Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 256. OTHER THINGS WHICH HAPPENED IN THIS REALM, IN THIS TUMULTUOUS TIME.(1)

256. OTHER THINGS WHICH HAPPENED IN THIS REALM, IN THIS TUMULTUOUS TIME.(1)

            These disputations being thus discussed and ended, which were at Oxford in the month of April, as is aforesaid: now let us return again to the prosecuting of our story, touching other things likewise that happened in other parts of the realm, in this tumultuous time of Queen Mary. And because things that happened in that time were so many and divers, that it is hard to keep a perfect order in reciting them all -- to the intent therefore to insert things left out before, or else to prosecute the same more at full, we have thought here a little to interrupt the order of time, (albeit not much,) returning again to the month of July the year before, viz. 1553. In the which month of July, I showed before, how the duke of Northumberland was apprehended by the guard, and brought to London by the earl of Arundel, and other lords and gentlemen appointed for that purpose, on St. James's day, (being the twenty-fifth of July,) and so to the Tower, where he remained.

            These be the names of them that were committed to the Tower with the duke. First, the earl of Warwick, the earl of Huntingdon, Lord Ambrose Dudley and Lord Henry Dudley, Lord Hastings, who was delivered again the same night; Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates, Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir Thomas Palmer, and Dr. Sands, chancellor of Cambridge.

            The twenty-sixth of July, the lord marquis of Northampton, the bishop of London, Lord Robert Dudley, and Sir Richard Corbet, were brought and committed to the Tower.

            The twenty-seventh of July, the lord chief justice of England, and the Lord Mountacute, chief justice of the Common Pleas, were committed to the Tower.

            On the Friday, being the twenty-eighth of July, the duke of Suffolk and Sir John Cheke were committed to the Tower.

            The thirtieth of July, the Lord Russel was committed to the sheriff of London's custody.

            The thirty-first of July, the earl of Rutland was committed to the Fleet.

            On the same day, being Monday, the duke of Suffolk was delivered out of the Tower again. On Thursday the third of August, the queen entered into the city of London at Aldgate, and so to the Tower, where she remained seven days, and then removed to Richmond.

            On Friday the fourth of August, Dr. Day was delivered out of the Fleet.

            On Saturday the fifth of August, the Lord Ferrers was committed to the Tower, and the same day Dr. Bonner was delivered out of the Marshalsea. The same day at night, Dr. Coxe was committed to the Marshalsea, and one Master Edward Underhill to Newgate. Also the same day Dr. Tonstal and Stephen Gardiner were delivered out of the Tower, and Gardiner received into the queen's privy council, and made lord chancellor.

            On Sunday the sixth of August, Henry Dudley. captain of the guard at Guines, who before had been sent to the French king by his cousin the duke of Northumberland, after the despatch of his ambassage with the French king, returned to Guines, and so was taken, and this day brought to the Tower.

            On Monday the seventh of August, Dirige in Latin was sung within the Tower, by all the king's chapel, and the bishop of Winchester was chief minister; whereat was present the queen, with most part of the council.

            On Tuesday the eighth of August, the king's body was brought to Westminster, and there buried; where Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, preached. The same day a mass of Requiem was sung within the Tower, by the bishop of Winchester, who had on his mitre, and did all things as in times past was done; at which mass the queen was present.

            On Thursday the duke of Norfolk came forth of the Tower, with whom the duchess of Somerset was also delivered this Thursday.

            On Sunday the thirteenth of August, Dr. Bourn preached at Paul's Cross: of the which sermon read before.

            In the week following, commandment was given throughout the city, that no apprentices should come to the sermon, nor bear any knife or dagger.

            On the Wednesday, being the sixteenth of August, Master Bradford, Master Beacon, and Master Veron, were committed to the Tower: with whom

also Master Sampson should have been committed, and was sought for the same time at Master Elsing's house in Fleet Street, where Master Bradford was taken; and because he was not found, the bishop of Winchester fumed like a prelate, with the messenger.

            On the Friday, being the eighteenth of August, the duke of Northumberland, the marquis of Northampton, and the earl of Warwick, were arraigned at Westminster, and there the same day condemned; the duke of Norfolk that day being the high judge.

            On Saturday the nineteenth of August, Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, were arraigned at Westminster, and condemned the same day; the lord marquis of Winchester being high judge.

            On that day a letter was sent unto Sir Henry Tirril, Anthony Brown and Edmund Brown, esquires, praying them to commit to ward all such as should contemn the queen's order of religion, or should keep themselves from church, there to remain until they be conformable, and to signify their names to the council.

            On Sunday the twentieth of August, Dr. Watson, the bishop of Winchester's chaplain, preached at Paul's Cross, at whose sermon were present the marquis of Winchester, the earl of Bedford, the earl of Pembroke, the Lord Rich, and two hundred of the guard with their halberts, lest the people should have made any stir against the preacher.

            On Monday the twenty-first of August, the duke of Northumberland, the marquis of Northampton, Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, heard a mass within the Tower, and after mass they all five received the sacrament in one kind only, as in the popish time was used. On the which day also Queen Mary set forth a proclamation, signifying to the people, that she could not hide any longer the religion which she from her infancy had professed, &c.: inhibiting in the said proclamation, printing and preaching. The tenor thereof read before.

            On the Tuesday, being the twenty-second of August, the duke of Northumberland, Sir John Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, were beheaded at the Tower Hill, as before is said. The same day certain noble personages heard mass within the Tower, and likewise after mass, received the sacrament in one kind.

            On Sunday the twenty-seventh of August, Dr. Chedsey preached at Paul's Cross; and the same day the bishop of Canterbury, Sir Thomas Smith, and the dean of Paul's, were cited to appear the week following before the queen's commissioners, in the bishop's consistory within Paul's.

            In this mean time it was noised abroad by running rumours falsely and craftily devised; either to stablish the credit of the mass, or else to bring Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, out of credit, that he, to curry favour with Queen Mary, should promise to say "Dirige mass," after the old custom, for King Edward, and that he had already said mass at Canterbury, &c. Wherefore, to stop the noise and slanders of those rumours, on the seventh of September, 1553, he set forth a letter, which was also printed, in purgation of himself, the copy of which letter here ensueth:

            "As the devil, Christ's ancient adversary, is a liar, and the father of lies, even so hath he stirred up his servants and members to persecute Christ, and his true word and religion, with lying: which he ceaseth not to do most earnestly at this present time. For whereas the prince of famous memory, King Henry the Eighth, seeing the great abuses of the Latin mass, reformed some things therein in his lifetime, and after, our late sovereign lord King Edward the Sixth, took the same wholly away, for the manifold and great errors and abuses of the same, and restored in the place thereof Christ's holy supper, according to Christ's own institution, and as the apostles used the same in the primitive church; the devil goeth about now, by lying, to overthrow the Lord's supper again, and to restore his Latin satisfactory mass, a thing of his own invention and device. And to bring the same more easily to pass, some have abused the name of me, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, bruiting abroad, that I have set up the mass at Canterbury, and that I offered to say mass at the burial of our late sovereign prince King Edward the Sixth, and that I offered also to say mass before the queen's Highness, and at Paul's church, and I wot not where. And although I have been well exercised these twenty years to suffer and bear evil reports and lies, and have not been much grieved thereat, but have borne all things quietly; yet, when untrue reports and lies turn to the hinderance of God's truth, they are in no wise to he suffered. Wherefore, these be to signify unto the world, that it was not I that set up the mass at Canterbury, but it was a false, flattering, lying, and dissembling monk, which caused mass to be set up there without mine advice or counsel. And as for offering myself to say mass before the queen's Highness, or in any other place, I never did it; as her Grace well knoweth. But if her Grace will give me leave, I shall be ready to prove, against all that will say the contrary, that all that is contained in the Holy Communion, set out by the most innocent and godly prince King Edward the Sixth, in his high court of parliament, is conformable to that order which our Saviour Christ did both observe, and command to be observed; and which his apostles and the primitive church used many years:-- whereas the mass, in many things, not only hath no foundation of Christ, his apostles, nor the primitive church, but is manifestly contrary to the same, and containeth many horrible abuses in it. And although many, either unlearned or malicious, do report, that Master Peter Martyr is unlearned, yet, if the queen's Highness will grant thereunto, I. with the said Master Peter Martyr, and other four or five, which I shall choose, will, by God's grace, take upon us to defend, not only the common prayers of the church, the ministration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies, but also all the doctrine and religion set out by our sovereign lord King Edward the Sixth, to be more pure, and according to God's word, than any other that hath been used in England these one thousand years: so that God's word may be judge, and that the reasons and proofs of both parties may be set out in writing, to the intent, as well that all the world may examine and judge thereon, as that no man shall start back from his writing. And whereas they boast of the faith, that hath been in the church these fifteen hundred years, we will join with them in this point; and that the same doctrine and usage is to be followed, which was in the church fifteen hundred years past: and we shall prove, that the order of the church, set out at this present in this realm by act of parliament, is the same that was used in the church fifteen hundred years past -- and so shall they be never able to prove theirs."

            The same Thursday, being the seventh of September, 1553, Lord Mountacute, chief justice, and the lord chief baron, were delivered out of the Tower.

            The thirteenth of September, the reverend father, Master Hugh Latimer, was committed to the Tower.

            The fourteenth of September, the archbishop of Canterbury was committed to the Tower.

            The twenty-sixth of September, one Master Gray of Cambridge, called before him one Master Garth, for that he would not suffer a boy of Peterhouse to help him say mass in Pembroke hall; which was before any law was established for that behalf.

            The queen came to the Tower of London upon the Thursday, the twenty-eighth of September. And, upon the Saturday following, she rode from the Tower through the city of London, where were made many pageants to receive her; and so she was triumphantly brought to Westminster to Whitehall.

{Ilustration: Queen Mary's Coronation Procession £259}

            Upon the Sunday, being the first of October, 1553, the queen's Highness went from Whitehall to Westminster Abbey, accompanied with the most part of the nobility of this realm, namely these: the duke of Norfolk, the earl of Arundel, the earl of Shrewsbury, the marquis of Winchester, the earls of Derby, Bedford, Worcester, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Oxford, Sussex, Devonshire, Pembroke, the Lord Dacres of the north, Lord Ferrers, Lord Cobham, Lord Abergavenny, Lord Wentworth, Lord Scrope, Lord Riche, Lord Vaux, Lord Howard, Lord Connyers, Lord Morley, Lord Paget, and the Lord Willoughby, with other nobles, and all the ambassadors of divers countries, and the mayor of London, with all the aldermen. Also out of the Abbey, to receive her coming, came three silver crosses, and to the number of fourscore, or near upon, of singing men, all in very rich and gorgeous copes. Amongst whom was the dean of Westminster, and divers of her chaplains, which bare every one some ensign in their hands, and after them followed ten bishops, mitred all, and their crosier staves in their hands, and rich copes upon them every one. And in this order they returned from Westminster Hall before the queen to the Abbey, where she was crowned by Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester and lord chancellor of England. At the time of the coronation Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, made a sermon to the queen's Majesty, and to the rest of the nobility.

            Also there was a general pardon proclaimed within the Abbey at the same time of her coronation, out of which proclamation all the prisoners of the Tower and the Fleet were excepted, and sixty-two more; whereof Master Whitchurch and Master Grafton were two.

            The third of October, the vice-chancellor of Cambridge did challenge one Master Pierson, for that he ministered still the communion in his own parish, and did receive strangers of other parishes to the same, and would not say mass. Whereupon, within two days after, he was clean discharged from further ministering in his cure.

            On the Wednesday following, the archbishop of York was committed to the Tower.

            On Thursday, being the fifth of October, the queen rode to the parliament in her robes, and all the nobility with her, and when they were set in the parliament house, the bishop of Winchester made to them a solemn oration, and Serjeant Pollard was chosen speaker of the parliament. The same day the bishops of Lincoln, Hereford, and Chester, were discharged from the parliament and convocation.

            Also, the tenth of October, the earl of Huntingdon was delivered out of the Tower.

            On the Sunday after, being the fifteenth of October, Master Laurence Saunders preached at Allhallows in Bread Street in the morning; where he declared the abomination of the mass, with divers other matters, very notably and godly: whereof more shall be heard (by the Lord's leave) hereafter, when we come to his story. In which his doing, as he showed himself to be God's faithful minister, so is he sure not to be defrauded of God's faithful promise, who saith, Whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I confess before my Father in heaven. But about noon of the same day, he was sent for by the bishop of London, and from thence committed to the Marshalsea.

            On the Sunday following, being the twentieth of October, Dr. Weston preached at Paul's Cross: who, in the beginning of his sermon, willed the people to pray for the souls departed, on this wise: "You shall pray for all them that be departed, that be neither in heaven, nor hell, but in a place not yet sufficiently purged to come to heaven, that they may be relieved by your devout prayers." He named the Lord's table an oyster-board. He said, that the catechism in Latin, lately set out, was abominable heresy, and likened the setters-out of the same catechism to Julian the apostate, and the book to a dialogue set out by the said Julian the apostate, wherein Christ and Pilate were the speakers; with many other things. Which sermon, with all the points thereof, Master Coverdale the same time learnedly confuted by writing; which remaineth yet in my hands to be seen.

            In the week following began the disputations in the Convocation-house in Paul's church, whereof sufficient hath been before declared.

            The twenty-sixth of October, the vice-chancellor of Cambridge went to Clare hall, and in the presence of Dr. Walker, displaced Dr. Madew, and placed Master Swynbourne in the mastership there, by force of the lord chancellor's letters; for that he was (as they termed it) uxoratus, that is, married.

            The twenty-eighth of October, the papists in the King's college in Cambridge (not tarrying the making of any law, but of their blind zeal) had their whole service again in the Latin tongue; contrary to the law then in force.

            The last day of October, the vice-chancellor of Cambridge did sharply reprove and threaten one Master Thrackold, for that he challenged the said vice-chancellor, who had suffered Master Bovell (contrary to the statutes then in force) quietly without punishment to depart, notwithstanding that he refused to swear to the supremacy of the queen, and the abrogation of the bishop of Rome.

            The third of November the vice-chancellor sent for the curate of the Round church in Cambridge, commanding him not to minister any more in the English tongue; saying, he would have one uniform order of service throughout the town, and that in Latin, with mass: which was established the twelfth day of this month.

            The sixth of November, Master Pollard preached at St. Michael's, and in his sermon approved purgatory.

            The twenty-eighth of November, the archdeacon's official visited Hinton, where he gave in charge to present all such as did disturb the queen's proceedings, in letting the Latin service, the setting up of their altars, and saying of mass, or any part thereof: whereby it was easy to see, how these good fellows meant to proceed, having the law once on their side; that thus readily, against a manifest law, would attempt the punishment of any man.

            The fifteenth of December there were two proclamations at London; the one for the repealing of certain acts made by King Edward, and for the setting up of the mass, for the twentieth of December then next following: the other was, that no man should interrupt any of those that would say mass.

            The parliament beginning about the fifth of October, continued till the fifth of December. In the which parliament were dissolved as well all the statutes made of prĉmunire, in the time of King Henry the Eighth, &c., as also other laws and statutes concerning religion and administration of sacraments, decreed under King Edward the Sixth, as is partly above touched. In the which parliament moreover was appointed, the twentieth of December next ensuing, the same year 1553, that all the old form and manner of church service, used in the last year of King Henry, should now again be restored.

            On new-year's even, being the last day of December, the lord marquis of Northampton was delivered out of the Tower.

            About this time a priest of Canterbury said mass on the one day, and the next day after he came into the pulpit, and desired all the people to forgive him; for he said, he had betrayed Christ, not as Judas did, but as Peter did: and there made a long sermon against the mass.

            The day after new-year's day, being the second of January, A. D. 1554, four ambassadors came into London from the emperor, and were honourably received. Their names were these: the counts of Egmont and Lalain, the lord of Courrieres, and the sieur de Nigry.

            About this time a great number of new bishops, deans, &c., were chosen; more than were made at one time since the Conquest. Their names are these: Holyman, bishop of Bristol; Cotes, bishop of Chester; Hopton, bishop of Norwich; Bourn, bishop of Bath; White, bishop of Lincoln; Mores, bishop of Rochester; Morgan, bishop of St. David's; Poole, bishop of St. Asaph; Brookes, bishop of Gloucester; Moreman, coadjutor to the bishop of Exeter, and, after his decease, bishop of Exeter; Glyn, bishop of Bangor; Master Fecknam, dean of Paul's; Rainolds, dean of Bristol, with others.

            The twelfth of January, the vice-chancellor of Cambridge called a congregation general, wherein amongst other things he showed, that the queen would have there a mass of the Holy Ghost upon the eighteenth of February then next following, for that it was her birthday; which was fulfilled the day appointed, and that very solemnly.

            On the Saturday, being the thirteenth of January, Dr. Crome was committed to the Fleet. Also upon the Sunday following, one Master Addington was committed to the Tower. Also this same Sunday knowledge was given in the court openly by the bishop of Winchester, that the marriage between the queen's Majesty and the king of Spain was concluded; and the day following, being Monday, and the fifteenth of January, the mayor with the aldermen and certain commons were at the court; and there they were commanded by the lord chancellor to prepare the city ready to receive the said king of Spain; who declared unto them what a catholic, mighty, prudent, and wise prince the said king was, with many other commendations of him.

            On the Saturday following, being the twentieth of January, the court of the first-fruits and tenths was dissolved.

            On the Thursday at night following, the twenty-fifth of January, the lord marquis of Northampton was again committed to the Tower, and Sir Edward Warner with him; who were brought to the Tower by the mayor.

            On the Saturday following, being the twenty-seventh of January, Justice Hales was committed to the Marshalsea, and the same day Master Rogers was committed to Newgate. On this Saturday, and the Sunday and Monday following, the Londoners prepared a number of soldiers (by the queen's commandment) to go into Kent against the commons: whereof were chief captains the duke of Norfolk, the earl of Arundel, Sir Henry Jerningham, Sir George Hayward, and ten other captains. Which soldiers when they came to Rochester bridge, where they should have set upon their enemies, most of them (as it is said) left their own captains, and came wholly to the Kentish men; and so the aforesaid captains returned to the court both void of men and victory, leaving behind them both six pieces of ordnance and treasure.

            About the latter end of January, the duke of Suffolk with his brethren departed from his house at Shene, and took his voyage into Leicestershire. After whom was sent the earl of Huntingdon to take him and bring him to London, who proclaimed the said duke traitor, by the way as he rode.

            And thus passing to the month of February, here is to be noted by way of story, that upon the fifteenth day of the said month, being Thursday, there were seen within the city of London, about nine of the clock in the forenoon, strange sights. There were seen two suns both shining at once, the one a pretty good way distant from the other. At the same time was also seen a rainbow turned contrary, and a great deal higher than hath been accustomed. The common standing of the rainbow is thus ∩, but this stood thus U, with the head downward, and the feet as it were upward. Both these sights were seen as well at Westminster, in Cheapside, and on the south side of Paul's, as in very many other places; and that by a great number of honest men. Also certain aldermen went out of the Guildhall, to behold the sight.

 

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