Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 104. THE ARTICLES AGAINST JOHN HUSS, AND HIS ANSWERS

104. THE ARTICLES AGAINST JOHN HUSS, AND HIS ANSWERS

The morrow after, which was the eighth day of June, the very same company which was assembled the day before, assembled now again at the conventof the Franciscans. And in this assembly were also John Huss's friends, Lord de Duba, and Lord de Clum, and Peter the notary. Thither was John Huss also brought; and in his presence there were read about thirty-nine articles, the which, they said, were drawn out of his books. Huss acknowledged all those that were faithfully and truly collected and gathered, to be his; of the which sort there were but very few. The residue were counterfeited and forged by his adversaries, and specially by Stephen Paletz, the principal author of this mischief: for they could find no such thing in the books, out of the which they said they had drawn and gathered them; or at the least, if they were, they were corrupted by slanders, as a man may easily perceive by the number of articles.

These be the same articles in a manner which were showed before in the prison to John Huss, and are rehearsed here in another order. Howbeit there were more articles added unto them, and other some corrected and enlarged. But now we will show them one with another, and declare what the said Huss did answer both openly before them all, as also in the prison, for he left his answers in the prison briefly written with his own hand in these words:

"I, John Huss, unworthy minister of Jesus Christ, master of arts, and bachelor of divinity, do confess that I have written a certain small treatise entitled, Of the Church; the copy whereof was showed me by the notaries of the three presidents of the council; that is to say, the patriarch of Constantinople, the bishop of Castile, and the bishop of Libusse: the which deputies or presidents, in reproof of the said treatise, delivered unto me certain articles, saying, that they were drawn out of the said treatise, and were written in the same.

"The first article: 'There is but one holy universal or catholic church, which is the universal company of all the predestinate.' I do confess that this proposition is mine, and is confirmed by the saying of St. Augustine upon St. John.

"The second article: 'St. Paul was never any member of the devil, albeit that he committed and did certain acts like unto the acts of the malignant church. And likewise St. Peter, which fell into a horrible sin of perjury and denial of his Master, it was by the permission of God, that he might the more firmly and stedfastly rise again and be confirmed.' I answer, according to St. Augustine, that it is expedient that the elect and predestinate should sin and offend. Hereby it appeareth that there are two manner of separations from the holy church. The first is not to perdition, as all the elect are divided from the church. The second is to perdition, by the which certain heretics are, through their deadly sin, divided from the church. Yet notwithstanding, by the grace of God, they may return again unto the flock, and be of the fold of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom he speaketh himself, saying, I have other sheep which are not of this fold, John xx.

"The third article: 'No part or member of the church doth depart or fall away at any time from the body, forasmuch as the charity of predestination, which is the bond and chain of the same, doth never fall.' This proposition is thus placed in my book: As the reprobate of the church proceed out of the same, and yet are not as parts or members of the same, forasmuch as no part or member of the same doth finally fall away, because that the charity of predestination, which is the bond and chain of the same, doth never fall away.' This is proved by the 13th chapter of the First to the Corinthians; and to the Romans, the 8th chapter: All things turn to good to them which love God. Also, I am certain that neither death nor life can separate us from the charity and love of God: as it is more at large in the book.

"The fourth article: 'The predestinate, although he be not in a state of grace according to present justice, yet is he always a member of the universal church.' This an error, if it be understood of all such as be predestinate: for thus it is in the book, about the beginning of the 5th chapter, where it is declared, that there be divers manners and sorts of being in the church; for there are some in the church according to the misshapen faith, and other some according to predestination, as Christians predestinate, now in sin, but shall return again unto grace.

"The fifth article: 'There is no degree of honour or dignity, neither any human election, or any sensible sign, that can make any man a member of the universal church.' I answer, this article is after this manner in my book: 'And such subtleties are understood and known by considering what it is to be in the church, and what it is to be a part or member of the church; and that predestination doth make a man a member of the universal church, the which is a preparation of grace for the present, and of glory to come; and not any degree of dignity, neither election of man, neither any sensible sign. For the traitor, Judas Iscariot, notwithstanding Christ's election, and the temporal graces which were given him for his office of apostleship, and that he was reputed and counted of men a true apostle of Jesus Christ, yet was he no true disciple, but a wolf covered in a sheep's skin, as St. Augustine saith.'

"The sixth article: 'A reprobate man is never a member of the holy church.' I answer, it is in my book, with sufficient long probation out of the 26th Psalm, and out of the 5th chapter to the Ephesians; and also by St. Bernard's saying, The church of Jesus Christ is more plainly and evidently his body, than the body which he delivered for us to death.' I have also written in the 5th chapter of my book, that the holy church is the barn of the Lord, in the which are both good and evil, predestinate and reprobate, the good being as the good corn or grain, and the evil as the chaff; and thereunto is added the exposition of St. Augustine.

"The seventh article: 'Judas was never a true disciple of Jesus Christ.' I answer, and I do confess the same. This appeareth by the fifth article, which is passed before, and by St. Augustine in his Book of Penance, where he doth expound the meaning of St. John, in the First Epistle and 2nd chapter, where he said, 'They came out from amongst us, but they were none of us. He knew from the beginning all them which should believe, and him also which should betray him, and said, And therefore I say unto you, that none cometh unto me, except it be given him of my Father. From that time many of the disciples parted from him: and were not those also called disciples, according to the words of the gospel? And yet, notwithstanding, they were no true disciples, because they did not remain and continue in the word of the Son of God, according as it is said, If you remain in my word, you be my disciples; forasmuch then as they did not continue with Christ as his true disciples, so likewise are they not the true sons of God: although they seem so, unto him they are not so, unto whom it is known what they shall be, that is to say, of good, evil.' Thus much writeth St. Augustine. It is also evident that Judas could not be the true disciple of Christ, by means of his covetousness; for Christ himself said in the presence of Judas, as I suppose, Except a man forsake all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple. Forasmuch then as Judas did not forsake all things, according to the Lord's will, and follow him, he was a thief, as it is said, John xii.; and a devil, John vi.; whereby it is evident by the word of the Lord, that Judas was not his true, but feigned, disciple. Whereupon St. Augustine writing upon John, declaring how the sheep hear the voice of Christ, saith, 'What manner of hearers, think ye, his sheep were? Truly, Judas heard him and was a wolf, yet followed he the Shepherd; but being clothed in a sheep's skin, he lay in wait for the Shepherd.'

"The eighth article: 'Of the congregation of the predestinate, whether they be in the state of grace or no, according unto present justice, is the holy universal church; and therefore it is an article of faith, and it is the same church which hath neither wrinkle, neither spot in it, but is holy and undefiled, the which the Son of God doth call his own. The answer: The words of the book out of the which this article was drawn, are these: 'Thirdly, the church is understood and taken for the congregation and assembly of the faithful, whether they be in the state of grace, according to present justice, or not. And in this sort it is an article of our faith, of the which St. Paul maketh mention in the 5th chapter to the Ephesians, Christ so loved his church, that he delivered and offered himself for the same, &c. I pray you, then, is there any faithful man the which doth doubt that the church doth not signify all the elect and predestinate, the which we ought to believe to be the universal church, the glorious spouse of Jesus Christ, holy and without spot? Wherefore this article is an article of faith, the which we ought firmly to believe according to our creed, 'I believe the holy catholic church:' and of this church doth St. Augustine, St. Gregory, St. Jerome, and divers other make mention.'

"The ninth article: 'Peter never was, neither is, the head of the holy universal church.' The answer: This article was drawn out of these words of my book; 'All men do agree in this point, that Peter had received of the Rock of the church, (which is Christ,) humility, poverty, stedfastness of faith, and consequently blessedness. Not as though the meaning of our Lord Jesus Christ was, when he said, Upon this Rock I will build my church, that he would build every militant church upon the person of Peter; for Christ should build his church upon the Rock, which is Christ himself, from whence Peter received his stedfastness of faith, forasmuch as Jesus Christ is the only Head and Foundation of every church, and not Peter.'

"The tenth article: 'If he that is called the vicar of Jesus Christ, do follow Christ in his life, then he is his true vicar; but if so be he do walk in contrary paths and ways, then is he the messenger of antichrist, and the enemy and adversary of St. Peter, and of our Lord Jesus Christ, and also the vicar of Judas Iscariot!' I answer, the words of my book are these: 'If he which is called the vicar of St. Peter, walk in the ways of Christian virtues aforesaid, we do believe verily that he is the true vicar, and true bishop of the church which he ruleth; but if he walk in contrary paths and ways, then is he the messenger of antichrist, contrary both to St. Peter, and our Lord Jesus Christ. And therefore St. Bernard, in his fourth book, did write in this sort unto Pope Eugene: Thou delightest and walkest in great pride and arrogancy, being gorgeously and sumptuously arrayed; what fruit or profit do thy flock or sheep receive by thee? If I durst say it, these be rather the pastures and feedings of devils than of sheep. St. Peter and St. Paul did not so; wherefore thou seemest by these thy doings to succeed Constantine, and not St. Peter. These be the very words of St. Bernard.' It followeth after, in my book, 'That if the manner and fashion of his life and living be contrary to that which St. Peter used, or that he be given to avarice and covetousness, then is he the vicar of Judas Iscariot, which loved and chose the reward of iniquity, and did set out to sale the Lord Jesus Christ.' As soon as they had read the same, those which ruled and governed the council beheld one another, making mocks and mows, they nodded their heads at him.

"The eleventh article: 'All such as do use simony, and priests living dissolutely and wantonly, do hold an untrue opinion of the seven sacraments, as unbelieving bastards, and not as children, not knowing what is the office and duty of the keys or censures, rites and ceremonies; neither of the divine service of the church, or of veneration or worshipping of relics; neither of the orders constituted and ordained in the church; neither yet of indulgences or pardons.' I answer, that it is placed in this manner in my book: 'This abuse of authority or power is committed by such as do sell and make merchandise of holy orders, and get and gather together riches by simony, making fairs and markets of the holy sacraments, and living in all kind of voluptuousness and dissolute manners, or in any other filthy or villanous kind of living: they do pollute and defile the holy ecclesiastical state. And albeit that they profess in words that they do know God, yet do they deny it again by their deeds, and consequently believe not in God; but, as unbelieving bastards, they hold a contrary and untrue opinion of the seven sacraments of the church. And this appeareth most evidently, forasmuch as all such do utterly contemn and despise the name of God, according to the saying of Malachi, chap. i., Unto you, O priests! be it spoken, which do despise and contemn my name.'

"The twelfth article: 'The papal dignity hath his original from the emperors of Rome.' I answer, and mark well what my words are: 'The pre-eminence and institution of the pope is sprung and come of the emperor's power and authority. And this is proved by the ninety-sixth distinction; for Constantine granted this privilege unto the bishop of Rome, and other after him confirmed the same: That like as Augustus, for the outward and temporal goods bestowed upon the church, is counted always the most high king above all others; so the bishop of Rome should be called the principal father above all other bishops. This notwithstanding, the papal dignity hath his original immediately from Christ, as touching his spiritual administration and office to rule the church.' Then the cardinal of Cambray said, 'In the time of Constantine, there was a general council holden at Nice, in the which, albeit the highest room and place in the church was given to the bishop of Rome, for honour's cause, it is ascribed unto the emperor. Wherefore then do ye not as well affirm and say, that the papal dignity took his original rather from that council, than by the emperor's authority and power?'

"The thirteenth article: 'No man would reasonably affirm (without revelation) either of himself or of any other, that he is the head of any particular church.' I answer, I confess it to be written in my book, and it followeth straight after, 'Albeit that through his good living he ought to hope and trust that he is a member of the holy universal church, the spouse of Jesus Christ, according to the saying of the Preacher, No man knoweth whether he be worthy and have deserved grace and favour, or hatred. And Luke xvii., When ye have done all that ye can, say that you are unprofitable servants.'

"The fourteenth article: 'It ought not to be believed, that the pope, whatsoever he be, may be the head of any particular church, unless he be predestinate or ordained of God.' I answer, that I do acknowledge this proposition to be mine; and this is easy to prove, forasmuch as it is necessary that the Christian faith should be depraved, forasmuch as the church was deceived by N., as it appeareth by St. Augustine.

"The fifteenth article: 'The pope's power as vicar, is but vain and nothing worth, if he do not confirm and address his life according to Jesus Christ, and follow the manners of St. Peter.' I answer, that it is thus in my book; 'That it is meet and expedient that he which is ordained vicar, should address and frame himself, in manners and conditions, to the authority of him which did put him in place.' And John Huss said, moreover, before the whole council: 'I understand that the power and authority in such a pope as doth not represent the manners of Christ, is frustrate and void, as touching the merit and reward which he should obtain and get thereby, and doth not get the same: but not as concerning his office.' Then certain others standing by, asked of him, saying, 'Where is that gloss in your book?' John Huss answered, 'You shall find it in my treatise against Master Paletz:' whereat all the assistants, looking one upon another, began to smile and laugh.

"The sixteenth article: 'The pope is most holy, not because he doth supply and hold the room and place of St. Peter, but because he hath great revenues.' I answer, that my words are mutilated, for thus it is written: 'He is not most holy, because he is called the vicar of St. Peter, or because he hath great and large possessions; but if he be the follower of Jesus Christ in humility, gentleness, patience, labour, and travail, and in perfect love and charity.'

"The seventeenth article: 'The cardinals are not the manifest and true successors of the other apostles of Jesus Christ, if they live not according to the fashion of the apostles, keeping the commandments and ordinances of the Lord Jesus.' I answer, that it is thus written in my book, and it proveth itself sufficiently: 'For if they enter in by another way than by the door, which is the Lord Jesus, they be murderers and thieves.'

"Then said the cardinal of Cambray, 'Behold, both this and all other articles before rehearsed, he hath written much more detestable things in his book than are presented in his articles. Truly, John Huss, thou hast kept no order in thy sermons and writings, Had it not been your part to have applied your sermons according to your audience? for to what purpose was it, or what did it profit you, before the people to preach against the cardinals, when none of them were present? It had been meeter for you to have told them their faults before them all, than before the laity.' Then answered John Huss: 'Reverend father, forasmuch as I did see many priests and other learned men present at my sermons, for their sakes I spake those words.' Then said the cardinal, 'Thou hast done very ill, for by such kind of talk thou hast disturbed and troubled the whole state of the church.'

"The eighteenth article: 'A heretic ought not to be committed to the secular powers to be put to death, for it is sufficient only that he abide and suffer the ecclesiastical censure.' These are my words: That they might be ashamed of their cruel sentence and judgment, especially forasmuch as Jesus Christ, Bishop both of the Old and New Testament, would not judge such as were disobedient by civil judgment, neither condemn them to bodily death.' As touching the first point, it may evidently be seen in the 12th chapter of St. Luke. And for the second, it appeared also by the woman which was taken in adultery, of whom it is spoken in the 8th chapter of St. John. And it is said in the 18th chapter of St. Matthew, If thy brother have offended thee, &c. Mark therefore what I do say, That a heretic, whatsoever he be, ought first to be instructed and taught with Christian love and gentleness by the Holy Scriptures, and by the reasons drawn and taken out of the same, as St. Augustine and others have done, disputing against the heretics. But if there were any which, after all these gentle and loving admonitions and instructions, would not cease from or leave off their stiffness of opinions, but obstinately resist against the truth, such, I say, ought to suffer corporal or bodily punishment."

As soon as John Huss had spoken those things, the judges read in his book a certain clause, wherein he seemed grievously to inveigh against them which delivered a heretic unto the secular power, not being confuted or convicted of heresy, and compared them unto the high priests, scribes, and Pharisees, which said unto Pilate, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death, and delivered Christ unto him; and yet, notwithstanding, according unto Christ's own witness, they were greater murderers than Pilate; For he, said Christ, which hath delivered me unto thee, hath committed the greatest offence. Then the cardinals and bishops made a great noise, and demanded of John Huss, saying, "Who are they that thou dost compare or resemble unto the Pharisees?" Then he said, "All those which delivered up any innocent unto the civil sword, as the scribes and Pharisees delivered Jesus Christ unto Pilate." "No, no," said they again; "for all that, you spake here of doctors." And the cardinal of Cambray, according to his accustomed manner, said, "Truly they which have made and gathered these articles, have used great lenity and gentleness, for his writings are much more detestable and horrible."

"The nineteenth article: 'The nobles of the world ought to constrain and compel the ministers of the church to observe and keep the law of Jesus Christ.' I answer, that it standeth thus word for word in my book: 'Those which be on our part do preach and affirm that the church militant, according to the parts which the Lord hath ordained, is divided, and consisteth in these parts: That is to say, ministers of the church, which should keep purely and sincerely the ordinances and commandments of the Son of God, and the nobles of the world, that should compel and drive them to keep the commandments of Jesus Christ, and of the common people, serving to both these parts and ends, according to the institution and ordinance of Jesus Christ.'

"The twentieth article: The ecclesiastical obedience is a kind of obedience, which the priests and monks have invented without any express authority of the Holy Scriptures.' I answer and confess, that those words are thus written in my book. I say that there be three kinds of obedience, spiritual, secular, and ecclesiastical. The spiritual obedience is that which is only due according to the law and ordinance of God, under the which the apostles of Jesus Christ did live, and all Christians ought to live. The secular obedience is that which is due according to the civil laws and ordinances. The ecclesiastical obedience is such as the priests have invented, without any express authority of Scripture. The first kind of obedience doth utterly exclude from it all evil, as well on his part which giveth the commandment, as on his also which doth obey the same. And of this obedience it is spoken in the 24th chapter of Deuteronomy: Thou shalt do all that which the priests of the kindred of Levi shall teach and instruct thee, according as I have commanded them.

"The twenty-first article: 'He that is excommunicated by the pope, if he refuse and forsake the judgment of the pope and the general council, and appealeth unto Jesus Christ, after he hath made his apellation, all the excommunications and curses of the pope cannot annoy or hurt him.' I answer, that I do not acknowledge this proposition; but indeed I did make my complaint in my book, that they had both done me and such as favoured me great wrong, and that they refused to hear me in the pope's court. For after the death of one pope, I did appeal to his successor, and all that did profit me nothing. And to appeal from the pope to the council it were too long; and that were even as much as if a man in trouble should seek an uncertain remedy. And therefore, last of all, I have appealed to the Head of the church, my Lord Jesus Christ, for he is much more excellent and better than any pope, to discuss and determine matters and causes, forasmuch as he cannot err, neither yet deny justice to him that doth ask or require it in a just cause, neither can he condemn the innocent. Then spake the cardinal of Cambray unto him, and said, Wilt thou presume above St. Paul, who appealed unto the emperor, and not unto Jesus Christ?' John Huss answered, 'Forasmuch then as I am the first that do it, am I therefore to be reputed and counted a heretic? And yet, notwithstanding, St. Paul did not appeal unto the emperor of his own motion or will, but by the will of Christ, which spake unto him by revelation, and said, Be firm and constant, for thou must go unto Rome.' And as he was about to rehearse his appeal again they mocked him."

Forasmuch as mention here is made of the appeal of the said Huss, it seemeth good here to show the manner and form thereof.

"Forasmuch as the most mighty Lord, one in essence, three in person, is both the chief and first, and also the last and uttermost refuge of all those which are oppressed, and that he is the God which defendeth verity and truth throughout all generations, doing justice to such as be wronged, being ready and at hand to all those which call upon him in verity and truth, unbinding those that are bound, and fulfilling the desires of all those which honour and fear him, defending and keeping all those that love him, and utterly destroying and bringing to ruin the stiff-necked and impenitent sinner; and that the Lord Jesus Christ, very God and man, being in great anguish, compassed in with the priests, scribes, and Pharisees, wicked judges and witnesses, willing, by the most bitter and ignominious death, to redeem the children of God, chosen before the foundation of the world, from everlasting damnation; hath left behind him this godly example for a memory unto them which should come after him, to the intent they should commit all their causes into the hands of God, who can do all things, and knoweth and seeth all things, saying in this manner: O Lord! behold my affliction, for my enemy hath prepared himself against me, and thou art my protector and defender. O Lord! thou hast given me understanding, and I have acknowledged thee; thou hast opened unto me all their enterprises; and for mine own part, I have been as a meek lamb which is led unto sacrifice, and have not resisted against them. They have wrought their enterprises upon me, saying, Let us put wood in his bread, and let us banish him out of the land of the living, that his name be no more spoken of nor had in memory. But thou, O Lord of hosts! which judgest justly, and seest the devices and imaginations of their hearts, hasten thee to take vengeance upon them, for I have manifested my cause unto thee, forasmuch as the number of those which trouble me is great, and have counselled together, saying, The Lord hath forsaken him, pursue him and catch him. O Lord my God! behold their doings, for thou art my patience; deliver me from mine enemies, for thou art my God; do not separate thyself far from me, forasmuch as tribulation is at hand, and there is no man which will succour me. My God! my God! look down upon me; wherefore hast thou forsaken me? So many dogs have compassed me in, and the company of the wicked have besieged me round about; for they have spoken against me with deceitful tongues, and have compassed me in with words full of despite, and have enforced me without cause. Instead of love towards me they have slandered me, and have recompensed me with evil for good; and in place of charity they have conceived hatred against me.

"Wherefore, behold, I, staying myself upon this most holy and fruitful example of my Saviour and Redeemer, do appeal before God for this my grief and hard oppression, from this most wicked sentence and judgment, and the excommunication determined by the bishops, scribes, Pharisees, and judges, which sit in Moses's seat, and resign my cause wholly unto him; so as the holy patriarch of Constantinople, John Chrysostom, appealed twice from the council of the bishops and clergy; and Andrew, bishop of Prague, and Robert, bishop of Lincoln, appealed unto the sovereign and most just Judge, the which is not defiled with cruelty, neither can he be corrupted with gifts and rewards, neither yet be deceived by false witness. Also I desire greatly, that all the faithful servants of Jesus Christ, and especially the princes, barons, knights, esquires, and all other which inhabit our country of Bohemia, should understand and know these things, and have compassion upon me, which am so grievously oppressed by the excommunication which is out against me, the which was obtained and gotten by the instigation and procurement of Michael de Causis, my great enemy, and by the consent and furtherance .of the canons of the cathedral church of Prague, and given and granted out by Peter of St. Angles, dean of the Church of Rome, and cardinal, and also ordained judge by Pope John the Twenty-third, who hath continued almost these two years, and would give no audience unto my advocates and procurators: which they ought not to deny, (no, not to a Jew or pagan, or to any heretic whatsoever he were,) neither yet would he receive any reasonable excuse, for that I did not appear personally; neither would he accept the testimonials of the whole university of Prague with the seal hanging at it, or the witness of the sworn notaries, and such as were called unto witness. By this all men may evidently perceive, that I have not incurred any fault or crime of contumacy or disobedience, forasmuch as that I did not appear in the court of Rome, was not for any contempt, but for reasonable causes.

"And moreover, forasmuch as they had laid ambushments for me on every side by ways where I should pass, and also because the perils and dangers of others have made me the more circumspect and advised; and forasmuch as my procurers were willing and contented to bind themselves, even to abide the punishment of the fire, to answer to all such as would oppose or lay any thing against me in the court of Rome; as also because they did imprison my lawful procurator in the said court, without any cause, demerit, or fault, as I suppose. Forasmuch then as the order and disposition of all ancient laws, as well Divine of the Old and New Testament, as also of the canon laws, is this; that the judges should resort unto the place where the crime or fault is committed or done, and there to inquire of all such crimes as shall be objected and laid against him which is accused or slandered, and that of such men as by conversation have some knowledge or understanding of the party so accused (the which may not be the evil-willers or enemies of him which is so accused or slandered; but must be men of an honest conversation, no common quarrel-pickers or accusers, but fervent lovers of the law of God): and finally, that there should be a fit and meet place appointed, whither as the accused party might without danger or peril resort or come, and that the judge and witnesses should not be enemies unto him that is accused. And also forasmuch as it is manifest, that all these conditions were wanting and lacking, as touching my appearance for the safeguard of my life, I am excused before God from the frivolous pretended obstinacy and excommunication. Whereupon I, John Huss, do present and offer this my appeal unto my Lord Jesus Christ, my just Judge, who knoweth and defendeth, and justly judgeth, every man's just and true cause."

"The twenty-second article: 'A vicious and naughty man liveth viciously and naughtily; but a virtuous and godly man liveth virtuously and godly.' I answer, My words are these; 'That the division of all human works is in two parties, that is, that they be either virtuous, or vicious; forasmuch as it doth appear, that if any man be virtuous and godly, and that he do any thing, he doth it then virtuously and godly. And contrariwise, if a man be vicious and naught, that which he doth is vicious and naught. For as vice, which is called crime or offence, and thereby understand deadly sin, doth universally infect or deprave all the acts and doings of the subject, that is, of the man which doth them: so likewise virtue and godliness doth quicken all the acts and doings of the virtuous and godly man; insomuch that he being in the state of grace, is said to pray and do good works even sleeping, as it were by a certain means working; as St. Augustine, St. Gregory, and divers others affirm. And it appeareth in the 6th chapter of Luke: If thine eye, that is to say, the mind or intention, be simple, not depraved with the perverseness of any sin or offence, all the whole body, that is to say, all the acts and doings, shall be clear and shining, that is, acceptable and grateful unto God. But if thine eye be evil, the whole body is darkened. And in the Second to the Corinthians, chap. x., All things that you do, do them to the glory of God. And likewise in the First Epistle to the Corinthians, and last chapter, it is said, Let all your doings be done with charity. Wherefore all kind of life and living according unto charity, is virtuous and godly; and if it be without charity, it is vicious and evil. This saying may well be proved out of the 23rd chapter of Deuteronomy, where God speaketh to the people, that he that keepeth his commandments is blessed in the house and in the field, out going and in coming, sleeping and waking; but he that doth not keep his commandments is accursed in the house and in the fields, in going out and in coming in, sleeping and waking, &c. The same also is evident by St. Augustine upon the Psalm, where he writeth, that a good man in all his doings doth praise the Lord. And Gregory saith, that the sleep of saints and holy men doth not lack their merit. How much more then his doings which proceed of good zeal, be not without reward, and consequently be virtuous and good! And contrariwise, it is understood of him which is in deadly sin, of whom it is spoken in the law, that whatsoever the unclean man doth touch, is made unclean.

"To this end doth that also appertain which is before repeated out of the 1st of Malachi. And Gregory, in the first book and first question, saith, We do defile the bread, which is the body of Christ, when we come unworthily to the table, and when we, being defiled, do drink his blood. And St. Augustine, upon the 146th Psalm, saith, If thou dost exceed the due measure of nature, and dost not abstain from gluttony, but gorge thyself up with drunkenness, whatsoever laud and praise thy tongue doth speak of the grace and favour of God, thy life doth blaspheme the same.' When he had made an end of this article, the cardinal of Cambray said, The Scripture saith, that we be all sinners. And again, If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and so we should always live in deadly sin.' John Huss answered, 'The Scripture speaketh in that place of venial sins, the which do not utterly expel or put away the habit of virtue from a man, but do associate themselves together.' And a certain Englishman, whose name was W., said, 'But those sins do not associate themselves with any act morally good.' John Huss alleged again St. Augustine's place upon 146th Psalm, the which when he rehearsed, they all with one mouth said, 'What makes this to the purpose?'

"The twenty-third article: 'The minister of Christ, living according to his law, and having the knowledge and understanding of the Scriptures, and an earnest desire to edify the people, ought to preach, notwithstanding the pretended excommunication of the pope. And moreover, if the pope or any other ruler do forbid any priest or minister, so disposed, to preach, that he ought not to obey him.' I answer, that these were my words; 'That albeit the excommunication were either threatened or come out against him, in such sort that a Christian ought not to do the commandments of Christ, it appeareth by the words of St. Peter and the other apostles, that we ought rather to obey God than man. Whereupon it followeth that the minister of Christ, living according unto his law, &c., ought to preach notwithstanding any pretended excommunication. For it is evident that it is commanded unto the ministers of the church to preach the word of God. Acts v., God hath commanded us to preach and testify unto the people; as by divers other places of the Scripture, and the holy fathers rehearsed in my treatise, it doth appear more at large.' The second part of this article followeth in my treatise in this manner:

"'By this it appeareth, that for a minister to preach, and a rich man to give alms, are not indifferent works, but duties and commandments. Whereby it is further evident, that if the pope or any other ruler of the church do command any minister, disposed to preach, not to preach, or a rich man, disposed to give alms, not to give, that they ought not to obey him.' And he added, moreover, 'To the intent that you may understand me the better, I call that a pretended excommunication, the which is unjustly disordered and given forth, contrary to the order of the law and God's commandments: For the which the meet minister appointed thereunto, ought not to cease from preaching, neither yet to fear damnation.' "

When they objected unto him, that he said that such kind of excommunications were rather blessings: "Verily," said John Huss, "even so I do now say again, that every excommunication, by the which a man is unjustly excommunicate, is unto him a blessing before God; according to that saying of the prophet, I will curse whereas you bless; and the contrariwise, They shall curse, but thou, O Lord, shalt bless." Then the cardinal of Florence, which had always a notary ready at his hand to write such things as he commanded him, said, "The law is, that every excommunication, be it never so unjust, ought to be feared." "It is true," said John Huss, "for I do remember eight causes, for the which excommunication ought to be feared." Then said the cardinal, "Are there no more but eight?" "It may be," said John Huss, "that there be more."

"The twenty-fourth article: 'Every man which is admitted into the ministry of the church, receiveth also by special commandment the office of a preacher, and ought to execute and fulfil that commandment, notwithstanding any excommunication pretended to the contrary.' The answer: My words are these; 'Forasmuch as it doth appear by that which is aforesaid, that whosoever cometh or is admittedunto the ministry, receiveth also by especial commandment the office of preaching, he ought to fulfil that commandment, any excommunication to the contrary pretended notwithstanding. Also, no Christian ought to doubt but that a man sufficiently instructed in learning, is more bound to counsel and instruct the ignorant, to teach those which are in doubt, to chastise those which are unruly, and to remit and forgive those that do him injury, than to do any other works of mercy. Forasmuch then as he that is rich and hath sufficient, is bound, under the pain of damnation, to minister and give corporal and bodily alms, as appeareth in the 25th chapter of Matthew, how much more is he bound to do spiritual alms!'

"The twenty-fifth article: 'The ecclesiastical censures are antichristian, such as the clergy have invented for their own preferment, and for the bondage and servitude of the common people. Whereby if the laity be not obedient unto the clergy at their will and pleasure, it doth multiply their covetousness, defendeth their malice, and prepareth a way for antichrist. Whereby it is an evident sign and token, that such censures proceed from antichrist; the which censures in their processes they do call fulminations or lightnings, whereby the clergy doth chiefly proceed against such as do manifest and open the wickedness of antichrist, which thrust themselves into the office of the clergy.' These things are contained in the last chapter of his treatise Of the Church. I answer, and I deny that it is in that form. But the matter thereof is largely handled in the 23rd chapter. And in the examination of the audience, they have gathered certain clauses most contrary thereunto. The which, when they had read, the cardinal of Cambray renewed his old song, saying, 'Truly these are much more grievous and offensive than the articles which are gathered.'

"The twenty-sixth article: 'There ought no interdictment to be appointed unto the people, forasmuch as Christ the high Bishop, neither for John Baptist, neither for any injury that was done unto him, did make any interdictment.' My words are these: 'When I complained, that for one minister's sake, an interdictment was given out, and thereby all good men ceased from the laud and praise of God. And Christ the high Bishop, notwithstanding that the prophet was taken and kept in prison, than whom there was no greater amongst the children of men, did not give out any curse or interdictment, no, not when Herod beheaded him; neither when he himself was spoiled, beaten, and blasphemed of the soldiers, scribes, and Pharisees, did he then curse them, but prayed for them, and taught his disciples to do the same, as it appeareth in the 5th chapter of Matthew. And Christ's first vicar, following the same doctrine and learning, saith in his First Epistle of St. Peter, and the 2nd chapter, Hereunto are ye called; for Christ hath suffered for us, leaving us an example, that we should follow his footsteps, who, when he was cursed and evil spoken of, did not curse again. And St. Paul, following the same order and way in the 12th chapter of the Romans, saith, Bless them that persecute you.' There were, besides these, many other places of Scripture recited in that book; but they, being omitted, these were only rehearsed, which did help or prevail to stir up or move the judges' minds."

And these are the articles which are alleged out of John Huss's book entitled, Of the Church.

Other articles, moreover, out of his other books were collected, and forced against him, first out of his treatise written against Stephen Paletz, to the number of seven articles. Also six other articles strained out of his treatise against Stanislaus Znoyma. Whereunto his answers likewise be adjoined, not unfruitful to be read.

Here followeth seven articles, which are said to be drawn out of his treatise which he wrote against Stephen Paletz.

"The first article: 'If the pope, bishop, or prelate be in deadly sin, he is then no pope, bishop, nor prelate.' The answer: I grant thereunto, and I send you unto St. Augustine, Jerome, Chrysostom, Gregory, Cyprian, and Bernard; the which do say, moreover, that whosoever is in deadly sin, is no true Christian, how much less then is he pope or bishop! Of whom it is spoken by the prophet Amos, in his 8th chapter, They have reigned and ruled, and not through me; they became princes, and I knew them not, &c. But afterwards I do grant that a wicked pope, bishop, or priest, is an unworthy minister of the sacrament, by whom God doth baptize, consecrate, or otherwise work to the profit of his church; and this is largely handled in the text of the book by the authority of the holy doctors; for even he which is in deadly sin, is not worthily a king before God, as appeareth in the First Book of the Kings, the 15th chapter; where God saith unto Saul, by the prophet Samuel, saying, "Forasmuch as thou hast refused and cast off my word, I will also refuse and cast thee off, that thou shalt be no more king." Whilst these things were thus entreating, the emperor, looking out at a certain window of the cloister, accompanied with the county Palatine and the burgrave of Nuremberg, conferring and talking much of John Huss, at length he said, that there was never a worse or more pernicious heretic than he. In the mean while, when John Huss had spoken these words, as touching the unworthy king, by and by the emperor was called, and he was commanded to repeat those words again; which, after that he had done, his duty therein being considered, the emperor answered, 'No man,' saith he, 'doth live without fault.' Then the cardinal of Cambray, being in a great fury, said, 'Is it not enough for thee that thou dost contemn and despise the ecclesiastical state, and goest about, by thy writings and doctrine, to perturb and trouble the same, but that now also thou wilt attempt to throw kings out of their state and dignity?' Then Paletz began to allege the laws whereby he would prove that Saul was king, even when those words were spoken by Samuel, and therefore that David did forbid that Saul should be slain, not for the holiness of his life, the which there was none in him, but for the holiness of his anointing.' And when John Huss repeated out of St. Cyprian, that he did take upon him the name of Christianity in vain, which did not follow Christ in his living, Paletz answered, 'Behold and see what a folly is in this man, which allegeth those things which make nothing for the purpose; for albeit any man be not a true Christian, is he not therefore true pope, bishop, or king? whenas these are names of office, and to be a true Christian is a name of merit and desert, and so may any man be a true pope, bishop, or king, although he be no true Christian.' Then said John Huss, 'If Pope John the Twenty-third were a true pope, wherefore have ye deprived him of his office?' The emperor answered, 'The lords of the council have now lately agreed thereupon that he was true pope, but for his notorious and manifest evil doings, wherewithal he did offend and trouble the church of God, and did spoil and bring to ruin the power thereof, he is rejected and cast out of his office.'

"The second article: 'The grace of predestination is the bond whereby the body of the church, and every part and member thereof, is firmly knit and joined unto the Head.' The answer: I acknowledge this article to be mine, and it is proved in the text out of the 8th chapter to the Romans, Who shall separate us from the charity and love of Christ, &c.? and in the 10th chapter of John, My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me, and I give them eternal life, neither shall they perish eternally, neither is there any man which shall take them out of my hands. This is the knot of the body of the church, and of our spiritual head Christ, understanding the church to be the congregation of the predestinate.

"The third article: 'If the pope be a wicked man, and especially a reprobate, then, even as Judas the apostle, he is a devil, a thief, and the son of perdition, and not the head of the holy militant church, forasmuch as he is no part or member thereof.' The answer: My words are thus; 'If the pope be an evil or wicked man, and especially if he be a reprobate, then, even as Judas, so is he a devil, a thief, and the son of perdition. How then is he the head of the holy militant church? whereas he is not truly any member or part thereof; for if he were a member of the holy church, then should he be also a member of Christ; and if he were a member of Christ, then should he cleave and stick unto Christ by the grace of predestination and present justice, and should be one spirit with God, as the apostle saith in the First Epistle to the Corinthians, the 6th chapter, Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? '

"The fourth article: 'An evil pope or prelate, or reprobate, is no true pastor, but a thief and a robber. The answer: The text of my book is thus; 'If he be evil or wicked, then is he an hireling, of whom Christ speaketh, He is no shepherd, neither are the sheep his own. Therefore when he seeth the wolf coming, he runneth away and forsaketh the sheep: and so finally doth every wicked and reprobate man. Therefore every such reprobate, or wicked pope or prelate, is no true pastor, but a very thief and a robber, as is more at large proved in my book.' Then said John Huss, I do so limit all things, that such as, touching their desert, are not truly and worthily popes and shepherds before God, but as touching their office and reputation of men, they are popes, pastors, and priests.'

"Then a certain man rising up behind John Huss, clothed all in silk, said, My lords, take heed lest that John Huss deceive both you and himself with these his glosses, and look whether these things be in his book or not; for of late I had disputation with him upon these articles, in the which I said, that a wicked pope, &c. was no pope, as touching merit and desert, but as touching his office he was truly pope. Whereupon he used these glosses which he had heard of me, and did not take them out of his book.' Then John Huss, turning himself unto him, said, 'Did you not hear that it was so read out of my book? and this did easily appear in John the Twenty-third, whether he were a true pope, or a very thief and robber.' Then the bishops and cardinals looking one upon another, said that he was a true pope, and laughed John Huss to scorn.

"The fifth article: 'The pope is not, neither ought to be called according unto his office, most holy; for then the king ought also to be called most holy, according to his office. Also the tormentors, lictors, and devils ought also to be called holy.' The answer: My words are otherwise placed inthis manner; 'So ought a feigner say, that if any man be a most holy father, then he doth most holily observe and keep his fatherliness: and if be a naughty and wicked father, then doth he most wickedly keep the same. Likewise, if the bishop be most holy, then is he also most good; and when he saith, that he is pope, it is the name of his office.

"'Whereupon it followeth, that the man which is pope, being an evil and reprobate man, is a most holy man; and consequently, by that his office he is most good. And forasmuch as no man can be good by his office, except he do exercise and use the same his office very well; it followeth, that if the pope be an evil and reprobate man, he cannot exercise or use his office well. Forasmuch as he cannot use the office well, except he be morally good; Matthew xii., How can you speak good things, when you yourselves are evil? And immediately after it followeth, If the pope by reason of his office be called most holy, wherefore should not the king of Romans be called most holy, by reason of his office and dignity; since the king, according unto St. Augustine's mind, representeth the Deity and Godhead of Christ, and the priest representeth only his humanity. Wherefore also should not judges, yea, even tormentors, be called holy, forasmuch as they have their office by ministering unto the church of Christ? These things are more at large discoursed in my book; but I cannot find or know,' saith John Huss, any foundation whereby I should call the pope most holy, seeing this is only spoken of Christ: Thou only art most holy. Thou only art the Lord, &c. Should I then truly call the pope most holy?

"The sixth article: 'If the pope live contrary unto Christ, albeit he be lawfully and canonically elect and chosen, according to human election, yet doth he ascend and come another way than by Christ.' The answer: The text is thus; 'If the pope live contrary unto Christ in pride and avarice, how then doth he not ascend and come in another way into the sheepfold, than by the lowly and meek door, our Lord Jesus Christ?' But admit, as you say, that he did ascend by lawful election, the which I call an election principally made of God, and not according unto the common and vulgar constitution and ordinances of men, yet for all that, it is affirmed and proved that he should ascend and come in another way; for Judas Iscariot was truly and lawfully chosen of the Lord Jesus Christ unto his bishopric, as Christ saith in the 6th of John, and yet he came in another way into the sheepfold, and was a thief and a devil, and the son of perdition. Did he not come in another way? whereas our Saviour spake thus of him, He that eateth bread with me, shall lift up his heel against me.

"'The same also is proved by St. Bernard unto Pope Eugenius.' Then said Paletz, 'Behold the fury and madness of this man; for what more furious or mad thing can there be than to say, Judas is chosen by Christ, and notwithstanding he did ascend another way, and not by Christ?' John Huss answered,' Verily both parts are true, that he was elect and chosen by Christ, and also that he did ascend and came in another way, for he was a thief, a devil, and the son of perdition.' Then said Paletz, 'Cannot a man be truly and lawfully chosen pope, or bishop, and afterward live contrary unto Christ; and that notwithstanding, he doth not ascend any other way?' 'But I,' said John Huss, 'do say, that whosoever doth enter into any bishopric or like office by simony, not to the intent to labour and travail in the church of God, but rather to live delicately, voluptuously, and unrighteously, and to the intent to advance himself with all kind of pride; every such man ascendeth and cometh up by another way, and according unto the gospel he is a thief and a robber.'

"The seventh article: 'The condemnation of the forty-five articles of John Wickliff made by the doctors is unreasonable and wicked, and the cause by them alleged is feigned and untrue; that is to say, that none of these articles are catholic, but that every of them be either heretical, erroneous, or offensive.' The answer: I have written it thus in my treatise; 'The forty and five articles are condemned for this cause, that none of those forty and five is a catholic article, but each of them is either heretical, erroneous, or offensive.'

"O master doctor, where is your proof? you feign a cause which you do not prove, &c., as it appeareth more at large in my treatise. Then said the cardinal of Cambray, 'John Huss, thou didst say that thou wouldst not defend any error of John Wickliff's, and now it appeareth in your books, that you have openly defended his articles.' John Huss answered, Reverend father, even as I said before, so do I now say again, that I will not defend any errors of John Wickliff's, neither of any other man's; but forasmuch as it seemed unto me to be against conscience, simply to consent unto the condemnation of them, no scripture being alleged or brought contrary against them, thereupon I would not consent or agree unto the condemnation of them; and forasmuch as the reason, which is copulative, cannot be verified in every point, according to every part thereof.'"

Now there remain six articles of thirty-nine. These are said to be drawn out of another treatise, which he wrote against Stanislaus de Znoyma.

"The first article: 'No man is lawfully elect or chosen, in that the electors or the greater part of them have consented, with a lively voice, according to the custom of men, to elect and choose any person, or that he is thereby the manifest and true successor of Christ, or vicar of Peter in the ecclesiastical office; but in that that any man doth most abundantly work meritoriously to the profit of the church, he hath more abundant power given him of God thereunto.' The answer: These things which follow are also written in my book: 'It standeth in the power and hands of wicked electors to choose a woman into the ecclesiastical office, as it appeareth by the election of Agnes, which was called John, who held and occupied the pope's place and dignity by the space of two years and more.

"'It may also be that they do choose a thief, a murderer, or a devil, and consequently they may also elect and choose antichrist.

"'It may also be that for love, covetousness, or hatred, they do choose some person whom God doth not allow. And it appeareth that that person is not lawfully elect and chosen; insomuch as the electors or the greater part of them have consented and agreed together according to the custom of men, upon any person, or that he is thereby the manifest successor or vicar of Peter the apostle, or any other in the ecclesiastical office.

"'Therefore, they which most accordingly unto the Scripture do elect and choose, revelation being set apart, do only pronounce and determine by some probable reason upon him they do elect and choose, whereupon whether the electors do so choose good or evil, we ought to give credit unto the works of him that is chosen; for in that point that any man doth most abundantly work meritoriously to the profit of the church, he hath thereby more abundant power given him of God thereunto. And hereupon, saith Christ in the 10th of John, give credit unto works.'

"The second article: 'The pope being a reprobate, is not the head of the holy church of God.' The answer: I wrote it thus in my treatise, that I would willingly receive a probable and effectual reason of the doctor, how this question is contrary unto the faith, to say, that if the pope be a reprobate, how is he the head of the holy church? Behold, the truth cannot decay or fail in disputation, for did Christ dispute against the faith, when he demanded of the scribes and Pharisees, Matt. xii., Ye stock and offspring of vipers, how can ye speak good things, when you yourselves are wicked and evil? And behold, I demand of the scribes, if the pope be a reprobate, and the stock of vipers, how is he the head of the holy church of God, that the scribes and Pharisees, which were in the council-house of Prague, may make answer hereunto? For it is more possible that a reprobate man should speak good things, forasmuch as he may be in a state of grace according unto present justice, than to be the head of the holy church of God.

"Also in the 5th of John, our Saviour complaineth upon the Jews, saying, How can you believe which do seek for glory amongst yourselves, and do not seek for the glory that cometh only of God? And I likewise do complain how, that if the pope be a reprobate, can he be the head of the church of God, which receiveth his glory of the world, and seeketh not for the glory of God? For it is more possible that the pope being a reprobate should believe, than that he should be the head of the church of God, forasmuch as he taketh his glory of the world.

"The third article 'There is no spark of appearance, that there ought to be one head in the spiritualty, to rule the church, the which should be always conversant with the militant church.' The answer: I do grant it. For what a consequence is this, The king of Bohemia is head of the kingdom of Bohemia; ergo, the pope is head of the whole militant church? Christ is the Head of the spiritualty, ruling and governing the militant church by much more and greater necessity than Cæsar ought to rule the temporalty. Forasmuch as Christ, that sitteth on the right hand of God the Father, doth necessarily rule the militant church as Head. And there is no spark of appearance that there should be one head in the spiritualty ruling the church, that should always be conversant with the militant church, except some infidel would heretically affirm, that the militant church should have here a permanent and continual city or dwelling-place, and not inquire and seek after that which is to come. It is also further evident in my book, how unconsequent the proportion of the similitude is, for a reprobate pope to be the head of the militant church, and a reprobate king to be the head of the kingdom of Bohemia.

"The fourth article: 'Christ would better rule his church by his true apostles dispersed throughout the whole world without such monstrous heads.' I answer, that it is in my book as here followeth: That albeit that the doctor doth say, that the body of the militant church is oftentimes without a head, yet, notwithstanding, we do verily believe that Christ Jesus is the head over every church, ruling the same without lack or default, pouring upon the same a continual motion and sense, even unto the latter day; neither can the doctor give a reason why the church in the time of Agnes, by the space of two years and five months, lived according to many members of Christ in grace and favour, but that by the same reason the church might be without a bead by the space of many years. Forasmuch as Christ should better rule his church by his true disciples dispersed throughout the whole world, without such monstrous heads.' Then said they all together, 'Behold, now he prophesieth.' And John Huss again further prosecuting his former talk, said, 'But I say that the church in the time of the apostles, was far better ruled and governed than now it is. And what doth let and hinder that Christ should not now also rule the same better by his true disciples without such monstrous heads, as have now been of late? For, behold, even at this present, we have no such head; and yet Christ ceaseth not to rule his church.' When he had spoken these words, he was derided and mocked.

"The fifth article: 'Peter was no universal pastor or shepherd of the sheep of Christ, much less is the bishop of Rome.' The answer: Those words are not in my book, but these which do follow; 'Secondly, it appeareth by the words of Christ, that he did not limit unto Peter, for his jurisdiction, the whole world, no not one only province. So likewise neither unto any other of the apostles. Notwithstanding certain of them walked through many regions, and other some fewer, preaching and teaching the kingdom of God: as Paul, which laboured and travailed more than all the rest, did corporally visit and convert most provinces; whereby it is lawful for any apostle or his vicar to convert and confirm as much people or as many provinces in the faith of Christ, as they are able, neither is there any restraint of their liberty or jurisdiction, but only by disability or insufficiency.'

"The sixth article 'The apostles and other faithful priests of the Lord have stoutly ruled the church in all things necessary unto salvation, before the office of the pope was brought into the church, and so would they very possibly do still, if there were no pope even unto the latter day.' Then they all cried out again and said, 'Behold the prophet.' But John Huss said, 'Verily it is true that the apostles did rule the church stoutly, before the office of the pope was brought into the church. And certainly a great deal better than it is now ruled. And likewise may other faithful men which do follow their steps do the same; for as now we have no pope, and so peradventure it may continue and endure a year or more.'"

Besides this, were brought against him other nineteen articles, objected unto him being in prison, which, with his answers to the same, here likewise follow. Of the which articles, the first is this:

"The first article: 'Paul, according unto present justice was a blasphemer and none of the church, and therewithal was in grace, according unto predestination of life everlasting.' The answer: This proposition is not in the book, but this which followeth; 'Whereby it doth seem probable, that as Paul was both a blasphemer according to present justice, and therewithal also was a faithful child of our holy mother the church, and in grace, according to predestination of life everlasting; so Iscariot was both in grace according unto present justice, and was never of our holy mother the church, according to the predestination of life everlasting, forasmuch as he lacked that predestination. And so Iscariot, albeit he was an apostle, and a bishop of Christ, which is the name of his office, yet was he never any part of the universal church.'

"The second article: 'Christ doth more love a predestinate man, being sinful, than any reprobate, in what grace possible soever he be.' The answer: My words are, in the fourth chapter of my book entitled Of the Church, 'And it is evident that God doth more love any predestinate, being sinful, than any reprobate, in what grace soever he be for the time; forasmuch as he will, that the predestinate shall have perpetual blessedness, and the reprobate to have eternal fire. Wherefore God partly infinitely loving them both, as his creatures, yet he doth more love the predestinate, because he giveth him greater grace, or a greater gift, that is to say, life everlasting, which is greater and more excellent than only grace, according unto present justice. And the third article of those articles before soundeth much near unto this, that the predestinate cannot fall from grace, for they have a certain radical grace rooted in them, although they be deprived of the abundant grace for a time. These things are true in the compound sense.'

"The third article: 'All the sinful, according unto present justice, are not faithful, but do swerve from the true catholic faith, forasmuch as it is impossible that any man can commit any deadly sin but in that point that he doth swerve from the faith.' The answer: I acknowledge that sentence to be mine, and it appeareth that if they did think upon the punishment which is to be laid upon sinners, and did fully believe, and had the faith of the Divine knowledge and understanding, &c., then undoubtedly they would not so offend and sin. This proposition is verified by the saying of the prophet Isaiah, Thy rulers are unfaithful, misbelievers, fellows and companions of thieves, they all love bribes and follow after rewards. Behold, the prophet calleth the rulers of the church infidels for their offences, for all such as do not keep their faith inviolate unto their principal Lord, are unfaithful servants, and theyalso are unfaithful children which keep not their obedience, fear, and love, unto God their Father.

"Item, this proposition is verified by the saying of the apostle, the first chapter to Titus, They do confess that they know God, but by their works they do deny him. And forasmuch as they which are sinful, do swerve away from the meritorious work of blessedness, therefore they do swerve from the true faith grounded upon charity, forasmuch as faith without works is dead. To this end doth also pertain that which the Lord speaketh, Matthew xxiii., of the faithful and unfaithful servant.

"The fourth article: 'These words of John in his 22nd chapter, Receive the Holy Ghost, and, Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, &c.; and Matthew the 16th and 18th chapters, For lack of understanding shall terrify many Christians, and they shall be wonderfully afraid, and others shall be deceived by them, presuming upon the fulness of their power and authority.' The answer: This sentence I do approve and allow, and therefore I say in the same place, that 'it is first of all to be supposed that the saying of our Saviour is necessary, as touching the virtue of the word, forasmuch as it is not possible for a priest to bind and loose, except that binding and loosing be in heaven. But for the lack of the true understanding of those words, many simple Christians shall be made afraid, thinking with themselves that, whether they be just or unjust, the priests may at their pleasures, whensoever they will, bind them. And the ignorant priests do also presume and take upon them to have power to bind and loose whensoever they will. For many foolish and ignorant priests do say, that they have power and authority to absolve every man confessing himself, of what sin or offence soever it be, not knowing that in many sins it is forbidden them, and that it may happen that a hypocrite do confess himself, or such a one as is not contrite for his sin, whereof proof hath oftentimes been found, and it is evident, forasmuch as the letter doth kill, but the spirit doth quicken.'

"The fifth article: 'The binding and loosing of God, is simply and plainly the chief and principal.' The answer: This is evident, forasmuch as it were blasphemous presumption to affirm, that a man may remit and forgive an evil fact or offence done against such a Lord, the Lord himself not approving or allowing the same. For by the universal power of the Lord, it is necessary that he do first absolve and forgive, before that his vicar do the same; neither is there one article of our faith, which ought to be more common or known unto us, than that it should be impossible for any man of the militant church to absolve or bind, except in such case as it be conformable unto the Head of the church, Jesus Christ. Wherefore every faithful Christian ought to take heed of that saying, If the pope or any other pretend, by any manner of sign, to bind or loose, that he is thereby bound or loosed; for he that doth grant or confess that, must also consequently grant and confess that the pope is without sin, and so that he is a God; for otherwise he must needs err and do contrary unto the keys of Christ. This saying proveth the fact of the pope, who always, in his absolution, presupposeth contrition and confession. Yea, moreover, if any letter of absolution be given unto any offender, which doth not declare the circumstances of the offence which ought to be declared, it is said that thereby the letter of absolution is of no force and effect. It is also hereby evident, that many priests do not absolve those which are confessed, because that either through shamefacedness they do cloak or hide greater offences, or else that they have not due contrition or repentance; for unto true absolution there is, first, required contrition; secondly, a purpose and intent to sin no more; thirdly, true confession; and fourthly, stedfast hope of forgiveness. The first appeareth by Ezekiel, If the wicked do repent him, &c. The second in the 5th and 8th of John, Do thou not sin any more. The third part by this place of Luke, Show yourselves unto the priests. And the fourth is confirmed by the saying of Christ, My son, believe, and thy sins are forgiven thee. I also added many other probations in my treatise out of the holy fathers, Augustine, Jerome, and the master of the sentences.

"The sixth article: 'The priests do gather and heap up out of the Scriptures those things which serve for the belly, but such as pertain to the true imitation and following of Christ, that they reject and refuse, as impertincnt unto salvation.' The answer: This St. Gregory doth sufficiently prove in his 17th Homily, alleging the saying of Christ, The harvest is great, the workmen are few; speaking also that which we cannot say without grief or sorrow, that 'albeit there be a great number which willingly hear good things, yet there lack such as should declare the same unto them; for behold, the world is full of priests, but notwithstanding there is a scarcity of workmen in the harvest of the Lord. We take upon us willingly priesthood, but we do not fulfil and do the works and office of priesthood.' And immediately after he saith, 'We are fallen unto outward affairs and business, for we take upon us one office for honour sake, and we do exhibit and give another to ease ourselves of labour. We leave preaching, and, as far as I can perceive, we are called bishops to our pain, which do retain the name of honour, but not the verity.'

"And immediately after he saith, 'We take no care for our flock, we daily call upon for our stipend and wages, we covet and desire earthly things with a greedy mind, we gape after worldly glory, we leave the cause of God undone, and make haste about our worldly affairs and business; we take upon us the place of sanctity and holiness, and we are wholly wrapped in worldly cares and troubles,' &c. This writeth St. Gregory, with many other things more in the same place; also in his Pastoral, in his Morals, and in his Register. Also St. Bernard, as in many other places, so likewise in his 33rd sermon upon the Canticles, he saith, 'All friends, and all enemies, all kinsfolks, and adversaries, all of one household, and no peacemakers; they are the ministers of Christ, and serve antichrist; they go honourably honoured with the goods of the Lord, and yet they do honour,' &c.

"The seventh article: 'The power of the pope, which doth follow Christ, is not to be feared.' The answer: It is not so in my treatise, but contrariwise, 'that the subjects are bound willingly and gladly to obey the virtuous and good rulers, and also those which are wicked and evil. But, notwithstanding, if the pope do abuse his power, it is not then to be feared as by bondage. And so the lords, the cardinals, as I suppose, did not fear the power of Gregory the Twelfth before his deposition, when they resisted him, saying, that he did abuse his power contrary unto his own oath.'

"The eighth article: 'An evil and a wicked pope is not the successor of Peter, but of Judas.' The answer: I wrote this in my treatise; 'If the pope be humble and meek, neglecting and despising the honours and lucre of the world; if he be a shepherd, taking his name by the feeding of the flock of God; (of the which feeding the Lord speaketh, saying, Feed my sheep;) if he feed the sheep with the word, and with virtuous example, and that he become even like his flock with his whole heart and mind; if he do diligently and carefully labour and travail for the church; then is he without doubt the true vicar of Christ. But if he walk contrary unto these virtues, forasmuch as there as no society between Christ and Belial, and Christ himself saith, He that is not with me is against me, how is he then the true vicar of Christ or Peter, and not rather the vicar of antichrist? Christ called Peter himself Satanas, when he did contrary him but only in one word, and that with a good affection, even him whom he had chosen his vicar, and specially appointed over his church. Why should not any other then, being more contrary unto Christ, be truly called Satanas, and consequently antichrist, or at least the chief and principal minister or vicar of antichrist? There be infinite testimonies of this matter in St. Augustine, St. Jerome, Cyprian, Chrysostom, Bernard, Gregory, Remigius, and Ambrose, &c.

"The ninth article: 'The pope is the same beast of whom it is spoken in the Apocalypse, Power is given unto him to make war upon the saints.' The answer: I deny this article to be in my book.

"The tenth article: 'It is lawful to preach, notwithstanding the pope's inhibition.' The answer: The article is evident, forasmuch as the apostles did preach contrary to the commandment of the bishops of Jerusalem. And St. Hilary did the like, contrary to the commandment of the pope, which was an Arian. It is also manifest by the example of cardinals, which, contrary unto the commandment of Pope Gregory the Twelfth, sent throughout all realms such as should preach against him. It is also lawful to preach under appeal, contrary unto the pope's commandment. And finally, he may preach which hath the commandment of God, whereunto he ought chiefly to obey.

"The eleventh article: 'If the pope's commandment be not concordant and agreeable with the doctrine of the gospel or the apostles, it is not to be obeyed.' The answer: I have thus written in my book; 'The faithful disciple of Christ ought to weigh and consider whether the pope's commandment be expressly and plainly the commandment of Christ or any of his apostles, or whether it have any foundation or ground in their doctrine or no; and that being once known or understood, he ought reverently and humbly to obey the same. But if he do certainly know that the pope's commandment is contrary and against the Holy Scripture, and hurtful unto the church, then he ought boldly to resist against it, that he be not partaker of the crime and offence by consenting thereunto.' This I have handled at large in my treatise, and have confirmed it by the authorities of St. Augustine, Jerome, Gregory, Chrysostom, Bernard, and Bede, and with the Holy Scripture and canons, the which for brevity's cause I do here pass over. I will only rehearse the saying of St. Isidore, who writeth thus: 'He which doth rule, and doth say or command any thing contrary and besides the will of God, or that which is evidently commanded in the Scriptures, he is honoured as a false witness of God, and a church robber. Whereupon we are bounden to obey no prelate, but in such case as he do command or take counsel of the counsels and commandments of Christ.'

"Likewise St. Augustine upon this saying, upon the chair of Moses, &c., saith, 'Secondly, they teach in the chair of Moses the law of God; ergo, God teacheth by them: but if they will teach you any of their own inventions, do not give ear unto them, neither do as they command you. Also in the saying of Christ, He that heareth you, heareth me, all lawful and honest things be comprehended, in the which we ought to be obedient, according to Christ's saying, It is not you which do speak, but the Spirit of my Father which speaketh in you. Let, therefore, my adversaries and slanderers learn, that there be not only twelve counsels in the gospel, in the which subjects ought to obey Christ and his appointed ministers; but that there are so many counscls and determinations of God, as there be lawful and honest things joined with precepts and commandments of God, binding us thereunto, under the pain of deadly sin; for every such thing doth the Lord command us to fulfil in time and place, with other circumstances, at the will and pleasure of their minister.

"The twelfth article: 'It is lawful for the clergy and laity, by their power and jurisdiction, to judge and determine of all things pertaining unto salvation, and also the works of the prelates.' The answer: I have thus written in my book; 'That it is lawful for the clergy and laity to judge and determine of the works of their heads and rulers.' It appeareth by this, that the judgment of the secret counsels of God in the court of conscience is one thing, and the judgment of the authority and power in the church is another. Wherefore subjects, first, ought principally to judge and examine themselves, 1 Cor. xi. Secondly, they ought to examine all things which pertain unto their salvation, for a spiritual man judgeth and examineth all things. And this is alleged as touching the first judgment, and not the second, as the enemy doth impute it unto me. Whereupon in the same place I do say, that the layman ought to judge and examine the works of his prelate, like as Paul doth judge the doings of Peter in blaming him. Secondly, to avoid them, according to this saying, Beware of false prophets," &c. Thirdly, to rule over the minister: for the subject ought by reason to judge and examine the works of the prelates. And if they be good, to praise God therefore and rejoice; but if they be evil, they ought with paticnce to suffer them, and to be sorry for them, but not to do the like, lest they be damned with them, according to this saying, If the blind lead the blind, both fall into the ditch.

"The thirteenth article: 'God doth suspend of himself every wicked prelate from his ministry, while he is actually in sin, for by that means that he is in deadly sin, he doth offend and sin, whatsoever he do, and consequently is forbidden so to do; therefore also is he suspended from his ministry:' The answer: This is proved as touching suspension from dignity, by Hosea the 4th chapter, and Isaiah, and Malachi the 1st. And Paul, in the First to the Corinthians, the 11th chapter, suspendeth all such as be sinful, or in any grievous crime or offence, from the eating of the body of the Lord, and the drinking of his blood; and consequently suspendeth all sinful prelates from the ministration of the reverend sacrament. And God doth suspend the wicked and sinful from the declaration of his righteousness, Psal. xlix. Forasmuch then as to suspend in effect, is to prohibit the ministry or any other good thing for the offence sake, or, as the new laws do determine or call it, to interdict or forbid: it is manifest by the Scriptures afore rehearsed, that God doth prohibit the sinful, being in sin, to exercise or use their ministry or office, which by God's commandment ought to be exercised without offence. Whereupon he saith by Isaiah the prophet, Ye that carry the vessels of the Lord, be ye cleansed and made clean. And to the Corinthians it is said, Let all things be done with love and charity, &c. The same thing also is commanded by divers and sundry canons, the which I have alleged in my treatise.

"The fourteenth article. The answer which he made to the five and twentieth article in prison sufficeth for this, that is to say, that the clergy, for their own preferment and exaltation, doth supplant and undermine the lay-people, doth increase and multiply their covetousness, cloaketh and defendeth their malice and wickedness, and prepareth a way for antichrist.

"The first part be proveth by experience, by the example of Peter de Luna, which named himself Benedict, by the example of Angelus Coriarius, which named himself Gregory the Twelfth, and also by the example of John the Twenty-third. Likewise by the 13th and 24th of Ezekiel, and out of Gregory, which saith, 'What shall become of the flock, when the shepherds themselves are become wolves,' &c. Also out of Hosea, Michael, and other of the prophets, and many places of St. Bernard.

"The second part is proved by the 8th chapter of Jeremiah, Gregory in his seventeenth Homily, and St. Bernard upon the Canticles.

"The third part of this article is also proved by experience; for who defendeth the wickedness of any schism but only the clergy, alleging Scriptures, and bringing reasons therefore? Who excuseth simony, but only the clergy? likewise covetousness in heaping together many benefices, luxuriousness, and fornication? for how many of the clergy are there now-a-days which do say it is no deadly sin, alleging (albeit disorderly) the saying of Genesis, Increase and multiply!

"Hereby also is the fourth part of the article easily verified. For the way of antichrist is wickedness and sin, of the which the apostle speaketh to the Thessalonians; Gregory, in his Register, Pastoral, and Morals; also St. Bernard upon the Canticles plainly saith, 'Wicked and evil priests prepare the way for antichrist.'

"The fifteenth article: 'John Huss doth openly teach and affirm that these conclusions aforesaid are true.' The answer is manifest by that which I have before written. For some of these propositions I did write and publish, other some mine enemy did feign, now adding, then diminishing and taking away, now falsely ascribing and imputing the whole proposition unto me, the which thing the commissioners themselves did confess before me. Whom I desired, for the false invention and feigning of those articles, that they would punish those, whom they themselves knew and confessed to be mine enemies.

"The sixteenth article. Hereby also it appeareth, that it is not true which they have affirmed in the article following, that is to say, that all the aforesaid conclusions be false, erroneous, seditious, and such as do weaken and make feeble the power and strength of the church, invented contrary to the Holy Scriptures and the church. But if there be any such, I am ready most humbly to revoke and recant the same.

"The seventeenth article. There was also an objection made against me as touching the treatises which I wrote against Paletz and Stanislaus de Znoyma. The which I desired for God's sake they might be openly read in the audience of the whole council, and said that I, notwithstanding my former protestation, would willingly submit myself to the judgment of the whole council.

"The eighteenth article. There was also another article objected against me in this form: 'Item, John Huss said and preached that he should go to Constance, and if so be that for any manner of cause he should he forced to recant that he had before taught, yet, notwithstanding, he never purposed to do it with his mind; forasmuch as whatsoever he had before taught was pure and true, and the sound doctrine of Christ.' The answer: This article is full of lies, to the inventor whereof I suppose the Lord saith thus, All the day long thou hast imagined mischief and wickedness, and with thy tongue, as with a sharp razor, thou hast wrought deceit; thou hast delighted and loved rather to talk of wickedn ss and mischief than of equity and justice. Verily, I do grant, that I left behind me a certain epistle to be read unto the people, the which did contain that all such, as did weigh and consider my careful labours and travails, should pray for me, and stedfastly persevere and continue in the doctrine of our Lord Jesus Christ, knowing for a certainty that I never taught them any such errors as mine enemies do impute or ascribe unto me; and if it should happen that I were overcome by false witness, they should not be vexed or troubled in their minds, but stedfastly continue in the truth.'

"The nineteenth article. Last it was objected against me, that after I was come into Constance, I did write unto the kingdom of Bohemia, that 'the pope and emperor received me honourably, and sent unto me two bishops to make agreement between me and them; and that this seemeth to be written by me to this end and purpose, that they should confirm and establish me and my hearers in the errors which I had preached and taught in Bohemia.' This article is falsely alleged even from the beginning. For how manifestly false should I have written that the pope and the emperor did honour me, when otherwise I have written before that as yet we knew not where the emperor was? And before the emperor himself came unto Constance, I was by the space of three weeks in prison. And to write that I was honoured by my imprisonment, the people of the kingdom of Bohemia would repute the honour as no great renown and glory unto me. Howbeit, mine enemies may in derision say unto me, that according to their wills and pleasures I am exalted and honoured. Wherefore this article is wholly throughout false and untrue."

Unto these articles above prefixed were other articles also to be annexed, which the Parisians had drawn out against Master John Huss, to the number of nineteen. The chief author whereof was John Gerson, chancellor of the university of Paris, a great setter-on of the pope against good men. Of these articles John Huss doth often complain in his epistles, that he had no time nor space to make answer unto them. Which articles being falsely collected and wrongfully depraved, although John Huss had no time to answer unto them, yet I thought it not unfit here to set them down for the reader to see and judge.

"The first article: 'No reprobate is true pope, lord, or prelate.' The error is in the faith, and behaviour, and manners, being both of late and many times before condemned, as well against the poor men of Lyons, as also against the Waldenses and Picards. The affirmation of which error is temerarious, seditious, offensive, and pernicious, and tending to the subversion of all human policy and governance, forasmuch as no man knoweth whether he be worthy of love or hatred, for that all men do offend in many points, and thereby should all rule and dominion be made uncertain and unstable, if it should be founded upon predestination and charity:neither should the commandment of Peter have been good, which willeth all servants to be obedient unto their masters and lords, although they be wicked.

"The second article: 'That no man being in deadly sin, whereby he is no member of Christ, but of the devil, is true pope, prelate, lord.' The error of this is like unto the first.

"The third article: 'No reprobate or otherwise being in deadly sin, sitteth in the apostolic seat of Peter, neither hath any apostolical power over the Christian people.' This error is also like unto the first.

"The fourth article: 'No reprobates are of the church, neither likewise any which do not follow the life of Christ.' This error is against the common understanding of the doctors, concerning the church.

"The fifth article: 'They only are of the church, and sit in Peter's seat, and have apostolic power, which follow Christ and his apostles in their life and living.' The error hereof is in faith and manners, as in the first article, but containing more arrogancy and rashness.

"The sixth article: 'That every man which liveth uprightly according to the rule of Christ, may and ought openly to preach and teach, although he be not sent, yea, although he be forbidden or excommunicate by any prelate or bishop, even as he might and ought to give alms; for his good life in living together with his learning doth sufficiently send him.'

"This is a rash and temerarious error, offensive and tending to the confusion of the whole ecclesiastical hierarchy.

"The seventh article: 'That the pope of Rome being contrary unto Christ, is not the universal bishop, neither hath the Church of Rome any supremacy over other churches, except peradventure it be given unto him of Cæsar, and not of Christ.' An error lately and plainly reproved.

"The eighth article: 'That the pope ought not to be called most holy, neither that his feet are holy and blessed, or that they ought to be kissed.' This error is temerarious, unreverently and offensively published.

"The ninth article: 'That according unto the doctrine of Christ, heretics, be they never so obstinate or stubborn, ought not to be put to death, neither to be accursed or excommunicated.' This is the error of the Donatists, temerariously, and not without great offence, affirmed against the laws of the ecclesiastical discipline, as St. Augustine doth prove.

"The tenth article: 'That subjects and the common people may and ought publicly and openly to detect and reprove the vices of their superiors and rulers, as having power given them of Christ, and example of St. Paul so to do.' This error is pernicious, full of offence, inducing all rebellion, disobedience, and sedition, and the curse and malediction of Ham.

"The eleventh article: 'That Christ only is Head of the church, and not the pope.' It is an error according unto the common understanding of the doctors, if all the reason of the supremacy, and of being head, be secluded and taken away from the pope.

"The twelfth article: 'That the only church, which comprehendeth the predestinate and good livers, is the universal church, whereunto subjects do owe obedience.' And this is consequent unto the former article. The error is contained as in the former articles.

"The thirteenth article: 'That tithes and oblations, given unto the church, are public and common alms.' This error is offensive, and contrary to the determination of the apostle, 1 Cor. ix.

"The fourteenth article: 'That the clergy, living wickedly, ought to be reproved and corrected by the lay-people, by the taking away of their tithes and other temporal profits.' A most pernicious error, and offensive, inducing the secular people to perpetrate sacrilege, subverting the ecclesiastical liberty.

"The fifteenth article: 'That the blessings of such as are reprobate or evil livers of the clergy are maledictions and cursings before God, according to the saying, I will curse your blessings.' This error was lately reproved of St. Augustine, against St. Cyprian and his followers, neither is the master of the sentences allowed of the masters in that point that he seemeth to favour this article.

"The sixteenth article: 'That in these days, and in long time before, there hath been no true pope, no true church, or faith, which is called the Romish Church, whereunto a man ought to obey, but that it both was and is the synagogue of antichrist and Satan.' The error in this article is in this point, that it is derived, and taketh his foundation, upon the former articles.

"The seventeenth article: 'That all gift of money given unto the ministers of the church, for the ministration of any spiritual matter, doth make such ministers in that case users of simony.' This error is seditious and temerarious, forasmuch as something may be given unto the clergy, under the title of sustentation or maintaining the minister, without the selling or buying of any spiritual thing. "The eighteenth article: 'That whosoever is excommunicate of the pope, if he appeal unto Christ, he is preserved that he need not fear the excommunication, but may utterly contemn and despise the same.' This error is temerarious and full of arrogancy.

"The nineteenth article: 'That every deed done without charity is sin.' This error was reproved and revoked before this time at Paris, especially if it be understood of deadly sin; for it is not necessary that he which lacketh grace should continually sin and offend anew, albeit he be continually in sin."

Reasons and determinations of the masters of Paris.

"We affirm that these articles aforesaid are notoriously heretical, and that they are judicially to be condemned for such, and diligently to be rooted out with their most seditious doctrines, lest they do infect others. For albeit they seem to have a zeal against the vices of the prelates and the clergy, the which (the more is the pity and grief) do but too much abound, yet is it not according unto learning; for a sober and discreet zeal suffereth and lamenteth those sins and offences, which he seeth in the house of God, that he cannot amend or take away; for vices cannot be rooted out and taken away by other vices and errors, forasmuch as devils are not cast out through Beelzebub, but by the power of God, which is the Holy Ghost, who willeth that in correction the measure and mean of prudence be always kept, according to the saying, Mark who, what, where, and why, by what means, and when, prelates and bishops are bound, under grievous and express penalties of the law, diligently and vigilantly to bear themselves against the aforesaid errors and such other like, and the maintainers of them; for let it always be understood and noted, that the error which is not resisted is allowed, neither is there any doubt of privy affinity or society of him, which slacketh to withstand a manifest mischief.

"These things are intermeddled by the way under correction, as by way of doctrine."

These things thus declared, a man may easily understand, that John Huss was not accused for holding any opinion contrary to the articles of our faith, but because he did stoutly preach and teach against the kingdom of antichrist, for the glory of Christ, and the restoring of the church.

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