110. THE BOHEMIANS RESIST THE POPE
And now, from our English matters, to return again to the story of the Bohemians, from whence we have a little digressed. When the news of the barbarous cruelty exercised at Constance against John Huss and Jerome of Prague, were noised in Bohemia, the nobles and gentlemen of Moravia and Bohemia, such as favoured the cause of John Huss, gathering themselves together in the zeal of Christ, first sent their letter unto the council, expostulating with them for the injury done to those godly men, as is before expressed: for the which letter they were all cited up to the council. Unto this letter Sigismund, the emperor, maketh answer again in the name of the whole council; first, excusing himself of John Huss's death, which he said was against his safe-conduct, and against his will; insomuch that he rose in anger from the council, and departed out of Constance, as is before remembered. Secondly, he requireth them to be quiet, and to conform themselves peaceably unto the order of the catholic Church of Rome, &c.
Also the council, hearing or fearing some stir to rise among the Bohemians, did make laws and articles whereby to bridle them, to the number of twenty-four.
"First, That the king of Bohemia shall be sworn to give obedience and to defend the liberties of the Church of Rome.
"That all masters, doctors; and priests shall be sworn to abjure the doctrine of Wickliff and Huss, in that council condemned.
"That all they which, being cited, would not appear, should also be sworn to abjure; and they. which would not appear, contemning the censure of the keys, should have process against them, and be punished.
"That all such laymen as had defended the causes of John Wickliff and John Huss, should swear to defend them no more, and to approve the doings of that council, and the condemnation of John Huss.
"That all such secular men as had spoiled the clergy should be sworn to restitution.
"That priests, being expelled from their benefices, should be restored again.
"That all profaners of churches should be punished after the canonical sanctions.
"That such as had been promoters in the council against John Huss, should be permitted safely to return into Bohemia again, and to enjoy their benefices.
"That the relics and treasure, taken out of the church of Prague, should be restored fully again.
"That the university of Prague should be restored again and reformed, and that they which had been the disturbers thereof should be really punished.
"That the principal heretics and doctors of that sect should be sent up to the see apostolic, namely, Johannes Jessenetz, Jacobellus de Misna, Simon de Tysna, Simon de Rochinzano, Christians de Brachatitz, Johannes Cardinalis, Zdenko de Loben, the provost of Allhallows, Zaislaus de Suiertitz, and Michael de Czisko.
"That all secular men, which communicated under both kinds, should abjure that heresy, and swear to stop the same hereafter.
"That they which were ordained priests by the suffragan of the archbishop of Prague, taken by the Lord Zencho, should not be dispensed with, but sent up to the see apostolic.
"That the treatises of John Wickliff, translated into the Bohemian tongue by John Huss and Jacobellus, should be brought to the ordinary. "That the treatises of John Huss, condemned in the council, should also be brought to the ordinary.
"That all the tractations of Jacobellus, wherein he calleth the pope antichrist, should likewise be brought and burned.
"That all songs and ballads, made to the prejudice of the council, and of the catholic persons of both states, should be forbid to be sung in cities, towns, and villages, under great and extreme punishment.
"That none should preach the word without the licence of the ordinary, or of the parson of that place.
"That all and singular, either spiritual or secular, that shall preach, teach, hold, or maintain the opinions and articles of John Wickliff, John Huss, and Jerome, in this council condemned, and convicted of the same, shall be holden for heretics, and falling in relapse shall be burned," &c.
The Bohemians, notwithstanding these cruel articles, contemning the vain devices of these prelates and fathers of the council, ceased not to proceed in their league and purpose begun, joining themselves more strongly together.
In this mean time it happened, that during this council of Constance, after the deposing of Pope John, and spoiling of his goods, which came to seventy-five thousand pounds of gold and silver, as is reported in the story of St. Alban's, Pope Martin, upon the day of St. Martin, was elected. Concerning whose election great preparation was made before of the council, so that beside the cardinals, five other bishops of every nation should enter into the conclave, who there together should be kept with thin diet, till they had founded a pope. At last, when they were together, they agreed upon this man, and not tarrying for opening the door, like mad-men for haste, they burst open a hole in the wall, crying out, We have a Martin pope. The emperor hearing thereof, with the like haste came apace, and falling down kissed the new pope's feet. Then went they all to the church together, and sang Te Deum.
Illustration -- The Emperor Kissing Pope Martin's feet
The next day following, this Martin was made priest, (which before was but a cardinal deacon,) and the next day after was consecrated bishop, and sang his first mass, whereat was present one hundred and forty mitred bishops. After this, the next morrow the new holy pope ordained a general procession, where a certain clerk was appointed to stand with flax and fire; who setting this flax on fire, thus said, "Behold, holy father, thus fadeth the transitory glory of this world." Which done, the same day the holy father was brought up unto a high scaffold, (saith the story,) I will not say to a high mountain, where was offered to him all the glory of the world, &c., there to be crowned for a triple king. This done, the same day, after dinner, the new-crowned pope was with great triumph brought through the midst of the city of Constance, where all the bishops and abbots followed with their mitres. The pope's horse was all trapped with red scarlet down to the ground. The cardinals' horses were all in white silk; the emperor on the right side, and prince elector on the left, (playing both the pope's footmen,) went on foot, leading the pope's horse by the bridle.
As this pageant thus with the great giant proceeded, and came to the market-place, there the Jews (according to the manner) offered to him their law and ceremonies.; which the pope receiving cast behind him, saying, Let old things pass, all things be made new, &c. This was A. D. 1417.
Thus the pope, being now confirmed in his kingdom, first beginneth to write his letters to the Bohemians, wherein partly he moveth them to catholic obedience, partly he dissembleth with them, feigning that if it were not for the emperor's request, he would enter process against them. Thirdly and finally, he threateneth to attempt the uttermost against them, and with all force to invade them, as well with the apostolical, as also with the secular arm, if they did still persist as they began.
Albeit, these new threats of the new bishop did nothing move the constant hearts of the Bohemians, whom the inward zeal of Christ's word had before inflamed.
And although it had been to be wished such bloodshed and wars not to have followed, yet, to say the truth, how could these rabbins greatly blame them herein, whom their bloody tyranny had before provoked so unjustly, if now with their glosing letters they could not so easily appease them again?
Wherefore these aforesaid Bohemians, partly for the love of John Huss and Jerome their countrymen, partly for the hatred of their malignant papistry, assembling together, first agreed to celebrate a solemn memorial of the death of John Huss and Jerome, decreeing the same to be holden and celebrated yearly. And afterward, by means of their friends, they obtained certain churches of the king, wherein they might freely preach and minister the sacraments unto the congregation. This done, they suppressed divers monasteries, pharisaical temples, and idolatrous fanes, beginning first with the great monastery of the Black Friars, eight miles from Prague, driving away the wicked and vicious priests and monks out of them, or compelling them unto a better order. And thus their number more and more increasing under the safe-conduct of a certain nobleman named Nicholas, they went again unto the king, requiring to have more and ampler churches granted unto them. The king seemed at the first willingly and gently to give ear unto the said Nicholas entreating for the people, and commanding them to come again the next day.
When the people were departed, the king, turning himself to the nobleman Nicholas, which tarried still behind, said, "Thou hast begun a web to put me out of my kingdom, but I will make a rope of it, wherewithal I will hang thee." Whereupon he immediately departed out of the king's presence, and the king himself went into the castle of Vissegrade, within a while after, into a new castle, which he himself had builded five stones' cast from thence, sending ambassadors to his brother to require aid.
These protestants being assembled in the town of Prague, holding their conventions, the king sent forth his chamberlain with three hundred horsemen to run upon them; but he having respect unto his life, fled. When news thereof was brought unto the king, all that were about him being amazed, utterly detested the fact; but the king's cupbearer standing by, said, "I knew before that these things would thus come to pass." Whom the king in a rage, taking hold of, threw him down before his feet, and with a dagger would have slain him; but being letted by such as were about him, with much ado he pardoned him his life. Immediately the king being taken with a palsy fell sick, and within eighteen days after, when he had marked the names of such whom he had appointed to be put to death, incessantly calling for aid of his brother, and other his friends, he departed this life before the princes which he had sent unto were come with aid, when he had reigned five and fifty years, and was about the age of seven and fifty years.
The story of Zisca.
Illustration -- Zisca Destroying the Images
Immediately after the death of Wenceslaus, there was a certain nobleman named Zisca, born at Trosnovia, which, from his youth upward was brought up in the king's court, and had lost one of his eyes in a battle, whereat he had valiantly borne himself. This man being sore grieved for the death of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, minding to revenge the injuries which the council had done, greatly to the dishonour of the kingdom of Bohemia, upon their accomplices and adherents; he gathered together a number of men of war, and subverted the monasteries and idolatrous temples, pulling down and breaking in pieces the images and idols, driving away the priests and monks, which he said were kept up in their cloisters, like swine in their sties, to be fatted. After this his army being increased, having gathered together about forty thousand men, he attempted to take the castle of Vissegrade, which was but slenderly warded. From thence the said Zisca, under the conduct of Coranda, went speedily unto Pilsen, where he knew he had many friends of his faction, and took the town into his power, fortifying the same very strongly, and those which tarried behind, took the castle of Vissegrade.
Then the Queen Sophia, being very careful, sent letters and messengers unto the Emperor Sigismund, and other nobles adjoined unto her, requiring aid and help; but the emperor made preparation against the Turk, which had then lately won certain castles of him. Whereupon the queen, seeing all aid so far off, together with Zencho Warterberge, gathered an host with the king's treasure, and fortified the castle of Prague, and the lesser city which joineth unto the castle, making gates and towers ofwood upon the bridge over the river Multaine, to stop that the protestants should have no passage that way. Then it happened that, at the Isle of St. Benedict, one Peter Steremberge fought an equal or indifferent battle with them.
In the mean time, the number of the protestants being increased in Prague, they fought for the bridge. In which battle many were slain on both parts, but at the length the Hussites won the bridge, and the nether part of lesser Prague, the queen's part flying into the upper part thereof; where they, turning again fiercely, renewed the battle, and fought continually day and night by the space of five days. Many were slain on both parts, and goodly buildings were razed, and the council-house, which was in a low place, was utterly defaced and burned.
During the time of this troublous estate, the ambassadors of the Emperor Sigismund were come, which, taking upon them the rule and governance of the realm, made a truce, or league, with the city of Prague, under this condition, that the castle of Vissegrade being rendered, it should be lawful for them to send ambassadors to the Emperor Sigismund to treat as touching their estate, and that Zisca should render Pilsen and Piesta, with the other forts which he had taken. These conditions thus agreed upon and received, all the foreign protestants departed out of the city, and the senate of the city began to govern again according to their accustomed manner, and all things were quieted. Howbeit, the papists which were gone out of the town durst not return again, but still looked for the emperor, by whose presence they thought they should have been safe. But this their hope was frustrated, by means of certain letters which were sent from the emperor, wherein it was written, that he would shortly come and rule the kingdom, even after the same order and manner as his father, Charles, had done before him. Whereupon the protestants understood that their sect and religion should be utterly banished, which was not begun during the reign of the said Charles.
About Christmas the Emperor Sigismund came to Brunna, a city of Moravia, and there he pardoned the citizens of Prague, under condition that they would let down the chains and bars of the city, and receive his rulers and magistrates. Whereunto the whole city obeyed, and the magistrates thereof, lifting up their hands unto heaven, rejoiced at the coming of the new king. But the emperor turned another way, and went unto Uratislavia, the head city of Silesia, where a little before the commonalty of the city had slain, in an insurrection, the magistrates, which his brother Wenceslaus had set in authority, the principals whereof he beheaded. The news whereof, when they were reported at Prague, the citizens being feared by the examples of the Uratislavians, distrusting their pardon, rebelled out of hand, and having obtained Zencho, on their part, which had the government of the castle of Prague, they sent letters into all the realm, that no man should suffer the emperor to enter, which was an enemy unto Bohemia, and sought nothing else but to destroy the kingdom; which also bound the ancient city of the Prutenians under order by pledges, and put the marquis of Brandenburg from the Bohemian crown; and had not only suffered John Huss and Jerome of Prague to be burnt at the council of Constance, but also procured the same, and, with all his endeavour, did impugn the doctrine and faith which they taught and followed. Whilst these things were thus done, Zisca, having given over Pilsen by composition, was twice assaulted by his enemies, but through policy he was always victor. The places were they fought were rough and unknown, his enemies were on horseback, and all his soldiers on foot, neither could there be any battle fought but on foot. Whereupon, when his enemies were alighted from their horses, Zisca commanded the women which customably followed the host, to cast their kerchiefs upon the ground, wherein the horsemen, being entangled by their spurs, were slain before they could unloose their feet.
After this, he went unto Ausca, a town situate upon the river Lucinitius, out of which town Procopius and Ulricius, two brethren papists, had cast out many protestants. This town Zisca took, by force of arms, the first night of Lent, razed it, and set it on fire. He also took the castle of Litius, which was a mile off, whither Ulricius was fled, and put Ulricius and all his family to the sword, saving one only.
Then forasmuch as he had no walled or fenced town to inhabit, he chose out a certain place upon the same river, which was fenced by nature, about eight miles from the city of Ausca. This place he compassed in with walls, and commanded every man to build them houses, where they had pitched their tents, and named this city Tabor, and the inhabitants, his companions, Taborites, because their city by all like, was builded upon the top of some hill or mount. This city, albeit it was fenced with high rocks and cliffs, yet was it compassed with a wall and outwork, and the river of Lucinitius fenceth a great part of the town; the rest is compassed in with a great brook, the which running straight into the river Lucinitius, is stopped by a great rock, and driven back towards the right hand all the length of the city, and at the further end it joineth with the great river. The way unto it by land is scarce thirty foot broad, for it is almost an island. In this place there was a deep ditch cast, and a triple wall made, of such thickness, that it could not be broken with any engine. The wall [was] full of towers and forts set in their convenient and meet places. Zisca was the first that builded the castle, and those that came after him fortified it, every man according to his own device. At that time the Taborites had no horsemen amongst them, until such time as Nicholas, master of the mint, (whom the emperor had sent into Bohemia with a thousand horsemen to set things in order, and to withstand the Taborites, lodging all night in a village named Vogize,) was surprised by Zisca coming upon him suddenly in the night, taking away all his horse and armour, and setting fire upon the village. Then Zisca taught his soldiers to mount on horseback, to leap, to run, to turn, and to cast a ring, so that after this he never led army without his wings of horsemen.
In this mean time Sigismund, the emperor, gathering together the nobles of Silesia, entered into Bohemia, and went unto Grecium, and from thence with a great army unto Cuthna, alluring Zencho with many great and large promises to render up the castle of Prague unto him, and there placed him to annoy the town. This Zencho, infamed with double treason, returned home. The citizens of Prague sent for Zisca, who, speeding himself thither with the Taborites, received the city under his governance. In the Bohemians' host there were but only two barons, Hilco Crusina of Lutemperg, and Hilco Waldestene, with a few other nobles. All the residue were of the common people. They went about first to subdue the castle, which was by nature very strongly fenced, and could not be won by any other means than with famine; whereupon all the passages were stopped, that no victuals should be carried in. But the emperor opened the passages by dint of sword; and when he had given unto them which were besieged all things necessary, having sent for aid out of the empire, he determined shortly after to besiege the city. There were in the emperor's camp the dukes of Saxony, the marquis of Brandenburg, and his son-in-law Albert of Austria. The city was assaulted by the space of six weeks.. The Emperor Sigismund was crowned in the metropolitan house in the castle, Conradus the archbishop solemnizing the ceremonies of the coronation. The city was straitly besieged. In the mean time the captains, Rosenses and Chragery, which had taken the tents of the Taborites, being overcome in battle by Nicholas Huss, whom Zisca had sent with part of his power for that purpose, were driven out of their tents, and Grecium, the queen's city, was also taken.
There is also above the town of Prague a high hill, which is called Videchon. On this hill had Zisca strongly planted a garrison, that his enemies should not possess it, with whom the marquis of Misnia skirmishing, lost a great part of his soldiers. For when the Misnians had gotten the top of the hill, being driven back into a corner, which was broken and steep, and fiercely set upon, when they could no longer withstand the violent force of their enemies, some of them were slain, and some falling headlong from the hill were destroyed. Whereupon the Emperor Sigismund, raising his siege, departed into Cuthna, and Zisca with his company departed unto Thabor, and subdued many places; amongst which he subverted a town pertaining to the captain of Vissegrade. During this time the castle of Vissegrade was strongly besieged, where, when other victuals wanted, they were compelled to eat horse-flesh. Last of all, except the emperor did aid them by a certain day, they promised to yield it up, but under this condition, that if the emperor did come, they within the castle should be no more molested.
The emperor was present before the day, but being ignorant of the truce taken, entering into astrait underneath the castle, was suddenly set upon by the soldiers of Prague, where he had a great overthrow, and so leaving his purpose unperformed, returned back again. There were slain in that conflict fourteen noblemen of the Moravians, and of the Hungarians, and other a great number. The castle was delivered up unto them. Whilst these things were in doing, Zisca took Boslaus, a captain, which was surnamed Cigneus, by force, in a very strong town of his, and brought him unto his religion; who, a few years after, leading the protestants' host in Austria, was wounded before Rhetium, and died. There were in the territory of Pilsen many monasteries, of the which Zisca subverted and burned five. And forasmuch as the monastery of St. Clare was the strongest, there he pitched himself.
Thither also came the emperor with his army; but when Zisca brought forth his power against him, he most cowardly fled; and not long after, he departed and left Bohemia. Then Zisca went with his army unto Pilsen; but forasmuch as he saw the city so fenced, that he was in doubt of winning the same, he went from thence to Commitavia, a famous city, the which he took by force, burning all the priests therein.
Afterward, when he lay before the town of Raby, and strongly besieged the same, he was stricken with a shaft in the eye, having but that one before to see withal. From thence he was carried to Prague by physicians, where he being cured of his wound, and his life saved, yet he lost his sight, and for all that he would not forsake his army, but still took the charge of them.
After this the garrisons of Prague went unto Verona, where there was a great garrison of the emperor's, and took it by force, many being slain of either part. They also took the town of Broda in Germany, and slew the garrison, and afterward took Cuthna and many other cities by composition. Further, when they led their army unto a town called Pons, which is inhabited of the Misnians, the Saxons meeting them by the way, because they durst not join battle, they returned back. After all this, the emperor appointed the princes electors a day, that at Bartholomewtide they should with their army invade the west part of Bohemia; and he with a host of Hungarians would enter into the east part. There came unto his aid the archbishop of Mentz, the county Palatine of Rhine, the dukes of Saxony, the marquis of Brandenburg, and many other bishops out of Almaine; all the rest sent their aids. They encamped before the town of Sozius, a strong and well-fenced place, which they could by no means subdue. The country was spoiled and wasted round about, and the siege continued until the feast of St. Galle. Then it was broken up, because the emperor was not come at his day appointed: but he having gathered together a great army of the Hungarians, and west Moravians, about Christmas entered into Bohemia; and took certain towns by force, and Cuthna was yielded unto him. But when Zisca (although he was blind) came towards him, and set upon him, he, being afraid and many of his nobles slain, fled. But first he burned Cuthna, which the Taborites, by means of the silver mines, called the pouch of antichrist. Zisca pursuing the emperor a day's journey, got great and rich spoil, and taking the town of Broda by force, set it on fire; the which afterward, almost by the space of fourteen years, remained disinhabited. The emperor passed by a bridge over the river of Iglaria. And Piso, a Florentine, which had brought fifteen thousand horsemen out of Hungary to these wars, passed over the ice; the which by the multitude and number of his horsemen being broke, devoured and destroyed a great number. Zisca having obtained this victory, would not suffer any image or idol to be in the churches, neither thought it to be borne withal, that priests should minister with copes or vestments: for the which cause he was much the more envied amongst the states of Bohemia. And the consuls of Prague, being aggrieved at the insolency of John Premonstratensis, called him and nine other of his adherents, whom they supposed to be the principals of this faction, into the council-house, as though they would confer with them as touching the commonwealth; and when they were come in, they slew them, and afterward departed home every man to his own house, thinking the city had been quiet, as though nothing had been done. But their servants, being not circumspect enough, washing down the court or yard, washed out also the blood of those that were slain, through the sinks or channels; the which being once seen, the people understood what was done. By and by there was a great tumult; the council-house was straightway overthrown, and eleven of the principal citizens, which were thought to be the authors thereof, were slain, and divers houses spoiled.
About the same time the castle of Purgell, wherein the emperor had left a small garrison, (whither also many papists, with their wives and children, were fled,) was through negligence burned, and those which escaped out of the fire went into Pelzina. After this, divers of the Bohemian captains, and the senate of Prague, sent ambassadors to Vitold, duke of Lituania, and made him their king: this did Zisca and his adherents gainsay. This Vitold sent Sigismund Coributus with two thousand horsemen into Bohemia, who was honourably received of the inhabitants of Prague. At his coming they determined to lay siege unto a castle situate upon a hill, which was called Charles's Stone.
Here Sigismund had left for a garrison four centurions of soldiers. The tents were pitched in three places. The siege continued six months, and the assault never ceased day and night. Five great slings threw continually great stones over the walls, and about two thousand vessels, tubs, or baskets, filled with dead carcasses and other excrements, were cast in among those which were besieged; which thing did so infect them with stench, that their teeth did either fall out, or were all loose. Notwithstanding, they bare it out with stout courage, and continued their fight until the winter, having privily received medicine out of Prague, to fasten their teeth again.
In the mean time, Frederic the Elder, prince of Brandenburg, entering into Bohemia with a great power, caused them of Prague to raise the siege. And Vitold, at the request of Uladislaus, king of Poland, which had talked with the emperor in the borders of Hungary, called Coributus, his uncle, with his whole army, out of Bohemia: whereupon the emperor supposed that the protestants, being destitute of foreign aid, would the sooner do his commandment; but he was far deceived therein, for they, leading their armies out of Bohemia, subdued the borderers thereupon adjoining. It is also reported that Zisca went into Austria, and when the husbandmen of the country had carried away a great number of their cattle by water into an isle of the river called Danube, and by chance had left certain calves and swine in their villages behind them, Zisca drave them unto the river-side, and kept them there so long, beating them, and causing them to roar out and cry, until that the cattle, feeding in the island, hearing the lowing and grunting of the cattle on the other side the water, for the desire of their like did swim over the river, by the means whereof, he got and drave away a great booty.
About the same time the Emperor Sigismund gave unto his son-in-law Albert, duke of Austria, the country of Moravia, because it should not want a ruler. At the same time also Ericius, king of Denmark, and Peter Infant, brother to the king of Portugal, and father of James, cardinal of St. Eustachius, came unto the emperor, being both very expert men in the affairs of war, which did augment the emperor's host with their aid and power. Whereupon they straightway pitched their camp before Lutemperge, a town of Moravia, and continued the siege by the space of three months. There was at that time a certain knight at Prague, surnamed Aqua, which was very rich and of great authority. This man, forasmuch as he had no child of his own, adopted unto him his sister's son, named Procopius, whom, when he was of mean nature and age, he carried with him into France, Spain, and Italy, and unto Jerusalem, and at his return caused him to be made priest. This man, when the gospel began to flourish in Bohemia, took part with Zisca; and forasmuch as he was strong and valiant, and also painful, he was greatly esteemed.
This Procopius, for his valiant acts, was afterward called Procopius Magnus, and had committed unto him the whole charge of the province of Moravia and the defence of the Lutemperges, who, receiving a great power, by force, maugre all the whole power which lay in the siege, carried victuals into the town which was so besieged, and so did frustrate the emperor's siege. The emperor, before this, had delivered unto the marquisses of Misnia the bridge and town of Ausca, upon the river Elbe, that they should fortify them with their garrisons. Whereupon Zisca besieged Ausca, and Frederic, the marquis of Misnia, with his brother, the landgrave of Thuringia, gathering together a great army out of Saxony, Thuringia, Misnia, and both the Lusaces, determined to rescue and aid those which were besieged.
There was a great battle fought before the city, and the victory depended long uncertain; but at last it fell on the protestants' part. There were slain in the battle the burgraves of Misnia or Chyrpogenses, the barons of Glychen, and many other nobles, beside nine thousand common soldiers, and the town of Ausca was taken and utterly razed.
At the last, dissension rising between Zisca and them of Prague, they of Prague prepared an army against him, wherewith he perceiving himself overmatched, fled unto the river Elbe, and was almost taken, but that he had passage through the town of Poggiebras; but they of Prague, pursuing the tail of the battle, slew many of his Taborites. At the length they came unto certain hills, where Zisca, going into the valley, knowing the straits of the place, that his enemies could not spread their army, he commanded his standard to stand still, and exhorting and encouraging his soldiers, he gave them battle.
This battle was very fierce and cruel; but Zisca, having the upper hand, slew three thousand of them of Prague and put the rest to flight, and straight-ways took the city of Cuthna by force (which they of Prague had repaired) and set it on fire; then with all speed he went with his army to besiege Prague, and encamped within a bow-shot of the town. There were many both in the city, and also in his host, which grudged sore at that siege; some accusing Zisca, other some them of Prague. There were great tumults in the camp, the soldiers saying that it was not reasonable, that the city should be suppressed, which was both the head of the kingdom, and did not dissent from them in opinion, saying that the Bohemians' power would soon decay, if their enemies should know that they were divided within themselves; also that they had sufficient wars against the emperor, and that it was but a foolish device to move wars amongst themselves. This talk came unto the ear of Zisca, who calling together his army, standing upon a place to be heard, spake in these words.
"Brethren, be ye not aggrieved against me, neither accuse him which hath sought your health and safeguard. The victories which ye have obtained under my conduct are yet fresh in memory, neither have I brought you at any time unto any place, from whence you have not come victors. You are become famous and rich, and I for your sake have lost my sight, and dwell in darkness. Nothing have I gotten by all these fortunate battles, but only a vain name. For you have I fought, and for you have I vanquished; neither do I repent me of my travail, neither is my blindness grievous unto me, but only that I cannot provide for you according to my accustomed manner: neither do I persecute them of Prague for mine own cause, for it is your blood that they thirst and seek for, and not for mine. It were but small pleasure for them to destroy me, being now an old man and blind, it is your valiantness and stout stomachs which they fear. Either must you or they perish; who whilst they seem to lie in wait for me, do seek after your lives. You must rather fear civil wars than foreign, and civil sedition ought first to be avoided. We will subdue Prague, and banish the seditious citizens before the emperor shall have any news of this sedition. And then having but a few of his faction left, we may with the less fear look for it; better than if these doubtful citizens of Prague were still in our camp. But because ye shall accuse me no more, I give you free liberty to do what you will. If it please you to suffer them of Prague to live in quietness, I will not be against it, so that there be no treason wrought. If you determine to have war, I am also ready. Look which part you will incline unto, Zisca will be your aid and helper."
When he had spoken these words, the soldiers' minds were changed, and wholly determined to make wars, so that they ran by and by to take up their armour and weapons, to run unto the walls, to provoke their enemies to fight for the gates of the city. Zisca in the mean time prepared all things ready for the assault. There is, a little from Pilsen, a certain village named Rochezana. In this place there was a child born of poor and base parentage, whose name was John; he came unto Prague, and got his living there by begging, and learned grammar and logic. When he came to man's state, he became the schoolmaster of a nobleman's child; and forasmuch as he was of excellent wit and ready tongue, he was received into the college of the poor: and last of all, being made priest, he began to preach the word of God to the citizens of Prague, and was named Johannes de Rochezana, by the name of the town where he was born. This man grew to be of great name and authority in the town of Prague. Whereupon when Zisca besieged Prague, he by the consent of the citizens went out into the camp, and reconciled Zisca again unto the city.
When the emperor perceived that all things came to pass according unto Zisca's will and mind, and that upon him alone the whole state of Bohemia did depend, he sought privy means to reconcile and get Zisca into his favour, promising him the governance of the whole kingdom, the guiding of all his hosts and armies, and great yearly revenues, if he would proclaim him king, and cause the cities to be sworn unto him. Upon which conditions, when Zisca for the performance of the covenants went unto the emperor, being in his journey, at the castle of Priscovia, he was stricken with sickness and died.
It is reported, that when he was demanded, being sick, in what place he would be buried; he commanded the skin to be pulled off from his dead carcass, and the flesh to be cast unto the fowls and beasts, and that a drum should be made of his skin which they should use in their battles; affirming, that as soon as their enemies should hear the sound of that drum, they would not abide but take their flight. The Taborites, despising all other images, yet set up the picture of Zisca over the gates of the city.
The Epitaph of John Zisca, the valiant captain of the Bohemians.
"I, John Zisca, not inferior to an emperor or captain in warlike policy, a severe punisher of the pride and avarice of the clergy, and a defender of my country, do lie here. That which Appius Claudius by giving good counsel, and M. Furius Camillus by valiantness, did for the Romans; the same I, being blind, have done for my Bohemians. I never slacked opportunity of battle, neither did fortune at any time fail me. I, being blind, did foresee all opportunity of well-ordering or doing my business. Eleven times in joining battle I went victor out of the field. I seemed to have worthily defended thecause of the miserable and hungry against the delicate, fat, and gluttonous priests, and for that cause to have received help at the hands of God. If their envy had not let it, without doubt I had deserved to be numbered amongst the most famous men. Notwithstanding, my bones lie here in this hallowed place, even in despite of the pope.
"John Zisca, a Bohemian, enemy to all wicked and covetous priests, but with a godly zeal."
And thus have you the acts and doings of this worthy Zisca, and other Bohemians, which for the more credit we have drawn out of Æneas Sylvius, only his railing terms excepted, which we have here suppressed.
All this while the emperor, with the whole power of the Germans, were not so busy on the one side, but Martin, the pope, was as much occupied on the other side; who, about the same time, directed down a terrible bull, full of all poison, to all bishops and archbishops, against all such as took any part or side with Wickliff, John Huss, Jerome, or with their doctrine and opinions. The copy of which bull, which I found in an old written monument, I wish the reader thoroughly to peruse, wherein he shall see the pope to pour out at once all his poison.
"Martin, bishop, the servant of God's servants, to our reverend brethren the archbishops of Salzburg, Gueznen, and Prague, and to the bishops of Olumitz, Luthomysl, Bamberg, Misnen, Patavia, Uratislavia, Ratisbon, Cracow, Posnamen, and Nitrien, and also to our beloved children the inquisitors appointed of the prelates above recited, or where else soever, unto whom these present letters shall come, greeting, and apostolical benediction. Amongst all other pastoral cares wherewith we are oppressed, this chiefly and specially doth enforce us, that heretics, with their false doctrine and errors, being utterly expulsed from amongst the company of Christian men, and rooted out, (so far forth as God will make us able to do,) the right and catholic faith may remain sound and undefiled; and that all Christian people, immovable and inviolate, may stand and abide in the sincerity of the same faith, the whole veil of obscurity being removed. But lately in divers places of the world, but especially in Bohemia, and the dukedom of Moravia, and in the straits adjoining thereunto, certain arch-heretics have risen and sprung up, not against one only, but against divers and sundry documents of the catholic faith, being landlopers, schismatics, and seditious persons, fraught with devilish pride and wolfish madness, deceived by the subtlety of Satan, and from one evil vanity brought to a worse. Who, although they rose up and sprang in divers parts of the world, yet agreed they all in one, having their tails as it were knit together, to wit, John Wickliff of England, John Huss of Bohemia, and Jerome of Prague, of damnable memory, who drew with them no small number to miserable ruin and infidelity. For when those and such-like pestiferous persons did in the beginning of their poisoned doctrine obstinately sow and spread abroad perverse and false opinions, the prelates, who had the regiment and execution of the judicial power, like dumb dogs not able to bark, neither yet revenging speedily with the apostle all such disobedience, nor regarding corporally to cast out of the Lord's house (as they were enjoined by the canons) those subtle and pestilent arch-heretics, and their wolfish fury and cruelty, with all expedition, but suffering their false and pernicious doctrine negligently, by their over-long delays, to grow and wax strong; a great multitude of people, instead of true doctrine, received those things, which they did long, falsely, perniciously, and damnably sow among them, and giving credit unto them, fell from the right faith, and are entangled (the more pity) in the foul errors of paganism.
"Insomuch, that those arch-heretics, and such as spring of them, have infected the catholic flock of Christ in divers climates of the world, and parts bordering upon the same, and have caused them to putrefy in the filthy dunghill of their lies. Wherefore the general synod of Constance was compelled, with St. Augustine, to exclaim against so great and ruinous a plague of faithful men, and of the sound and true faith itself, saying, 'What shall the sovereign medicine of the church do, with motherly love seeking the health of her sheep, chasing, as it were, amongst a company of men frantic, and having the disease of the lethargy? what! shall she desist and leave off her good purpose? No, not so. But rather let her, if there be no remedy, be sharp to both these sorts, which are the grievous enemies of her womb. For the physician is sharp unto the man distraught and raging in his frenzy, and yet he is a father to his own rude and unmannerly son, in binding the one, in beating the other, by showing therein his great love unto them both. But if they be negligent, and suffer them to perish, (saith St. Augustine,) this mansuetude is rather to be supposed false cruelty.'
"And therefore the aforesaid synod, to the glory of Almighty God, and preservation of his catholic faith, and augmenting of Christian religion, and for the salvation of men's souls, hath corporally rejected and cast forth of the household of God, the aforesaid John Wickliff, John Huss, and Jerome; who amongst other things did believe, preach, teach, and maintain of the sacrament of the altar, andother sacraments of the church, and articles of the faith, contrary to that the holy Church of Rome believeth, holdeth, preacheth, and teacheth, and have presumed obstinately to preach, teach, hold, and believe many other more, to the damnation of themselves and of others; and the said synod hath separated the same, as obstinate and malapert heretics, from the communion of the faithful people, and hath declared them to be spiritually thrown forth. And many other things, both wholesome and profitable, hath the same council, as touching the premises, stablished and decreed, whereby they, which by the means of those arch-heretics, and by their false doctrine, have spiritually departed from the Lord's house, may by the canonical rules be reduced to the straight path of truth and verity.
"And moreover, (as we to our great grief do hear,) not only in the kingdom of Bohemia, and dukedom of Moravia, and other places above recited, but also in certain parts and provinces near adjoining, and bordering upon the same, there be many other of the sectaries and followers of the aforesaid arch-heretics, and heretical opinions; casting behind their backs, as well the fear of God as the shame of the world, neither receiving fruit of conversion and repentance by the miserable destruction of the aforesaid John Huss and Jerome; but as men drowned in the dungeon of their sins, cease not to blaspheme the Lord God, taking his name in vain, (whose minds the father of lies hath damnably blinded,) and do read and study the aforesaid books or works, containing heresies and errors, being lately by the aforesaid synods. condemned to be burned; also to the peril of themselves and many other simple men, and against the statutes, decrees, and ordinances in the synod aforesaid, and the canonical sanctions, do presume to preach and teach the same, to the great peril of souls, and derogation of the catholic faith, and slander of many other besides: we, therefore, considering that error, where it is not resisted, seemeth to be allowed and liked; and having a desire to resist such evil and pernicious errors, and utterly root them out from amongst the company of faithful Christians, especially from the afore-recited places of Bohemia, Moravia, and other straits and islands joining and bordering upon the same, lest they should stretch out and enlarge their limits; we will and command your discretions by our letters apostolical, the holy council of Constance approving and allowing the same, that you that are archbishops, bishops, and other of the clergy, and every one of you by himself, or by any other or others, being grave and fit persons to have spiritual jurisdiction, do see that all and singular persons, of what dignity, office, pre-eminence, state, or condition soever they be, and by what name soever they are known, which shall presume otherwise to teach, preach, or observe, touching the most high and excellent, the most wholesome and superadmirable, sacrament of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, or else of the sacrament of baptism, confession of sins, penance for sins, and extreme unction, or else of any other sacraments of the church, and the articles of the faith, than that which the right holy and universal Church of Rome doth hold, teach, preach, and observe; or else that shall presume obstinately, by any ways or means, privily or apertly, to hold, believe, and teach the articles, books, or doctrine of the aforesaid arch-heretics, John Wickliff, John Huss, and Jerome of Prague, being by the aforesaid synod of Constance with their authors (as is said) damned and condemned, or dare presume publicly or privily to allow or commend in any wise the death and end of the said arch-heretics, or any other their receivers, aiders, and favourers, in the favour or supportation of the aforesaid errors, as also their believers and adherents; that then, as before, you see and cause them, and every one of them, to be most severely punished, and that you judge and give sentence upon them as heretics, and that as arrant heretics you leave them to the secular court or power. Let the receivers also, and favourers, and defenders of such most pestiferous persons, notwithstanding they neither believe, favour, nor have devotion towards their errors, but haply shall receive or entertain such pestiferous persons because of carnal affection or friendly love, besides the punishment due unto them by both laws, over and above the same punishment by competent judges, be so afflicted, and for so heinous acts of theirs with so severe pain and punishment excruciated, that the same may be to other, in like case offending, an example of terror; that, at the least, those whom the fear of God by no means may revoke from such evil doing, yet the severity of this our discipline may force and constrain.
"As touching the third sort, which shall be any manner of ways infected with this damnable sect, and shall, after competent admonition, repent and amend themselves of such errors and sects aforesaid, and will return again into the lap and unity of our holy mother the church, and fully acknowledge and confess the catholic faith; towards them let the severity of justice, as the quality of the fact shall require, be somewhat tempered with a taste of mercy.
"And furthermore, we will and command, that by this our authority apostolical ye exhort and admonish all the professors of the catholic faith, as emperors, kings, dukes, princes, marquisses, earls, barons, knights, and other magistrates, rectors, consuls, proconsuls, shires, countries, and universitiesof the kingdoms, provinces, cities, towns, castles, villages, their lands and other places, and all other executing temporal jurisdiction, according to the form and exigence of the law, that they expel out of their kingdoms, provinces, cities, towns, castles, villages, and lands, and other places, all and all manner of such heretics, according to the effect and tenor of the council of Lateran, beginning, Sicut ait ecclesia, &c.; that those whom publicly and manifestly, by the evidence of their deeds, shall be known to be such as, like sick and scabbed sheep, infect the Lord's flock, they expel and banish till such time as from us, or you, or else other ecclesiastical judges or inquisitors, holding the faith and communion of the holy Church of Rome, they shall receive other order and countermand; and that they suffer no such within their shires and circuits, to preach or to keep either house or family, either yet to use any handicraft or occupations, or other trades of merchandise, or else to solace themselves any ways, or frequent the company of Christian men.
"And furthermore, if such public and known heretics shall chance to die, although not so denounced by the church, yet in this so great a crime let him and them want Christian burial, and let no offerings or oblations be made for them, nor received. His goods and substance also, from the time of his death, according to the canonical sanctions being confiscated, let no such enjoy them to whom they appertain, till that by the ecclesiastical judges, having power and authority in this behalf, sentence upon that, his, or their crime of heresy be declared, and promulgated; and let such owners as be found suspected or noted with any such suspicion of heresy, before a competent and ecclesiastical judge, according to the consideration and exigence of that suspicion, and according to the quality of the person, by the arbitrement of such a judge, show and declare his proper and own innocency with devotion, as beseemeth in that behalf. And if in his purgation, being canonically interdicted, he do fail, or be not able canonically to make his purgation, or that he refuse to take his oath by damnable obstinacy to make such purgation, then let him be condemned as a heretic. But such as through negligence or through slothfulness shall omit to show their said innocency, and to make such purgation, let him be excommunicated, and so long put out from the company of Christian men, till that they shall make condign satisfaction; so that if by the space of one whole year they shall remain in such excommunication, then let them as heretics be condemned.
"And further, if any shall be found culpable in any point of the aforesaid pestiferous doctrine of the arch-heretics aforesaid, or in any article thereof, whether it be by the report of the seditious, or else well disposed, let them yet be punished according to the canons. If only through infamy and suspicion of the aforesaid articles, or any of them, any man shall be found suspected, and in his purgation canonical for this thing being interdicted, shall fail, let him be accounted as a man convicted, and as a convicted person by the canons let him be punished.
"And furthermore, we, invocating and putting in execution the canon of our predecessor of happy memory, Pope Boniface the Eighth, which beginneth thus, Ut inquisitionis negotium, &c., in exhorting-wise require, and also command all temporal potentates, lords, and judges, before recited, by whatsoever dignities, offices, and names they are known, that as they desire to be had, esteemed, and counted for the faithful members and children of the church, and do rejoice in the name of Christ, so in like wise, for defence of the same faith, they will obey, intend, give their aid and favourable help to you that are archbishops, bishops, and ecclesiastical men, inquisitors of all heretical pravity, and other judges and ecclesiastical persons by you hereunto, as aforesaid, appointed, holding the faith and communion of our holy mother the church, for the searching out, taking, and safe custody of all the aforesaid heretics, their believers, their favourers, their receivers, and their defenders, whensoever they shall be thereunto of them required.
"And that they bring, and cause to be brought, all delay set apart, the aforesaid pestiferous persons, so seeking to destroy others with them, into such safe-keeping and prisons, as by you, the archbishops, bishops, clergy, and inquisitors aforesaid, are to be appointed, or else unto such other place or places, as either you or they shall command within any of their dominions, governments, and rectories, where they, by catholic men, that is, by you, the archbishops, bishops, the clergy, and inquisitors, or any other that shall be by you appointed, or are already appointed by any of you, may be holden and kept in safe-keeping, putting them in fetters, shackles, bolts, and manacles of iron, under most strait custody, for escaping away, till such time as all that business, which belongeth unto them, be, by the judgment of the church, finished and determined, and that of such heresy, by a competent ecclesiastical judge, which firmly holdeth the faith and communion of the aforesaid holy Church of Rome, they be condemned.
"The residue let the aforesaid temporal lords, rectors, judges, or other their officers and pursuivants, take amongst them, with condign deaths, without any delay to punish. But fearing lest to the prejudice and slander of the aforesaid catholicfaith and religion, through the pretext of ignorance, any man herein should be circumvented, or that any subtle and crafty men should, under the veil of frivolous excuse, cloak and dissemble in this matter; and that as touching the convincing or apprehending of the aforesaid heretics, their receivers and defenders, favourers, believers, and adherents, and also of such as are suspected of heresy, and with suchlike perverse doctrine in any wise spotted, we might give more perfect instruction; therefore, as well to the kingdom of Bohemia and parts near adjoining to the same, as all other where this superstitious doctrine began to spread, we have thought it good to send the articles hereunder written concerning the sect of those arch-heretics, for the better direction of the aforesaid catholic faith.
"Touching which articles, by virtue of holy obedience, we charge and command you and all other archbishops and bishops, all manner of commissaries and inquisitors, that every of them within the diocese and limits of their jurisdiction, and also in the aforesaid kingdom, and dukedom, and places near adjoining, although the same places be beyond the same their jurisdiction, in the favour of the catholic faith, do give most diligent and vigilant care about the extirpation and correction of those errors, arch-heresies, and most pestiferous sect aforesaid; and also that they compel all defamed persons and suspected of so pestiferous a contagion, whether it be under the penalty of the crime confessed, or of excommunication, suspension, or interdict, or any other formidable pain canonical or legal, when and wheresoever it shall seem good unto them, and as the quality of the fact requireth, by an oath corporally taken either upon the holy evangelists, or upon the relics of saints, or upon the image of the crucifix, according to the observances of certain places, and according to the interrogatories, to make convenient answer to every article therein written. For we intend against all and singular archbishops, bishops, ecclesiastical persons, or inquisitors, which shall show themselves negligent and remiss in the extirpation of the leaven of this heretical pravity, and purging their territories, diocese, and places to them appointed, of such evil and wicked men, to proceed and to cause to be proceeded unto the deprivation and deposition of their pontifical dignities, and shall substitute such other in their places, which can and may be able to confound the said heretical pravity, and proceed to further pains against such by the laws limited, and to other yet more grievous, if need require, we our_ selves will proceed, and cause to be proceeded, according as the party's fact, and filthiness of his crime committed, shall deserve. The tenor of those articles whereof we have made mention in this our own writting are in words as follow.
The articles of John Huss to be inquired upon.
"1. There is one only universal church, which is the university of the predestinate, as shall after be declared.
"2. The universal church is only one; as there is one university of those that are predestinate.
"3. Paul was never a member of the devil, although he did certain acts like unto the acts of the church malignant.
"4. The reprobate are not parts of the church, for that no part of the same finally falleth from her, because that the charity of predestination, which bindeth the same church together, never faileth.
"5. The two natures, that is, the Divinity and the humanity, be one Christ.
"6. The reprobate, although he be sometime in grace, according to present justice, yet is he never a part of the church, and the predestinate is ever a member of the church, although sometime he fall from grace adventitia, but not from grace of predestination; ever taking the church for the convocation of the predestinate, whether they be in grace or not, according to present justice. And after this sort the church is an article of our belief.
"7. Peter is not, nor ever was, the head of the holy catholic church.
"8. Priests living viciously do defile the authority of priesthood, and so, as unfaithful children, do unfaithfully believe of the seven sacraments, of the keys of the church, of offices, of censures, of ceremonies, of the worshipping of relics, indulgences, orders, and other holy things of the church.
"9. The papal dignity came and grew from the emperor; and his government and institution sprang from the emperor's government.
"10. No man can reasonably affirm, either of himself or other, that he is the head of any particular church, or that the bishop of Rome is the head of the Church of Rome.
"11. A man ought not to believe, that he which is bishop of Rome is the head of every particular church, unless God have predestinated him.
"12. None is the vicar of Christ, or else of Peter, unless he follow him in manners and conditions, seeing that there is no other following more pertinent, nor otherwise apt to receive of God this power procuratory. For unto the office of a vicegerent of Christ, is required the conformity of manners and the authority of the institutor.
"13. The pope is not the manifest and true successor of Peter the prince of the apostles, if he live in manners contrary to St. Peter; and if he hunt after avarice, then is he the vicar of Judas Iscariot. And likewise the cardinals be not the true and manifest successors of the college of the other apostles of Christ, unless they live according to the manner of the apostles, keeping the commandments and counsels of our Lord Jesus Christ.
"14. The doctors alleging that a man, which will not be amended by the ecclesiastical censures, is to be delivered to the secular powers, do follow in this point the bishops, scribes, and Pharisees, that delivered Christ to the secular power, (saying, It is not lawful for us to kill any man,) because he would not obey them in all things; and that such be greater homicides than Pilate.
"15. The ecclesiastical obedience is such an obedience as the priests of the church have found out, besides the express authority of the Scripture. The immediate division of human works is, that they be either virtuous or vicious; and if a man be vicious, and doth any thing, then doth he it viciously; and if he be virtuous, and doth any thing, then doth he it virtuously. For like as vice, which is called a great offence or mortal sin, doth stain all the doings of a vicious man; so virtue doth quicken all the doings of a virtuous man.
"16. A priest of God living after his law, and having the knowledge of the Scripture, and a desire to edify the people, ought to preach, notwithstanding any excommunication pretended of the pope. And further, if the pope, or any other magistrate, doth forbid a priest so disposed to preach, he ought not to be obedient unto him. For every one that taketh upon him the order of priesthood, receiveth in charge the office of a preacher; and of that burden ought he well to discharge himself, any excommunication against him pretended in any wise notwithstanding.
"17. By the censures ecclesiastical, as of excommunication, suspending, and interdict, the clergy, to their own advancement, cause the lay-people to aid them; they multiply their avarice, they defend their malice, and prepare the way to antichrist. And it is an evident sign that such censures proceed from antichrist, which in their process they call fulminationes, that is, their thunderbolts wherewith the clergy principally proceed against those that declare the wickedness of antichrist, who so greatly, for his own commodity, hath abused them.
"18. If the pope be evil, especially if he be a reprobate, then is he with Judas a very devil, a thief, and the son of perdition, and is not the head of the holy church militant, nor any member of the same.
"19. The grace of predestination is the band wherewith the body of the church and every member of the same is indissolubly joined to their Head Christ.
"20. The pope or prelate that is evil and a reprobate, is a pastor in name and not in deed, yea, he is a thief and a robber in very deed.
"21. The pope ought not to be called the most holy one for his office sake, for then ought a king to be called by his office the most holy one; and hangmen, with other such officers also, were to be called holy, yea, the devil himself ought to be called holy, forasmuch as he is God's officer.
"22. If the pope live contrary unto Christ, although he climb up by the right and lawful election, according to the common custom of men; yet notwithstanding, should he otherwise climb than by Christ, yea, though we admit that he should enter by the election principally made by God. For Judas Iscariot was lawfully elect of God, Christ Jesus, to his bishopric, and yet came not he the same way he ought to do unto the sheepfold.
"23. The condemnation of forty-five articles of John Wickliff by the doctors made, is unreasonable, wicked, and naught, and the cause by them alleged is feigned, that is, that none of them are catholic, but every one of them heretical, erroneous, or slanderous.
"24. Not for that the electors or the most part of them have consented together with lively voice, according to the custom of men upon the person of any, therefore that person is lawfully elect, or therefore is the true and manifest successor and vicar of Peter the apostle, or of any other the apostles in the ecclesiastical office. Wherefore, whether the electors have either well or evil made their election, it behoveth us to believe the same by the works of him that is elected. For in that that every one worketh more meritoriously to the profit of the church, he hath so much the more greater authority from God.
"25. There is not so much as one spark of appearance, that there ought to be one head, ruling and governing the church in spiritual causes, which should always be conversant in the church militant; for Christ without any such monstrous heads, by his true disciples sparsed through the whole world, could better, a great deal, rule his church.
"26. The apostles and faithful priests of God have right worthily, in all things necessary to salvation, governed the church before the pope's office took place, and so might they do again, by like possibility, until Christ came to judgment, if the office should fail.
"Let every one that is suspected in the aforesaid articles, or else otherwise found with the assertion of them, be examined in manner and form as followeth:
"Imprimis, Whether he knew John Wickliff of England, John Huss of Bohemia, and Jerome of Prague, or any of them, and how he came by the knowledge of them; whether that during the lives of them, or any of them, they had either been conversant with them, or found any friendship at their hands.
"2. Item, Whether he, knowing them, or any of them, to be excommunicate, did willingly participate with them; esteeming and affirming the same their participation to be no sin.
"3. Item, Whether that after their deaths he ever prayed for them, or any of them, openly or privily, doing any work of mercy for them, affirming them to be either saints, or else to be saved.
"4. Item, Whether he thought them, or any of them, to be saints, or whether that ever he spake such words, and whether ever he did exhibit any worship unto them as unto saints.
"5. Item, Whether he believe, hold, and affirm, that every general council, as also the council of Constance, doth represent the universal church.
"6. Item, Whether he doth believe, that that which the holy council of Constance, representing the universal church, hath and doth allow in the favour of the faith, and salvation of souls, is to be approved and allowed of all the faithful Christians; and that, whatsoever the same council hath condemned, and doth condemn, to he contrary both to the faith and to all good men, is to be believed, holden, and affirmed for condemned, or not.
"7. Item, Whether he believeth that the condemnations of John Huss, John Wickliff, and Jerome of Prague, made, as well upon their persons, as their books and doctrine, by the holy general council of Constance, be rightly and justly made, and of every good catholic man are so to be holden and affirmed, or not.
"8. Item, Whether he believe, hold, and affirm, that John Wickliff of England, John Huss of Bohemia, and Jerome of Prague, were heretics or not, and for heretics to be nominated and preached, yea or not; and whether their books and doctrines were and be perverse or not; for the which, together with their pertinacy, they were condemned by the holy sacred council of Constance for heretics.
"9. Item, Whether he have in his custody any treatises, small works, epistles, or other writings, in what language or tongue soever, set forth and translated by any of these heretics, John Wickliff, John Huss, and Jerome, or any other of their false disciples and followers, that he may deliver them to the ordinaries of that place, or to the commissary, or to the inquisitors upon his oath. And if he say, that he hath no such writing about him, but that they are in some other place, that then you swear him to bring the same before his ordinary, or other aforenamed, within a certain time to him prefixed.
"10. Item, Whether he knoweth any that hath the treatises, works, epistles, or any other writings of the aforesaid John Wickliff, John Huss, and Jerome, in whatsoever tongue they are made or translated, and that he detect and manifest the same, for the purgation of their faith and execution of justice.
"11. Item, Especially let the learned be examined, whether he believeth that the sentence of the holy council of Constance, upon the forty-five articles of John Wickliff, and the thirty articles of John Huss, be not catholic; which saith, that some of them are notorious and heretical, some erroneous, other some blasphemous, some slanderous, some rash and seditious, some offensive to godly ears.
"12. Item, Whether he believeth and affirmeth that in no case it is lawful for a man to swear.
"13. Item, Whether he believeth, that at the commandment of a judge or any other it is lawful to take an oath to tell the truth in any convenient cause, although it be but purging of infamy, or not.
"14. Item, Whether he believeth that perjury wittingly committed, upon what cause soever, whether it be for the safeguard of his own life, or of any other man's life, (yea, although it be in the cause and defence of the faith,) be a sin or not.
"15. Item, Whether a man contemning purposely the rites of the church, and the ceremonies of exorcism, of catechism, and the consecration of the water of baptism, be in deadly sin or not.
"16. Item, Whether he believe, that after the consecration of the priest, in the sacrament of the altar, under the figure of bread and wine, be no material bread and wine; but in all points the same very Christ, which was crucified upon the cross, and sitteth upon the right hand of the Father.
"17. Item, Whether he believe, that after the consecration made by the priest, under the only form of bread, and besides the form of wine, be the very flesh of Christ and his blood, his soul and his Deity, and so whole Christ as he is; and in like wise, under the form of wine, without the form of bread, be the very flesh of Christ and his very blood his soul, and Deity, and so whole Christ, and the same body absolutely under every one of those kinds singularly.
"18. Item, Whether he doth believe, that the custom of houseling of the lay-people under the form of bread only, observed of the universal church, and allowed by the only council of Constance, be to be used, and not without the authority of the church at men's pleasures to be altered, and that they that obstinately affirm the contrary to this are to be punished as heretics, or not.
"19. Item, Whether he believe that those which contemn the receiving of the sacraments of confirmation, or extreme unction, or else the solemnization of matrimony, commit deadly sin or not.
"20. Item, Whether he believe that a Christian man, over and besides the contrition of heart, being licensed of a convenient priest, is bound to confess himself only to a priest, and not to any layman, be he never so devout or good, upon the necessity of salvation.
"21. Item, Whether he believe, that in the cases before put, a priest may absolve a sinner, confessing himself and being contrite, from all sins, and enjoin him penance for the same.
"22. Item, Whether he believe, that an evil priest, with due manner and form, with the intention of doing, doth verily consecrate, doth verily absolve, doth verily baptize, and doth verily dispose all other sacraments even as the church doth.
"23. Item, Whether he believe that St. Peter was the vicar of Christ, having power to bind and to loose upon the earth.
"24. Item, Whether he believe that the pope, being canonically elect, which for the time shall be, by that name expressly be the successor of Peter or not, having supreme authority in the church of God.
"25. Item, Whether he believe that the authority or jurisdiction of the pope, an archbishop, or a bishop, in binding or loosing, be more than the authority of a simple priest or not, although he have charge of souls.
"26. Item, Whether he believe, that the pope may, upon a just and good cause, give indulgences and remission of sins to all Christian men, being verily contrite and confessed, especially to those that go on pilgrimage to holy places and good deeds.
"27. Item, Whether he believe, that by such grant the pilgrims that visit those churches, and give them any thing, may obtain remission of sins or not.
"28. Item, Whether he believe that all bishops may grant unto their subjects, according as the holy canons do limit, such indulgences, or not.
"29. Item, Whether he believe and affirm, that it is lawful for faithful Christians to worship images and the relics of saints, or not.
"30. Item, Whether he believe that those religions, which the church hath allowed, were lawfully and reasonably brought in of the holy fathers, or. not.
"31. Item, Whether he believe that the pope, or any other prelate for the time being, or their vicars, may excommunicate their subject, ecclesiastical or secular, for disobedience or contumacy; so that such a one is to be holden and taken for excommunicate, or not.
"32. Item, Whether he believe, that for the disobedience and contumacy of persons excommunicate, increasing, the prelates or their vicars in spiritual things have power to aggravate and to reaggravate, to put upon men the interdict and to call for the secular arm; and that the same secular arm or power ought to be obedient to the censures, by their inferiors called for.
"33. Item, Whether he believe that the pope and other prelates, or else their vicars, have power, in spiritual things, to excommunicate priests and laymen that are stubborn and disobedient, from their office, benefice, or entrance into the church, and from the administration of the sacraments of the church, also to suspend them.
"34. Item, Whether he believe that it is lawful for ecclesiastical persons, without committing sin, to have any possessions and temporal goods; and whether he believe that it is not lawful for laymen to take away the same from them by their authority; but rather that such takers away and encroachers upon ecclesiastical goods are to be punished as committers of sacrilege, yea, although such ecclesiastical persons live naughtily that have such goods.
"35. Item, Whether any such taking away or encroaching upon any priest rashly or violently made, although the priest be an evil liver, be sacrilege, or not.
"36. Item, Whether he believe that it is lawful for laymen of whether sex soever, that is, men and women, to preach the word of God, or not.
"37. Item, Whether he believe that it is lawful to all priests freely to preach the word of God, wheresoever, whensoever, and to whomsoever it shall please them, although they be not sent at all.
"38. Item, Whether he believe that all mortal sins, and especially such as be manifest and public, are to be corrected and to be extirpated, or not.
"Furthermore, we will, command, and decree, that if any by secret information, by you or any other to be received, shall he found either infamed or suspected of any kind of the pestiferous sect, heresy, and doctrine of the most pestilent men, John Wickliff, John Huss, and Jerome of Prague, the arch-heretics aforesaid, or of favouring, receiving, or defending the aforesaid damned men whilst they lived on the earth, their false followers and disciples, or any that believeth their errors, or any that after their death pray for them or any of them, or that nominateth them to be amongst the number of catholic men, or that defendeth them to be placed amongst the number of the saints, either by their preaching, worshipping, or other ways, wherein they deserve to be suspected; that then they by you, or some of you, may be cited personally to appear before you, or some of you, without either proctor or doctor to answer for them, an oath being openly taken by them as is aforesaid, to speak the plain and mere verity of the articles above written, and every of them, or other opportune, as case and circumstance shall require, according to your discretion, as you, or any of you, shall see expedient to proceed against them, or any of them, according to these presents, or otherwise canonically, as you shall think good.
"Also that you do publish solemnly, and cause to be published, these present letters, omitting the articles and interrogatories herein contained, in the cities and other places of your diocese, where conveniently you may, under our authority, and there to denounce and cause to be denounced all and singular such heretics, with their abettors and favourers of their heresies and errors, of what sex or kind soever, that do hold and defend the said errors, or do participate any manner of way with heretics, privily or apertly; of what state, dignity, or condition soever he or they be, patriarch, archbishop, king, queen, duke, or of what other dignity either ecclesiastical or secular he be; also with their advocates and procurators whosoever, which are believers, followers, favourers, defenders, or receivers of such heretics, or suspected to be believers, followers, favourers, defenders, or receivers of them, to be excommunicate every Sunday and festival day, in the presence of the people.
"Furthermore, that you diligently cause to be inquired, by the said our authority, upon all and singular such persons, both men and women, that maintain, approve, defend, and teach such errors, or that be favourers, receivers, and defenders of them, whether exempt or not exempt, of what dignity, state, pre-eminence, degree, order, or condition so-ever. And such as you shall find in the said your inquisition, either by their own confession, or by any other mean, to be defamed or otherwise infected with the spot of such heresy, or error, you through the sentence of excommunication, suspension, interdict, and privation of their dignities, parsonages, offices, or other benefices of the church, and fees which they hold of any church, monastery, and other ecclesiastical places, also honours and secular dignities and degrees of sciences or other faculties, as also by other pains and censures of the church, or by ways and means whatsoever else shall seem to you expedient, by taking and imprisoning their bodies, and other corporal punishments wherewith heretics are punished, or are wont, and are commanded by canonical sanctions, to be used; and if they be clerks, by degradation, do correct and punish, and cause them to be corrected and punished with all diligence.
Furthermore, that you do rise up stoutly and courageously against such heretics, and the goods as well of them, as of the laymen, according to the canonical sanction made against heretics and their followers, under the which we will and command them and their partakers to be subject. And also such persons as shall be infamed of the heresies or errors aforesaid, or any of the premises, shall be bound to purge themselves at your arbitrement; but the other, which either by witnesses, or by their own confessions, or other allegations or probations, shall be convicted of the aforesaid heresies or articles, or of any the premises, they shall be compelled to revoke and abjure publicly and solemnly the said articles and errors, and to suffer condign penance and punishment, yea, even to perpetual imprisonment, (if need be,) for the same.
"And to the intent that they shall not nourish any kind of heresies hereafter, either in word, deed, or gesture, or shall induce other either in word or deed, privily or apertly, directly or indirectly, to believe the same, they shall be forced to put in sufficient surety; who, if it so chance that they will not publicly and solemnly renounce and abjure their articles and errors, and take at your hands condign penance, though it be to perpetual or temporal punishment according to your discretion, neither will be contented to put in sufficient surety that they will not hereafter hold or nourish these errors and heresies, neither will induce other by word or deed, privily or apertly, directly or indirectly, or by any other manner of colour, to believe the same, that then you shall proceed against them, according to the quality of their errors and demerits; yea, and if you see it so expedient, as against heretics, and as infected with heresy, by our authority, according to the canonical sanctions summarily, and simply and plainly, and of office, all appellation or appellations whatsoever ceasing, and that you punish the same,. according to the sanctions and traditions canonical, yea, if need be, in leaving and committing them to the secular power; and against such as be superiors or learned doctors, laying the censures of ecclesiastical excommunication, all appellation set aside, also invocating, if need shall require, aid of the secular arm; the constitution as well of our predecessor Pope Boniface the Eighth of blessed memory, wherein is decreed, that no man without his city or diocese, (except in certain cases,) or in places being one day's journey distant from thence where he inhabiteth, shall be called into judgment, and that no man do presume to depute judges from the see apostolic, without the city and diocese where they are deputed to proceed against any; and do presume to commit their authority to any other person or persons, or to fetch and remove any man beyond one day's journey from out his diocese where he dwelleth, or at most two days' journey, if it be in a general council;as also all other constitutions of any bishop of Rome, touching as well judges delegate, as persons not to be called to judgment beyond a certain number; or else any other edict, indulgence, privilege, or exemption general or special, granted from the apostolic see, for any person or persons not to be interdicted, suspended, or excommunicated, or cited up to judgment without the compass of certain limits, or else whatsoever thing otherwise may hinder, stop, or impeach your jurisdiction, power, and free proceeding herein by any means to the contrary notwithstanding. Given at Constance, the first year of our popedom."
This bloody and abominable commission of Pope Martin, which I have copied out of a certain old monument remaining in the hands of Master Hackluyt, student in the temple, seemeth to he directed and given out to the public destruction of all faithful Christian men, about the latter end and breaking up of the council of Constance, A. D. 1418. By the which the prudent reader hath this to note and consider, what labour, what policy, what counsel, and what laws have been set, what ways have been taken, what severity hath been showed, how men's power, wit, and authority of the whole world have conspired together from time to time, continually by all manner of means to subvert and supplant the word and way of the Lord; and yet, notwithstanding, man hath not prevailed, but all his force and devised policies have been overthrown, despatched, and, with the counsel of Achitophel and Ammon, have been brought to nought, and, contrary to the fury of the world, the gospel of Christ hath still increased. Neither yet for all this will the pope cease to spurn and rebel still against the kingdom of Christ and of his gospel, against which neither he, nor yet the gates of hell, shall ever prevail. The Lord of hosts be merciful to his poor persecuted flock. Amen.
There was a new expedition decreed against the Bohemians, against the eighth calends of July, and Frederic, marquis of Brandenburg, appointed general of that war, which should follow the cardinal. He entered into Bohemia by the way that leadeth unto Thopa, and Albert, prince of Austria, was appointed to bring his army through Moravia.
In this expedition was Albert and Christopher of Bavaria, and Frederic, dukes of Saxony, John and Albert, princes of Brandenburg, with their father, which was general of those wars. Also the bishops of Hyperbolis, Bamberge, and Eysten. Also the company of the Swevians, which they called the company of St. George, and the magistrates of the imperial cities, the bishop of Mentz, Trevers, and Cologne sent their aids, and with them the chieftains of their provinces. It is said that the number of their horsemen were above forty thousand, but their footmen were not full so many, for the Germans for the most part do use to fight their battles on horseback.
Also Rhenatus, prince of Loraine, promised to come to these wars; but being letted by his civil wars, forasmuch as he went about to vanquish the earl of Vandome, he could not keep his promise, and the county Palatine of Rhine, which did aid and succour the earl of Vandome, could not go against the Bohemians. The cardinal staying for them deferred his journey until the calends of August.
Illustration -- Massacre of Old People, Women and Children
In the mean time Albert leading his army out of Austria, understanding that the cardinal was not present at the day appointed, and seeing himself unable to encounter with the Bohemian power, he returned back again. After this the cardinal entered into Bohemia with a huge army, and destroyed many of the protestants' towns, killing men, women, and children, sparing neither old nor young; notwithstanding this his tyranny was exercised in the uttermost borders of Bohemia, for his captains feared to enter far into the land. The Bohemians, as soon as they had heard tell that their enemy was come, made ready, and gathered their host with all speed, and laid siege to a tower called Stiltiverge, and brought it under subjection. In the mean season; there fell such a marvellous sudden fear amongst all the papists, throughout the whole camp, that they began most shamefully to run away before any enemy came in sight. The Cardinal Julian marvelling at this most sudden fear, and what should move so great an army to fly, went about unto the captains, exhorting them to put on armour, to order their battles, and courageously to abide their enemies, saying, they did not fight for the glory of their kingdom, or for the possession of lands, but for their lives, and honour, and religion of Christ, and for the salvation of souls. "How ignominious a thing is it," saith he, "for the Germans to fly in battle, whose courage and valiantness all the world doth extol! It were much better to die, than to give place to any enemies before they were secn, for they can by no means live in safety within the walls, which give place unto their enemy in the field; for it is the weapon that defendeth a man, and not the walls, and except they would even presently defend their liberty with the sword, they should shortly be in greater bondage, more miserable than any death." But this exhortation was all in vain, for fear had put away all boldness; for the ensigns were snatched up, and, as though there had been no captain in the host, every man ran headlong away. No man regarded any commandment, neither once took his leave of his captain, but casting away their armour, with speedy flight they ran away, as though their enemy had been at their backs. The cardinal also, although it were against his will, was forced to do the like.
Thus the protestants, by the fear of their enemies made the more bold and courageous, pursued them through the woods, and had a great prey and spoil of them. Notwithstanding, Albert, when he heard tell that the cardinal was entered into Bohemia, with all speed came again out of Austria with his army, and besieged the strong town of Prezorabia; but when he understood how the cardinal was fled, he left off his purpose, and returned through Moravia, which was not yet subject unto him, and destroyed above fifty towns with fire and sword, took many of their cities by force, and spoiled them, committing great murder and slaughter, and so afflicted them that they took upon them his yoke, and promised to be subject and obedient to him, under this condition, that, as touching religion, he would he bound to do that which the council of Basil should determine.
Then was there an embassage sent out of Bohemia unto Basil, where Sigismund held the council, who, during the time of the wars, had kept himself at Nuremberg. When he should take his journey unto Rome to be crowned emperor, he wrote letters unto the nobles of Bohemia, wherein was contained, how that be was a Bohemian born, and how he was not more affectioned to any nation than to his own, and that he went to Rome for none other cause but to be crowned, the which his honour should also he a renown to the Bohemians, whom to advance it hath been always his special care.
Also, how that through his endeavour the council was begun at Basil, exhorting all such as were desirous to be heard as touching religion, that they should come thither, and that they would not maintain any quarrel contrary to the holy mother the church; that the council would lovingly and gently hear their reasons, that they should only endeavour themselves to agree with the synod as touching religion, and reserve and keep a quiet and peaceable kingdom for him, against his return; neither should the Bohemians think to refuse his regiment, whose brother, father, and uncle had reigned over them, and that he would reign over them after no othermean or sort than other Christian kings used to do.
The council of Basil also wrote their letter to the Bohemians, that they should send their ambassadors which should show a reason of their faith, promising safe-conduct to go and come, and free liberty to speak what they would. The Bohemians in this point were of two opinions; for the protestants, and almost all the common people, said, it was not good to go, alleging the example of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, which, going unto Constance, under the safe-conduct of the emperor, were there openly burned. But the nobility, following the mind of Maynard, prince of the new house, said, that they ought to go unto the council, and that they are not to be suffered which had invented those new and strange opinions of faith, and new kind of religion, except they would render account of their doings and sayings before the universal church, and defend those things which they had openly taught before learned men. This opinion took place, and an embassage of three hundred horse was sent unto Basil. The chief whereof were William Cosca, a valiant knight, and Procopius, surnamed Magnus, a man of worthy fame for his manifold victories, John Rhochezana, preacher of Prague, Nicholas Gallicus, minister of the Taborites, and one Peter, an Englishman, of excellent, prompt, and pregnant wit. The people came in great number out of the town, and many out of the synod and council, attending before the gates to see the coming of this valiant and famous people; other some gathered together in great number into the streets where they should pass through. The matrons, maids, and children filled the windows and houses to behold and see, and to marvel at their strange kind of apparel, and stout, courageous countenances, saying, that it was not untrue which was reported of them; notwithstanding, all men beheld Procopius, saying, "This is he which hath overthrown the papists in so many battles, which hath subverted so many towns, and slain so many men, whom both his enemies, and also his own soldiers, do fear and reverence;" also that he was a bold, valiant, and invincible captain, which could not be overcome with any terror, labour, or travail.
These Bohemian ambassadors were gently received. The next day after, Cardinal Julian, sending for them unto the council-house, made a gentle, long, and eloquent oration unto them, exhorting them to unity and peace, saying, that the church was the spouse of our Saviour Christ, and the mother of all faithful, that it hath the keys of binding and loosing, and also that it is white and fair, without spot or wrinkle, and cannot err in those points that are necessary to salvation, and that he which doth contemn the same church, is to be counted as a profane ethnic, and publican, neither can this church be represented better by any means than in this council. He exhorteth them also to receive decrees of the council, and to give no less credit unto the council than unto the gospel, by whose authority the Scriptures themselves are received and allowed. Also that the Bohemians, which call themselves the children of the church, ought to hear the voice of their mother, which is never unmindful of her children; how that now of late they have lived apart from their mother; albeit, said he, that is no new or strange thing, for there have been many in times past which have forsaken their mother, and yet, seeking after salvation have returned to her again; that in the time of Noah's flood, as many as were without the ark perished; that the Lord's passover was to be eaten in one house; that there is no salvation to be sought for out of the church, and that this is the garden and famous fountain of water, whereof whosoever shall drink, shall not thirst everlastingly; that the Bohemians have done as they ought, in that they have sought the fountains of this water at the council, and have determined now at length to give ear unto their mother. Now all hatred ought to cease, all armour and weapon is to be laid apart, and all occasion of war utterly to be rejected. For the fathers would lovingly and gently hear whatsoever there they would say in their own cause or quarrel, requiring only that they would willingly receive and embrace the good counsels and determinations of the sacred synod; whereunto not only the Bohemians, but also all other faithful Christians, ought to consent and agree, if they will be partakers of eternal life.
This oration of the cardinal was heard and very well allowed of the fathers. Whereunto the Bohemians answered in few words, that they neither had contemned the church nor the council; that the sentence given at Constance, against those which were unheard, doth diminish nothing of the Christian religion; that the authority of the fathers hath always remained amongst them inviolate; and that whatsoever thing the Bohemians have taught, was confirmed by the Scriptures and gospel; and that they are now come to manifest their innocency before the whole church, and to require open audience, where the laity may also be present. Their request was granted them; and being further demanded in what points they did disagree from the Church of Rome, they propounded four articles.
First, they affirmed, that all such as would be saved, ought of necessity to receive the communionof the last supper under both kinds of bread and wine.
The second article, they affirmed all civil rule and dominion to be forbidden unto the clergy by the law of God.
The third article, that the preaching of the word of God is free for all men, and in all places. The fourth article, as touching open crimes and offences, which are in no wise to be suffered for the avoiding of greater evil.
These were the only propositions which they propounded before the council in the name of the whole realm. Then another ambassador affirmed that he had heard of the Bohemians divers and sundry things offensive to Christian ears, amongst the which this was one point, that they should preach that the invention of the order of Begging Friars was diabolical.
Then Procopius rising up, said, "Neither is it untrue; for if neither Moses, neither before him the patriarchs, neither after him the prophets, neither, in the new law, Christ and his apostles did institute the order of Begging Friars, who doth doubt but that it was an invention of the devil, and a work of darkness."
This answer of Procopius was derided of them all. And Cardinal Julianus went about to prove that not only the decrees of the patriarchs and prophets, and those things which Christ and his apostles had instituted, were of God, but also that all such decrees as the church should ordain, being guided through the Holy Ghost, be the works of God. Albeit, as he said, the order of Begging Friars might seem to be taken out of some part of the Gospel. The Bohemians chose out four divines which should declare their articles to be taken out of the Scriptures. Likewise on the contrary part there were four appointed by the council. This disputation continued fifty days, where many things were alleged on either part, whereof, as place shall serve, more hereafter (by the grace of Christ) shall be said, when we come to the time of that council.
In the mean season, while the Bohemians were thus in long conflicts with Sigismund the emperor, and the pope, fighting for their religion, unto whom, notwithstanding all the fulness of the pope's power was bent against them, God of his goodness had given such noble victories, as is above expressed, and ever did prosper them so long as they could agree among themselves; as these things, I say, were doing in Bohemia, King Henry the Fifth, fighting likewise in France, albeit for no like matters of religion, fell sick at Blois and died, after he had reigned nine years, five months, three weeks, and odd days from his coronation. This king, in life and in all his doings, was so devout and serviceable to the pope and all his chaplains, that he was called of many the prince of priests: who left behind him a son being yet an infant, nine months and fifteen days of age, whom he had by Queen Katherine, daughter to the French king, married to him about two or three years before. The name of which prince, succeeding after his father, was Henry the Sixth, left under the government and protection of his uncle named Humphrey, duke of Gloucester.
The names of the archbishops of Canterbury in this fifth book contained.