Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 114. THE ELECTION OF POPE FELIX V.


Now after that Gabriel Condulmarius was deposed from the bishopric of Rome, the

principal fathers of the council, being called together in the chapter-house of the great church, consulted together, whether it were expedient that a new bishop should be created out of hand, or deferred for a time. Such as thought good that the election should be done with speed, showed how dangerous a thing it was for such a congregation to be without a head; also what a pestiferous sickness was in all the city, which not only consumed young men and children, but also men of middle age, and old men in like manner; and that this plague came first by strangers unto the poor of the city, and so infected the rich, and now was come unto the fathers of the council: amplifying moreover and increasing the terror thereof, and making the thing worse than it was, as the manner is. Neither doth the decree, said they, any thing let or hinder, wherein it is provided that there should be delay of sixty days after the see is void; for that is to be understood when the see is void, at such time as there is no council holden; neither ought we to tarry or make any delay, lest the princes, being persuaded by Gabriel, should resist; unto whom the deposition of Gabriel, and the election of some other, is to be certified all under one message. The other, which thought good that there should be a delay, said, that the council did lack no head, forasmuch as Christ was the Head thereof; neither did lack a ruler, forasmuch as it was governed by the presidents and other officers; and that no mention should be made of any pestilence in such case, seeing that, unto stout and strong men, death is not to be feared, neither can any thing daunt or fear them which contend for the Christian faith. As for that pestilence which doth now increase and grow in the city, forasmuch as judgment is now given, it is to be hoped that it will assuage, which was thought to have come for the neglecting of justice. Also that in so doubtful a matter they ought rather to use the princes against their will, than to neglect them, and that it is not to be feared but that, in this case, God will help those that are stout and valiant. The matter being thus discussed amongst them, (albeit that there were as many minds as there were men,) yet it seemed unto them all, that it was most profitable to choose the bishop by and by, but most honest to defer it.

Hereupon John Segovius, a man of excellent learning, said, "Most reverend fathers, I am diversely drawn, by sundry reasons, to this side and that. But as I weigh the matter more deeply in my mind, this is my opinion, that to come to a speedy election it seemeth good, to speak after man's judgment; but to delay it for two months, to speak after God's judgment, it seemeth much better. I do judge that not only the words, but also the meaning, of our decree ought to be observed. Wherefore, if ye will give any credit unto me, follow rather dangerous honesty, than secure utility; albeit that indeed utility cannot be discerned from honesty." This opinion of delay took place among the fathers, and they determined to stay for the space of two months. In the mean time messengers were sent unto the princes, to declare the deposition of Eugenius by the synod, and publish it abroad.

Illustration -- Burial of Plague Victims

During this time the corrupt air was nothing at all purged, but the mortality daily increasing, many died and were sick. Whereupon a sudden fear came upon the fathers. Neither were they sufficiently advised what they might do; for they thought it not to be without danger either to depart or to tarry. Notwithstanding, they thought it good to tarry, and also they caused others to tarry; that since they had overcome famine, and the assaults of their enemies on earth, they would not seem to shrink for the persecution of any plague or sickness. But forasmuch as they could not all be kept there, it was politicly provided, that the council should not seem to be dissolved for any man's departure. And for the more establishment of the matter, there were certain things read before the fathers, which they called De stabilimento, whose authority continued long time after. When the dog-days were come, and that all herbs withered with heat, the pestilence daily increased more and more, that it is incredible how many died. It was too horrible to see the corpses hourly carried through the streets, when on every side there was weeping, wailing, and sighing. There was no house void of mourning; no mirth or laughter in any place, but matrons bewailing their husbands, and the husbands their wives. Men and women went through the streets, and durst not speak one to another. Some tarried at home, and other some, that went abroad, had perfumes to smell unto, to preserve them against the plague.

The common people died without number; and like as in the cold autumn the leaves of the trees do fall, even so did the youth of the city consume and fall away. The violence of the disease was such, that ye should have met a man merry in the street now, and within ten hours heard that he had been buried. The number of the dead corpses was such also, that they lacked place to bury them in; insomuch that all the churchyards were digged up, and filled with dead corpses, and great holes made in the parish churches, where a great number of corpses being thrust in together, they covered them over with earth. For which cause the fathers were so afraid that there appeared no blood in their faces; and specially the sudden death of Ludovicus the protonotary did make all men afraid, who was a strong man, and flourishing in age, and singularly learned in both laws; whom the same envious and raging sickness took away in a few hours. By and by after died Ludovicus the patriarch of Aquileia, a man of great age, and brought up always in troubles and adversity, neither could he see the day of the pope's election, which he had long wished for. Notwithstanding, he took partly a consolation in that he had seen Gabriel deposed before his death. This man's death was grievous unto all the fathers, for now they said that two pillars of the council were decayed and overthrown, meaning the protonotary and the patriarch, whereof the one by the law, and the other with his deeds, defended the verity of the council.

About the same time also died the king of Arragon's almoner in Switzerland, a man of excellent learning, being bishop of Liege. The abbot of Vergilia died at Spires, and John, the bishop of Lubeck, between Vienna and Buda.

These two last rehearsed, even at the point of death, did this thing worthy of remembrance. When they perceived the hour of their death approach, calling unto them certain grave and wise men, said, All you that be here present, pray to God that he will convert such as acknowledge Gabriel for high bishop, for in that state they cannot be saved; and professing themselves that they would die in the faith of the council of Basil, they departed in the Lord. In Bohemia also departed the bishop of Constance, which was ambassador for the council. There was great fear and trembling throughout all the council.

There had been also in the council, by a long time, the abbot of Dona, of the diocese of Cumana, a man poor unto the world, but rich unto God, whom neither flattering nor threatenings could turn away from his good purpose and intent, choosing rather to beg in the truth of the fathers, than to abound in riches with the false flattering adversaries.

Whereupon, after the lords were departed which gave him his living, he, remaining still, was stricken with the plague and died. Likewise a great number of the registers and doctors died; and such as fell into that disease, few or none escaped. One amongst all the rest, Æneas Sylvius, being stricken with this disease, by God's help escaped. This man lay three days even at the point of death, all men being in despair of him; notwithstanding, it pleased God to grant him longer life. When the pestilence was most fervent and hot, and that daily there died about one hundred, there was great entreaty made unto Cardinal Arelatensis, that he would go to some other town or village near hand; for these were the words of all his friends and household, "What do you, most reverend father? At the least, void this wane of the moon, and save yourself; who being safe, all we shall also be safe; if you die, we all perish. If the plague oppress you, unto whom shall we fly? Who shall rule us? or who shall be the guide of this most faithful flock? The infection hath already invaded your chamber. Your secretary and chamberlain are already dead. Consider the great danger, and save both yourself and us." But neither the entreaty of his household, neither the corpses of those which were dead, could move him, willing rather to preserve the council with peril of his life, than to save his life with peril of the council; for he did know, that if he should depart, few would have tarried behind, and that deceit should have been wrought in his absence.

Wherefore, like as in wars, the soldiers fear no danger when they see their captain in the midst of their enemies; so the fathers of the council were ashamed to fly from this pestilence, seeing their president to remain with them in the midst of all dangers. Which their doings did utterly subvert the opinion of them, which babbled abroad, that the fathers tarried in Basil to seek their own profit and commodity, and not the verity of the faith; for there is no commodity upon earth which men would change for their lives; for that all such as do serve the world, do prefer it before all other things. But these our fathers, showing themselves an invincible strong wall for the house of God, vanquishing all the crafty deceits which Gabriel used, and overcoming all difficulties, which this most cruel and pestiferous year brought upon them, at the length all desire of life also being set apart, they have overcome all dangers. and have not doubted with most constant minds to defend the verity of the council, even unto this present.

The time of the decree being passed, after the deposition of Gabriel, it seemed good unto the fathers, to proceed to the election of another bishop. And first of all they nominated those that, together with the cardinals, should elect the pope. The first and principal of the electors was the Cardinal Arelatensis, a man of invincible constancy, and incomparable wisdom; unto whose virtue I may justly ascribe whatsoever was done in the council; for without him, the prelates had not persevered in their purpose, neither could the shadow of any prince have so defended them. This man came not to the election by any favour or denomination, but by his own proper right. The rest of the electors were chosen out of the Italian, French, German, and Spanish nations, and their cells and chambers appointed to them by lots without respect of dignity or person, and as the lots fell, so were they placed; whereby it chanced a doctor to have the highest place, and a bishop the last. Wherein the distribution of lots was very strange, or rather a Divine dispensation, reproving the devices of man, whereas the prelates had determined to have the best chambers appointed for themselves, and had earnestly contended before to have their chambers appointed according to their dignity.

The next day after, there was a session holden, wherein Marcus, a famous divine, made an oration unto the electors, wherein he reckoned up the manifold crimes of Gabriel, which was deposed. He endeavoured to persuade the electors to choose such a man, which should in all points be contrary unto Gabriel, and eschew all his vices; that as he, through his manifold reproaches, was hurtful unto all men, so he which should be chosen should show himself acceptable unto all men, through justice; and as Gabriel was covetous and full of rapine, so this man should show himself continent.

There was so great a number of people gathered together to behold this matter, that neither in the church, neither in the streets, any man could pass. There was present, John, earl of Diernstein, who supplied the place of the emperor's protector; also the senators of the city, with many other noblemen, to behold the same, whereof you shall hear (Christ willing) more largely hereafter. The citizens were without in armour, to take care that there should be no uproar made. The electors received the communion together, and afterwards they received their oath, and the Cardinal Arelatensis, opening the book of decrees, read the form of the oath in the audience of all men, and first of all, he, taking the oath himself, began in this manner:

"Most reverend fathers, I promise, swear, and vow, before my Lord Jesus Christ, (whose most blessed body I, unworthy sinner, have received, unto whom, in the last judgment, I shall give account of all my deeds,) that in this business of election, whereunto now, by the will of the council, we are sent, I will seek nothing else, but only the salvation of the Christian people, and the profit of the universal church. This shall be my whole care and study, that the authority of the general councils be not contemned, that the catholic faith be not impugned, and that the fathers which remain in the council be not oppressed. This will I seek for, this shall be my care; unto this, with all my whole force and power, will I bend myself; neither will I respect any thing in this point, either for mine own cause, or for any friend, but only God, and the profit of the church. With this mind and intent, and with this heart, will I take mine oath before the council."

His words were lively and fearful. After him all the other electors, in their order, did swear and take their oath. Then they went with great solemnity unto the conclave, where they remained seven days. The manner of their election was in this sort: before the cardinal's seat was set a desk, whereupon there stood a basin of silver, into the which basin all the electors did cast their schedules, which the cardinal receiving, read one by one, and four other of the electors wrote as he read them.

The tenor of the schedules was in this manner: I George, bishop of Vicenza, do choose such a man, or such a man, for bishop of Rome, and peradventure named one or two: every one of the electors subscribed his name unto the schedule, that he might thereby know his own, and say nay, if it were contrary to that which was spoken; whereby all deceit was utterly excluded. The first scrutiny thus ended, it was found that there were many named to the papacy, yet none had sufficient voices; for that day there were seventeen of divers nations nominated. Notwithstanding, Amedeus, duke of Savoy, a man of singular virtue, surmounted them all, for in the first scrutiny he had the voice of sixteen electors, which judged him worthy to govern the church.

After this, there was diligent inquisition had in the council touching those which were named of the electors, and as every man's opinion served him, he did either praise or discommend those which were nominated. Notwithstanding, there was such report made of Amedeus, that in the next scrutiny, which was holden in the Nones of November, the said Amedeus had twenty-one voices, and likewise in the third and fourth scrutiny, twenty-one voices. And forasmuch as there was none found in all the scrutiny to have two parts, all the other schedules were burnt. And forasmuch as there lacked but only one voice to the election of the high bishop, they fell unto prayer, desiring God that he would vouchsafe to direct their minds to unity and concord, worthily to elect and choose him which should take the charge over the flock of God. Forasmuch as Amedeus seemed to be nearer unto the papacy than all other, there was great communication had amongst them touching his life and disposition. Some said that a layman ought not so suddenly to be chosen; for it would seem a strange thing for a secular prince to be called unto the bishopric of Rome; which would also too much derogate from the ecclesiastical state, as though there were none therein meet or worthy for that dignity. Other some said, that a man which was married and had children was unmeet for such a charge. Other some again affirmed, that the bishop of Rome ought to be a doctor of law, and an excellent learned-man.

When these words were spoken, other some rising up spake far otherwise; that albeit Amedeus was no doctor, yet was he learned and wise, forasmuch as all his whole youth he had bestowed in learning and study, and had sought not the name, but even ,the ground of learning. Then said another, "If ye be desirous to be instructed further of this prince's life, I pray you give ear unto me, which do know him thoroughly. Truly this man from his youth upward, and even from his young and tender years, hath lived more religiously than secularly, being always obedient to his parents and masters, and being always endued with the fear of God, never given to any vanity or wantonness; neither hath there at any time been any child of the house of Savoy, in whom hath appeared greater wit or towardness; whereby all those which did behold and know this man, judged and foresaw some great matter in him; neither were they deceived. For if ye desire to know his rule and governance, what and how noble it hath been, first know ye this, that this man hath reigned, since his father's decease, about forty years.

"During whose time, justice, the lady and queen of all other virtues, hath always flourished: for he, hearing his subjects himself, would never suffer the poor to be oppressed, or the weak to be deceived. He was the defender of the fatherless, the advocate of the widows, and protector of the poor. There was no rapine or robbery in all his territory. The poor and rich lived all under one law, neither was he burdenous to his subjects, or importune against strangers throughout all his country; there were no grievous exactions of money throughout all his dominion. He thought himself rich enough, if the inhabitants of his dominions did abound and were rich; knowing that it is the point of a good shepherd to shear his sheep, and not to devour them. In this also was his chief study and care, that his subjects might live in peace, and such as bordered upon him might have no occasion of grudge.

"By which policies he did not only quietly govern his father's dominion, but also augmented the same by others, which willingly submitted themselves unto him. He never made war upon any, but resisting against such as made war upon him, he studied rather to make peace, than to seek any revenge, desiring rather to overcome his enemies with benefits than with the sword. He married only one wife; which was a noble virgin, and of singular beauty and chastity. He would have all his family to keep their hands and eyes chaste and continent, and throughout all his house, honesty and integrity of manners were observed. When his wife had changed her life, and that he perceived his duchy to be established, and that it should come without any controversy unto his posterity, he declared his mind, which was always religious, and devoted unto God, and showed what will and affection he had long borne in his heart. For he, contemning the pomp and state of this world, calling unto him his dear friends, departed and went into a wilderness; where building a goodly abbey he addicted himself wholly to the service of God, and taking his cross upon him, followed Christ. In which place he being conversant by the space of many years, showed forth great examples of holiness, wearing no other garments but such as could withstand the cold, neither using any kind of dainty fare, but only to resist hunger, watching and praying the most part of the night. Wherefore, this prince is not newly come unto the church, (as some do suppose,) but being a Christian born of progenitors a thousand years and more being Christians, doth now serve God in a monastery.

"But as touching that also which is spoken concerning a wife, I do not regard it; when not only he which hath had a wife, but he also which hath a wife, may be elect and chosen pope: but why do the doctors dispute, whether a married man chosen pope ought to perform his duty towards his wife, but only because a married man might be received and chosen? For, as you know well enough, there were many popes that had wives; and Peter also was not without a wife. But what do we stand about this? For peradventure it had been better that more priests had been married; for many should be saved through marriage, which are now damned throughtheir single life. But hereof we will," saith he, "speak in another place. But this seemeth unto me rather to be laughed at, than worthy any answer, which is objected touching his children: for in what can children (specially being of great age) be impediment or let unto the father, being a bishop? Doth not the Scripture say, Woe be unto him that is alone! for if he fall, he hath none to help him up again? This cannot be imputed unto the prince; for he hath two sons, both comely and wise; whereof the one is prince of Piedmont, the other earl of the Genoese: these men will rule the country of Savoy in the absence of their father, and will help him if he have need; for they have already learned to rule over that people. I pray you, what hurt is it for a bishop of Rome to have valiant children, which may help their father against tyrants? O most reverend fathers, the more I do behold the storm of this most perverse and froward time, the more I do consider the vexations and troubles which the church is now tormented withal, I do so much the more think it profitable, yea, and necessary, that this man should be chosen prince and head: I will think that God hath showed his mercy upon us, if I may see him have the governance over this ship. I pray you, consider into what straits we are now driven, with what perils we are now vexed and tossed. What prince is it that is obedient unto this council? For some will not confess that the council is here, neither receive our decrees; other some confess it in their words, but by their deeds they declare it to be at Florence. For albeit that by their words and letters they do not deny that the church is here, yet do they procure promotions at the hands of Gabriel which is deposed. This is the state of the church, with these storms and tempests the ship is shaken and bruised; wicked children have risen up against their mother, which being unmindful of their mother's labours and kindness towards them, despise her, contemn her, and beat her. What is to be done herein? Shall we choose a bare man, which shall rather be derided of our princes, than had in reverence? The days are not now, that men have respect only unto virtue; for (as the satirical poet writeth) virtue is praised, but is coldly followed. A poor man speaketh, and they ask what he is. Truly virtue is good; but for our purpose, it must be marked and looked upon, whether it be in a rich man, or a poor man; you must choose a governor which may rule the ship not only by counsel, but by power also. The wind is great; wherefore, except the counsel be good, and the power strong, the ship shall be broken, and all put in danger. The memorial is yet fresh before our eyes, that the princes do neglect the authority which is of no force or power. Is there not great valiantness showed in this point, in that you, fearing no peril or danger, either of life or goods, have so long contended for the truth of Christ? But the most mighty and high God looketh down from on high, and will resist this their pride. I have often consented unto their opinion, which said it was expedient that the temporal dominions should be divided from the ecclesiastical state; for I did think that the priests should thereby be made more apt to the Divine ministry, and secular princes more obedient to the clergy. But forasmuch as at this present the churches of the world are possessed partly by Eugenius, and partly by other tyrants, we must provide that we choose such a one, which may recover again the patrimony of the church, and in whom the office of Christ's vicar may not be contemned; through the shield of whose power their contumacy may be suppressed, which contemn both verity and reason. Whereunto no man seemeth unto me more apt or meet than Amedeus, duke of Savoy, which holdeth the one part of his possessions in Italy, and the other in France; unto whom all Christian princes are allied either by consanguinity, or joined by amity and friendship, and whose virtue, how famous it is, I have already declared. Why do we then stay or doubt to choose him, than whom Gabriel feareth no man more? Let him therefore perish with the sword wherewithal he hath stricken. There is no man which can more pacify the church than he. Do you require devotion in a bishop? there is no man more devout than he. Do you require prudence? Now ye understand by his former life what manner of man he is. If ye seek for justice, his people are a witness thereof; so that whether you seek for virtue or power, all are here present before you. Whereupon do ye stay? Go to, I pray you, choose this man. He will augment the faith, he will reform manners, and preserve the authority of the church. Have ye not heard these troubles of the church to have been before spoken of, and that the time now present should be an end of all troubles? Have ye not heard that about this time there should a pope be chosen, which should comfort Sion, and set all things in peace? And who, I pray you, should he be that could fulfil these things, except we choose this man? Believe me, these sayings must be fulfilled, and I trust that God will move your minds thereunto. Notwithstanding, do whatsoever you shall think most good and holy."

When he had spoken these words, the greatest number of the electors seemed to consent unto him, and his words took such effect, that in the next scrutiny the matter was finished and ended, and when the scrutiny was opened, it was found that Amedeus, the most devout duke of Savoy, according to the decree of the council, was chosen pope. Wherefore suddenly there was great joy and gladness amongst them, and all men highly commended their doings. Then the Cardinal Arelatensis published unto them the name of the elect bishop. After this all the prelates in their robes and mitres, and all the clergy of the city, coming unto the conclave, the electors being likewise adorned, they brought him unto the great church, where, after great thanks given unto God, and the election again declared unto the people, a hymn being sung for joy, the congregation was dissolved.

This Amedeus aforesaid, was a man of reverend age, of comely stature, of grave and discreet behaviour, also before married. Who thus being elected for pope about November, was called Felix the Fifth, and was crowned in the city of Basil, in the month of July. There was present at his coronation, Lewis, duke of Savoy; Philip, Earl Gebenensis; Lewis, marquis of Salutz; the marquis of Rotelen; Conrad of Winsperge, chamberlain of the empire; the earl of Diernstein; the ambassadors of the cities of Strasburgh, Berne, Friburg, Solatorne, with a great multitude of other beside, to the view of fifty thousand persons. At this coronation, the pope's two sons did serve and minister to their father. Lewis, cardinal of Hostia, did set on his head the pontifical diadem, which was esteemed at thirty thousand crowns. It were long here to recite the whole order and solemnity of the procession, or the pope's riding about the city. First proceeded the pope, under his canopy of cloth of gold, having on his head a triple crown, and blessing the people as he went. By him went the marquis of Rotelen, and Conrad of Winsperge, leading his horse by the bridle. The procession finished, they went to dinner, which lasted four full hours, being excessively sumptuous; where the pope's two sons were butlers to his cup; the marquis of Salutz was the steward.

Of this Felix thus writeth Volateran, in his third book, "that he, being desired of certain of the ambassadors, if he had any dogs or hounds to show them, he willed them the next day to repair unto him, and he would show unto them such as he had. When the ambassadors, according to the appointment, were come, he showeth unto them a great number of poor people and beggars sitting at his tables at meat, declaring that those were his hounds, which he every day used to feed, hunting with them (he trusted) for the glory of heaven to come."

And thus you have heard the state of this council hitherto, which council endured a long season, the space of seventeen years.

About the sixth year of the council, Sigismund the emperor died, leaving but one daughter to succeed him in his kingdoms, whom he had married to Albert, the second duke of Austria, which first succeeded in the kingdom of Hungary and Bohemia, being a sore adversary to the Bohemians; and afterward was made emperor, A. D. 1438, and reigned emperor but two years, leaving his wife, which was Sigismund's daughter, great with child. After which Albert succeeded his brother Frederic, the third duke of Austria, in the empire, &c., whereof more (Christ willing) hereafter.

In the mean time, Eugenius, hearing of the death of Sigismund, above recited, began to work the dissolution of the council of Basil, and to transfer it to Ferraria, pretending the coming of the Grecians. Notwithstanding, the council of Basil, through the disposition of God, and the worthiness of Cardinal Arelatensis, constantly endured. Albeit in the said council were many stops and practices to impeach the same, beside the sore plague of pestilence which fell in the city, during the said council. In the which plague time, besides the death of many worthy men, Æneas Sylvius also, himself, the writer and compiler of the whole history of that council, sitting at the feet of the bishops of Turnon and Lubeck, lay sore sick three days of the same, as is above touched, and never thought to escape. They that died, departed with this exhortation, desiring men to pray to God, that he would convert the hearts of them that stuck to Eugenius as pope, against that council, as partly is afore noted, and now repeated again for the better marking. Arelatensis, being most instantly exhorted by his friends to fly that danger, could by no means be entreated to avoid, fearing more the danger of the church, than of his own life.

Beside these so great difficulties and obstacles to stay and hinder this council, strange it was to behold the mutation of men's minds. Of whom such as first seemed to favour the council afterwards did impugn it, and such as before were against it, in the end showed themselves most friends unto the same. The chief cardinals and prelates, the more they had to lose, the sooner they slipped away, or else lurked in houses or towns near, and absented themselves for fear; so that the stay of the council most rested upon their proctors, doctors, archdeacons, deans, provosts, priors, and such other of the inferior sort. Whereof Æneas Sylvius, in his 183rd epistle, maketh this relation, where one Caspar Schlicke, the emperor's chancellor, writeth to Cardinal Julian in these words: "Those cardinals," saith he, "who so long time magnified so highly the authority of the church, and of general councils, seeming as though they were ready to spend their lives for the same, now at the sight of one letter from their king, (wherein yet no death was threatened, but only loss of their promotions,) slipped away from Basil." And in the same epistle deridingly commendeth them, as "wise men, that had rather lose their faith than their flock. Albeit," saith he, "they departed not far away, but remained about Solatorne, waiting for other commandments from their prince. Whereby it may appear, how they did shrink away not willingly, but the burse," quoth he, "bindeth faster than true honour. What matter maketh the name of a man, so his money be safe? "

Moreover, in one of the sessions of the said council, the worthy Cardinal Arelatensis is said thus to have reported, that "Christ was sold for thirty pence, but I," said he, "was sold much more dear; for Gabriel, otherwise called Eugenius, pope, offered threescore thousand crowns, whoso would take me, and present me unto him." And they that took the said cardinal, afterward excused their fact by another colour, pretending the cause, for that the cardinal's brother, what time the Armiakes wasted Alsace, had brought great damage to the inhabitants there, and therefore they thought (said they) that they might lawfully lay hands upon a Frenchman, wheresoever they might take him. At length, by the bishop of Strasburgh, Rupert, and the said city, the matter was taken up, and he rescued. Wherein no doubt appeared the hand of God, in defending his life from the pestilent danger of the pope his adversary.

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