of us, of our brother, and the whole realm of Bohemia, the council shall suffer you to depart in peace, with an easy and tolerable penance and satisfaction. The which thing if you, contrariwise, refuse to do, the presidents of the council shall have sufficient wherewithal to proceed against you. And, for our part, be ye well assured, that we will sooner prepare and make the fire with our own hands, to burn you withal, than we will endure or suffer any longer that you shall maintain or use this stiffness of opinions, which you have hitherto maintained and used. Wherefore our advice and counsel is, that you submit yourself wholly unto the judgment of the council." Unto whom John Huss answered in this sort; "O most noble emperor, I render unto your Highness most immortal thanks for your letters of safe-conduct." Upon this, Lord John de Clum did break him of his purpose, and admonished him that he did in no point excuse himself of the blame of obstinacy.

Then said John Huss, "O most gentle lord, I do take God to my witness, that I was never minded to maintain any opinion ever obstinately; and that for this same intent and purpose I did come hither of mine own good will, that if any man could lay before me any better or more holy doctrine than mine, that then I would change mine opinion without any further doubt." After he had spoken and said these things, he was sent away with sergeants.

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