326. JOHN PHILPOT
ext followeth the constant martyrdom of Master John Philpot, of whom partly ye heard before in the beginning of Queen Mary's time, in prosecuting the disputation of the convocation-house. He was of a worshipful house, a knight's son, born in Hampshire, brought up in the New College in Oxford, where he studied the civil law the space of six or seven years, besides the study of other liberal arts, especially of the tongues, wherein very forwardly he profited, namely, in the knowledge of the Hebrew tongue, &c. In wit he was pregnant and happy, of a singular courage, in spirit fervent, in religion zealous, and also well practised and exercised in the same, (which is no small matter in a true divine,) of nature and condition plain and apert, far from all flattery, further from all hypocrisy and deceitful dissimulation. What his learning was, his own examinations penned of his own hand can declare.
From Oxford, desirous to see other countries as occasion served thereunto, he went over into Italy, and places thereabouts, where he, coming upon a time from Venice to Padua, was in danger through a certain Franciscan friar accompanying him in his journey, who, coming to Padua, sought to accuse him of heresy. At length returning into England his country again, as the time ministered more boldness to him in the days of King Edward, he had divers conflicts with Gardiner the bishop in the city of Winchester, as appeareth by divers of Winchester's letters, and his examinations; whereof read before.
After that, having an advowson by the said bishop, he was made there archdeacon of Winchester, under Dr. Poinet, who then succeeded Gardiner in that bishopric. Thus during the time of King Edward, he continued to no small profit of those parts thereabout. When that blessed king was taken away, and Mary his sister came in place, whose study was wholly bent to alter the state of religion in the woeful realm of England, first she caused a convocation of the prelates and learned men to be congregated to the accomplishment of her desire.
In the which convocation Master Philpot, being present according to his room and degree, with a few others, sustained the cause of the gospel manfully against the adversary part (as is above recited); for the which cause, notwithstanding the liberty of the house promised before, he was called to account before Bishop Gardiner, the chancellor, then being his ordinary, by whom he was first examined, although that examination came not yet to our hands. From thence again he was removed to Bonner and other commissioners, with whom he had divers and sundry conflicts, as in his examinations here following may appear.
The first examination of Master John Philpot before the queen's commissioners, Master Cholmley, Master Roper, and Dr. Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches, at Newgate Sessions'-Hall, October the second, 1555.
Dr. Story, before I was called into an inner parlour where they sat, came out into the hall where I was, to view me among others that there were, and passing by me said, "Ha! Master Philpot;" and in returning immediately again, stayed against me, beholding me, and saying that I was well fed indeed.
Philpot.--"If I be fat, and in good liking, Master Doctor, it is no marvel, since I have been stalled up in prison this twelve months and a half, in a close corner. I am come to know your pleasure wherefore you have sent for me."
Story.--"We hear that thou art a suspect person, and of heretical opinions; and therefore we have sent for thee."
Philpot.--"I have been in prison thus long, only upon the occasion of disputation made in the convocation-house, and upon suspicion of setting forth the report thereof."
Story.--"If thou wilt revoke the same, and become an honest man, thou shalt be set at liberty, and do right well: or else thou shalt be committed to the bishop of London. How sayest thou, wilt thou revoke it or no?"
Philpot.--"I have already answered in this behalf to mine ordinary."
Story.--"If thou answerest thus, when thou comest before us anon, thou shalt hear more of our minds:" and with that he went into the parlour, and I within a little while after was called in.
The scribe.--"Sir, what is your name?"
Philpot.--"My name is John Philpot." And so he intituled my name.
Story.--"This man was archdeacon of Winchester, of Dr. Poinet's presentment."
Philpot.--"I was archdeacon indeed, but none of his presentment, but by virtue of a former advowson, given by my Lord Chancellor that now is."
Story.--"Ye may be sure that my Lord Chancellor would not make any such as he is archdeacon."
Roper.--"Come hither to me, Master Philpot. We hear say that you are out of the catholic church, and have been a disturber of the same; out of the which whoso is, he cannot be the child of salvation. Wherefore, if you will come into the same, you shall be received, and find favour."
Philpot.--"I am come before your worshipful Masterships at your appointment, understanding that you are magistrates authorized by the queen's Majesty, to whom I owe, and will do my due obedience, to the uttermost. Wherefore I desire to know what cause I have offended in, wherefore I am now called before you. And if I cannot be charged with any particular matter done contrary to the laws of this realm, I desire your Masterships that I may have the benefit of a subject, and be delivered out of my long wrongful imprisonment, where I have lien this twelve-month and this half, without any calling to answer before now, and my living taken from me without all law."
Roper.--"Though we have no particular matter to charge you withal, yet we may, by our commission and by the law, drive you to answer to the suspicion of a slander going on you: and besides this, we have statutes to charge you herein withal."
Philpot.--"If I have offended any statute, charge me therewithal; and, if I have incurred the penalty thereof, punish me accordingly. And because you are magistrates and executors of the queen's Majesty's laws, by force whereof you do now sit, I desire that if I be found no notorious transgressor of any of them, I may not be burdened with more than I have done."
Cholmley.--"If the justice do suspect a felon, he may examine him upon suspicion thereof, and commit him to prison though there be no fault done."
Story.--"I perceive whereabout this man goeth. He is plain in Cardmaker's case, for he made the selfsame allegations. But they will not serve thee; for thou art a heretic, and holdest against the blessed mass. How sayest thou to that?"
Philpot.--"I am no heretic."
Story.--"I will prove thee a heretic. Whosoever hath holden against the blessed mass, is a heretic: but thou hast holden against the same, therefore thou art a heretic."
Philpot.--"That which I spake, and which you are able to charge me withal, was in the convocation, where, by the queen's Majesty's will and her whole council, liberty was given to every man of the house to utter his conscience, and to say his mind freely of such questions in religion, as there were propounded by the prolocutor; for the which now I thought not to be molested and imprisoned as I have been, neither now be compelled of you to answer to the same."
Story.--"Thou shalt go to the Lollards' Tower, and be handled there like a heretic, as thou art; and answer to the same that thou there didst speak; and be judged by the bishop of London."
Philpot.--"I have already been convented of this matter before my Lord Chancellor mine ordinary, who this long time hath kept me in prison. Therefore, if his Lordship will take my life away, as he hath done my liberty and living, he may; the which I think he cannot do of his conscience, and therefore hath let me lie thus long in prison: wherefore I am content to abide the end of him herein that is mine ordinary, and do refuse the auditory of the bishop of London, because he is an incompetent judge for me, and not mine ordinary."
Story.--"But, sir, thou spakest words in the convocation-house, which is of the bishop of London's diocese, and therefore thou shalt be carried to the Lollards' Tower, to be judged by him for the words thou spakest in his diocese against the blessed mass."
Philpot.--"Sir, you know by the law, that I may have Exceptionem fori; and it is against all equity, that I should be twice vexed for one cause, and that by such as by the law have nothing to do with me."
Roper.--"You cannot deny, but that you spake against the mass in the convocation-house."
Story.--"Dost thou deny that which thou spakest there, or no?"
Philpot.--"I cannot deny that I have spoken there, and if by the law you may put me to death therefore, I am here ready to suffer whatsoever I shall be judged unto."
The scribe.--"This man is fed of vain-glory."
Cholmley.--"Play the wise gentleman, and be conformable; and be not stubborn in your opinions, neither cast yourself away. I would be glad to do you good."
Philpot.--"I desire you, sir, with the rest here, that I be not charged further at your hands than the law chargeth me, for that I have done, since there was then no law directly against that wherewith I am now charged. And you, Master Doctor, (of old acquaintance in Oxford,) I trust will show me some friendship, and not extremity."
Story.--"I tell thee, if thou wouldst be a good catholic man, I would be thy friend, and spend my gown to do thee good; but I will be no friend to a heretic, as thou art, but will spend both my gown and my coat, but I will burn thee. How sayest thou to the sacrament of the altar?"
Philpot.--"Sir, I am not come now to dispute with your Mastership, and the time now serveth not thereto, but to answer to that I may be lawfully charged withal."
Story.--"Well, since thou wilt not revoke that thou hast done, thou shalt be had into the Lollards' Tower."
Philpot.--"Sir, since you will needs show me this extremity, and charge me with my conscience, I do desire to see your commission, whether you have this authority so to do, and after the view thereof I shall (according to my duty) make you further answer, if you may, by the virtue thereof, burden me with my conscience."
Roper.--"Let him see the commission: is it here?"
Story.--"Shall we let every vile person see our commission?"
Cholmley.--"Let him go from whence he came, and on Thursday he shall see our commission."
Story.--"No, let him lie in the mean while in the Lollards' Tower; for I will sweep the King's Bench, and all other prisons also, of these heretics, they shall not have that resort as they have had, to scatter their heresies."
Philpot.--"You have power to transfer my body from place to place at your pleasure; but you have no power over my soul. And I pass not whither you commit me, for I cannot be worse entreated than I am, kept all day in a close chamber: wherefore it is no marvel that my flesh is puffed up, wherewithal Master Doctor is offended."
Story.--"Marshal, take him home with you again, and see that you bring him again on Thursday, and then we shall rid your fingers of him, and afterward of your other heretics."
Philpot.--"God hath appointed a day shortly to come, in the which he will judge us with righteousness, howsoever you judge of us now."
Roper.--"Be content to be ruled by Master Doctor, and show yourself a catholic man."
Philpot.--"Sir, if I should speak otherwise than my conscience is, I should but dissemble with you: and why be you so earnest to have me show myself a dissembler both to God and you, which I cannot do?"
Roper.--"We do not require you to dissemble with us, to be a catholic man."
Philpot.--"If I do stand in any thing against that wherein any man is able to burden me with one jot of the Scripture, I shall be content to be counted no catholic man, or a heretic, as you please."
Story.--"Have we Scripture, Scripture?" and with that he rose up, saying, "Who shall be judge, I pray you? This man is like his fellow Woodman, which the other day would have nothing else but Scripture."
And this is the beginning of this tragedy.
The second examination of Master Philpot before the queen's commissioners, Master Cholmley, Roper, Dr. Story, Dr. Cook, and the Newgatethe twenty-fourth of October, 1555, at Newgate Sessions'-Hall
At my coming, a man of Aldgate of mine acquaintance said unto me, "God have mercy on you, for you are already condemned in this world; for Dr. Story said, that my Lord Chancellor had commanded to do you away." After a little consultation had between them, Master Cholmley called me unto him, saying:
Cholmley.--"Master Philpot, show yourself a wise man; and be not stubborn in your own opinion, but be conformable to the queen's proceedings, and live, and you shall be well assured of great favour and reputation."
Philpot.--"I shall do as it becometh a Christian man to do."
Story.--"This man is the rankest heretic that hath been in all my Lord Chancellor's diocese, and hath done more hurt than any man else there: and therefore his pleasure is, that he should have the law to proceed against him; and I have spoken with my Lord herein, and he willeth him to be committed to the bishop of London, and there to recant, or else burn. He howled and wept in the convocation-house, and made such ado as never man did, as all the heretics do when they lack learning to answer. He shall go after his fellows. How sayest thou; wilt thou recant?
Philpot.--"I know nothing I have done, that I ought to recant."
Story.--"Well; then I pray you let us commit him to the Lollards' Tower, there to remain until he be further examined before the bishop of London; for he is too fine-fed in the King's Bench, and he hath too much favour there: for his keeper said at the door yesterday, that he was the finest fellow, and one of the best learned in England." And with this he rose up and went his way.
Cook.--"This man hath most stoutly maintained heresies since the queen's coming in, above any that I have heard of; therefore it is most meet he should be adjudged by the bishop of London, for the heresies be hath maintained."
Philpot.--"I have maintained no heresies."
Cook.--"No! have you not? Did you not openly speak against the sacrament of the altar in the convocation-house? Call you that no heresy? wilt thou recant that, or not?"
Philpot.--"It was the queen's Majesty's pleasure, that we should reason thereof, not by my seeking, but by other men's procuring, in the hearing of the council."
Cook.--"Did the queen give you leave to be a heretic? you may be sure her Grace will not so do. Well, we will not dispute the matter with you: my Lord of London shall proceed by inquisition upon thee, and if thou wilt not recant, thou shalt be burned."
Philpot.--"My Lord of London is not mine ordinary in this behalf, and I have already answered unto mine ordinary in this matter; and therefore (as I have said before) you shall do me great wrong, to vex me twice for one matter, since I have sustained this long imprisonment, besides the loss of my living."
Roper.--"You were a very unmeet man to be an archdeacon."
Philpot.--"I know I was as meet a man as he that hath it now."
Cook.--"A meet man, quoth he! he troubled Master Roper and the whole country."
Philpot.--"There was never poor archdeacon so handled at your hands as I am, and that without any just cause ye be able to lay unto me."
Cook.--"Thou art no archdeacon."
Philpot.--"I am archdeacon still, although another be in possession of my living; for I was never deprived by any law."
Cook.--"No, sir; that needeth not: for a notorious heretic should have no ordinary proceeding about his deprivation; but the bishop may, upon knowledge thereof; proceed to deprivation."
Philpot.--"Master Doctor, you know that the common law is otherwise; and besides this, the statutes of this realm be otherwise, which give this benefit to every person, though he be a heretic, to enjoy his living until he be put to death for the same."
Cholmley.--"No, there thou art deceived."
Philpot.--"Upon the living I pass not: but the unjust dealing grieveth me, that I should be thus troubled for my conscience, contrary to all law."
Cholmley.--"Why, will not you agree that the queen's Majesty may cause you to be examined of your faith?"
Philpot.--"Ask you Master Doctor Cook, and he will tell you that the temporal magistrates have nothing to do with matters of faith, for determination thereof. And St. Ambrose saith, that the things of God are not subject to the power and authority of princes."
Cook.--"No! may not the temporal power commit you to be examined of your faith to the bishop?"
Philpot.--"Yea, sir, I deny not that. But you will not grant that the same may examine any of their own authority."
Cook.--"Let him be had away."
Philpot.--"Your Mastership promised me the last time I was before you, I should see your commission by what authority you do call me, and whether I by the same be bound to answer to so much as you demand."
Roper.--"Let him see the commission."
Then the scribe exhibited it to Master Roper, and was about to open the same.
Cook.--"No, what will ye do? he shall not see it."
Philpot.--"Then do you me wrong, to call me and vex me, not showing your authority in this behalf."
Cook.--"If we do you wrong, complain on us; and in the mean while thou shalt lie in the Lollards' Tower."
Philpot.--"Sir, I am a poor gentleman; therefore I trust of your gentleness you will not commit me to so vile and strait a place, being found no heinous trespasser."
Cook.--"Thou art no gentleman."
Philpot.--"Yes, that I am."
Cook.--"A heretic is no gentleman: for he is a gentleman that hath gentle conditions."
Philpot.--"The offence cannot take away the state of a gentleman as long as he liveth, although he were a traitor; but I mean not to boast of my gentlemanship, but will put it under my foot, since you do no more esteem it."
Story.--"What! will you suffer this heretic to prate with you all this day?"
Cook.--"He saith, he is a gentleman."
Story.--"A gentleman, quoth he? he is a vile heretic knave: for a heretic is no gentleman. Let the keeper of the Lollards' Tower come in, and have him away."
The Keeper.--"Here, sir."
Illustration -- Present gateway in the Lollards' Tower, leading to the dungeon
Story.--"Take this man with you to the Lollards' Tower, or else to the bishop's coal-house."
Philpot.--"Sir, if I were a dog you could not appoint me a worse and more vile place: but I must be content with whatsoever injury you do offer me. God give you a more merciful heart; you are very cruel upon one that hath never offended you. I pray you, Master Cholmley, show me some friendship, that I be not carried to so vile a place."
And Cholmley called me aside, and said, "I am not skilful of their doings, neither of their laws: I cannot tell what they mean. I would I could do you good."
Philpot.--"I am content to go whither you will have me. There was never man more cruelly handled than I am at your hands, that without any just cause known should thus be entreated."
Story.--"Shall we suffer this heretic thus to reprove us? Have him hence."
Philpot.--"God forgive you, and give you more merciful hearts, and show you more mercy in the time of need: Do quickly that you have in hand."
Story.--"Do you not hear how he maketh us Judases?"
Philpot.--"That is after your own understanding."
After this, I, with four others more, were brought to the keeper's house in Paternoster Row, where we supped; and after supper I was called up to a chamber by the archdeacon of London's servant, and that in his master's name, who offered me a bed for that night. To whom I gave thanks, saying, that it should be a grief to me to lie well one night, and the next worse "wherefore I will begin," said I, "as I am like to continue, to take such part as my fellows do." And with that we were brought through Paternoster Row to my Lord of London's coal-house; unto the which is joined a little blind house, with a great pair of stocks, appointed both for hand and foot. But, thanks be to God, we have not played on those organs yet, although some before us have tried them. And there we found a minister of Essex, a married priest, a man of godly zeal, with one other poor man. And this minister, at my coming, desired to speak with me, and did greatly lament his own infirmity, for that through extremity of imprisonment he was constrained by writing to yield to the bishop of London: whereupon he was once set at liberty, and afterward felt such a hell in his conscience, that he could scarce refrain from destroying himself, and never could be at quiet until he had gone unto the bishop's registrar, desiring to see his bill again, the which as soon as he had received, he tore it in pieces; and after, he was as joyful as any man might be. Of the which when my Lord of London had understanding, he sent for him, and fell upon him like a lion, and like a manly bishop buffeted him well, so that he made his face black and blue, and plucked away a great piece of his beard: but now, thanks be to God, he is as joyful under the cross as any of us, and very sorry of his former infirmity. I write this, because I would all men to take heed how they do contrary to their conscience; which is, to fall into the pains of hell. And here an end.
The manner of my calling first before the bishop of London, the second night of mine imprisonment in his coal-house.
The bishop sent unto me Master Johnson his registrar, with a mess of meat, and a good pot of drink, and bread, saying, that my Lord had no knowledge before of my being here, for which he was sorry: therefore he had sent me and my fellows that meat, knowing whether I would receive the same.
I thanked God for my Lord's charity, that it pleased him to remember poor prisoners, desiring Almighty God to increase the same in him and in all others; and therefore I would not refuse his beneficence. And therewith took the same unto my brethren, praising God for his providence towards his afflicted flock, that he stirred our adversaries up to help the same in their necessity.
Johnson.--"My Lord would know the cause of your sending hither (for he knoweth nothing thereof); and wondereth that he should be troubled with prisoners of other diocese than his own."
I declared unto him the whole cause. After the which he said, My Lord's will was, that I should have any friendship I would desire: and so departed.
Within a while after, one of my Lord's gentlemen cometh for me. And I was brought into his presence, where he sat at a table alone, with three or four of his chaplains, waiting upon him, and his registrar.
Bonner.--"Master Philpot, you are welcome; give me your hand."
With that, because he so gently put forth his hand, I, to render courtesy for courtesy, kissed my hand, and gave him the same.
Bonner.--"I am right sorry for your trouble, and I promise you before it was within these two hours I knew not of your being here. I pray you tell me what was the cause of your sending hither; for I promise you I know nothing thereof as yet, neither would I you should think that I was the cause thereof. And I marvel that other men will trouble me with their matters; but I must be obedient to my betters; and I suppose men speak otherwise of me than I deserve."
I showed him the sum of the matter: that it was for the disputation in the convocation-house, for the which I was, against all right, molested.
Bonner.--"I marvel that you should be troubled there-for, if there was none other cause but this. But, peradventure, you have maintained the same since, and some of your friends of late have asked whether you do stand to the same, and you have said, 'Yea;' and for this you might be committed to prison."
Philpot.--"If it shall please your Lordship, I am burdened none otherwise than I have told you, by the commissioners, who sent me hither, because I would not recant the same."
Bonner.--"A man may speak in the parliament house, though it be a place of free speech, so as he may be imprisoned for it; as in case he speak words of high-treason against the king or queen. And so it might be that you spake otherwise than it became you of the church of Christ."
Philpot.--"I spake nothing which was out of the articles, which were called in question, and agreed upon to be disputed by the whole house, and by the queen's permission and the council."
Bonner.--"Why, may we dispute of our faith?"
Philpot.--"Yea, that we may."
Bonner.--"Nay, I trow not, by the law."
Philpot.--"Indeed, by the civil law I know it is not lawful, but by God's law we may reason thereof. For St. Peter saith, Be ye ready to render account unto all men of that hope which is in you, that demand of you the same."
Bonner.--"Indeed, St. Peter saith so. Why then, I ask of you, what your judgment is of the sacrament of the altar?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, St. Ambrose saith, that the disputation of faith ought to be in the congregation, in the hearing of the people, and that I am not bound to render account thereof to every man privately, unless it be to edify. But now I cannot show you my mind, but I must run upon the pikes, in danger of my life there-for. Wherefore, as the said doctor said unto Valentinian the emperor, so I say to your Lordship: 'Take away the law, and I shall reason with you.' And yet if I come in open judgment, where I am bound by the law to answer, I trust I shall utter my conscience as freely as any that hath come before you."
Bonner.--"I perceive you are learned: I would have such as you be about me. But you must come and be of the church; for there is but one church."
Philpot.--God forbid I should be out of the church, I am sure I am within the same; for I know as I am taught by the Scripture, that there is but one catholic church, one dove, one spouse, one beloved congregation, out of the which there is no salvation."
Bonner.--"How chanceth it then, that you go out of the same, and walk not with us?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I am sure I am within the bounds of the church whereupon she is builded, which is the word of God."
Bonner.--"What age are ye of?"
Philpot.--"I am four and forty."
Bonner.--"You are not now of the same faith your godfathers and godmothers promised for you, in the which you were baptized."
Philpot.--"Yes, I thank God I am: for I was baptized into the faith of Christ which I now hold."
Bonner.--"How can that be? there is but one faith."
Philpot.--"I am assured of that by St. Paul, saying, that there is but one God, one faith, and one baptism, of the which I am."
Bonner." You were twenty years ago of another faith than you be now."
Philpot.--"Indeed, my Lord, to tell you plain, I was then of no faith, a neuter, a wicked liver, neither hot nor cold."
Bonner.--"Why, do you not think that we have now the true faith?"
Philpot.--"I desire your Lordship to hold me excused for answering at this time. I am sure that God's word thoroughly, with the primitive church, and all the ancient writers, do agree with this faith I am of."
Bonner.--"Well, I promise you I mean you no more hurt, than to mine own person: I will not therefore burden you with your conscience as now. I marvel that you are so merry in prison as you be, singing and rejoicing, as the prophet saith, rejoicing in your naughtiness. Methinketh you do not well herein; you should rather lament and be sorry."
Philpot.--"My Lord, the mirth that we make is but in singing certain psalms, according as we are commanded by St. Paul, willing us to be merry in the Lord, singing together, in hymns and psalms: and I trust your Lordship cannot be displeased with that."
Bonner.--"We may say unto you, as Christ said in the gospel, tibiis cecinimus vobis, et non planxistis."
Here my Lord stumbled, and could not bring forth the text, and required his chaplains to help, and to put him in remembrance of the text better; but they were mum: and I recited out the text unto him, which made nothing to his purpose, unless he would have us to mourn, because they, if they laugh, sing still sorrowful things unto us, threatening faggots and fire.
Philpot.--"We are, my Lord, in a dark, comfortless place, and therefore it behoveth us to be merry, lest, as Solomon saith, sorrowfulness eat up our heart. Therefore I trust your Lordship will not be angry for our singing of psalms, since St. Paul saith, If any man be of an upright mind, let him sing. And we therefore, to testify that we are of an upright mind to God, (though we be in misery,) do sing."
Bonner.--"I will trouble you no further as now. If I can do you any good, I will be glad to do it for you. God be with you, good Master Philpot, and give you good night. Have him to the cellar, and let him drink a cup of wine."
Thus I departed, and by my Lord's registrar I was brought to his cellar door, where I drank a good cup of wine. And my Lord's chaplain, Master Cousins, followed me, taking acquaintance, saying, that I was welcome, and wished that I would not be singular.
Philpot.--"I am well taught the contrary by Solomon, saying, Woe be to him that is alone."
After that I was carried to my Lord's coal-house again, where I with my six fellows do rouse together in straw, as cheerfully (we thank God) as others do in their beds of down.
Thus for the third fight.
The fourth examination of Master Philpot in the archdeacon's house of London, the said month of October, before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester, and Gloucester.
Bonner.--"Master Philpot, it hath pleased my Lords to take pains here to-day, to dine with my poor archdeacon; and in the dinner time it chanced us to have communication of you, and you were pitied here of many that knew you in the New College in Oxford. And I also do pity your case, because you seem unto me, by the talk I had with you the other night, to be learned. And therefore now I have sent for you to come before them, that it might not be said hereafter, that I had so many learned bishops at my house, and yet would not vouchsafe them to talk with you, and at my request (I thank them) they are content so to do. Now therefore utter your mind freely, and you shall with all favour be satisfied. I am sorry to see you lie in so evil a case as you do, and would fain you should do better, as you may if you list."
Bath.--"My Lords here have not sent for you to fawn upon you, but for charity's sake to exhort you to come into the right catholic way of the church."
Worcester.--"Before he beginneth to speak, it is best that he call to God for grace, and to pray that it might please God to open his heart, that he may conceive the truth."
With that I fell down upon my knees before them, and made my prayer on this manner:--
"Almighty God, which art the giver of all wisdom and understanding, I beseech thee of thine infinite goodness and mercy in Jesus Christ, to give me (most vile sinner in thy sight!) the spirit of wisdom to speak and make answer in thy cause, that it may be to the contentation of the hearers before whom I stand, and also to my better understanding, if I be deceived in any thing."
Bonner.--"Nay, my Lord of Worcester, you did not well to exhort him to make any prayer: for this is the thing they have a singular pride in, that they can often make their vain prayers, in the which they glory much. For in this point they are much like to certain arrant heretics, of whom Pliny maketh mention, that did daily sing Antelucanos Hymnos, 'Praise unto God before dawning of the day.'"
Philpot.--"My Lord, God make me and all you here present such heretics as those were that sung those morning hymns: for they were right Christians, with whom the tyrants of the world were offended for their well doing."
Bath.--"Proceed to that he hath to say. He hath prayed I cannot tell for what."
Bonner.--"Say on, Master Philpot, my Lords will gladly hear you."
Philpot.--"I have, my Lords, been this twelvemonth and a half in prison without any just cause that I know, and my living taken from me without any lawful order, and now I am brought (contrary to right) from mine own territory and ordinary, into another man's jurisdiction, I know not why. Wherefore, if your Lordships can burden me with any evil done, I stand here before you to purge me of the same. And if no such thing may be justly laid to my charge, I desire to be released of this wrongful trouble."
Bonner.--"There is none here goeth about to trouble you, but to do you good, if we can. For I promise you, ye were sent hither to me without my knowledge. Therefore speak your conscience without any fear."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have learned to answer in matters of religion, in ecclesia legitime vocatus, in the congregation being thereto lawfully called: but now I am not lawfully called, neither is here a just congregation where I ought to answer."
Bonner.--"Indeed this man told me the last time I spake with him, that he was a lawyer, and would not utter his conscience in matters of faith, unless it were in the hearing of the people; where he might speak to vain glory."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I said not I was a lawyer, neither do I arrogate to myself that name, although I was once a novice in the same, where I learned something for mine own defence, when I am called in judgment to answer to any cause, and whereby I have been taught, not to put myself further in danger than I need; and so far am I a lawyer, and no further."
Bath.--"If you will not answer to my Lord's request, you seem to be a wilful man in your opinion."
Philpot.--"My Lord of London is not mine ordinary before whom I am bound to answer in this behalf, as Master Doctor Cole (which is a lawyer) can well tell you by the law. And I have not offended my Lord of London wherefore he should call me."
Bonner.--"Yes, I have to lay to your charge that you have offended in my diocese, by speaking against the blessed sacrament of the altar: and therefore I may call you, and proceed against you to punish you by the law."
Philpot.--"I have not offended in your diocese: for that which I spake of the sacrament was in Paul's church in the convocation-house, which (as I understand) is a peculiar jurisdiction belonging to the dean of St. Paul's, and therefore is counted of your Lordship's diocese, but not in your diocese."
Bonner.--"Is not Paul's church in my diocese? Well I wot, it costeth me a good deal of money by the year, the leading thereof."
Philpot.--"That may be, and yet be exempted from your Lordship's jurisdiction. And albeit I had so offended in your diocese, yet I ought by the law to be sent to my ordinary, if I require it, and not to be punished by you that are not mine ordinary. And already (as I have told you) I have been convented of mine ordinary for this cause, which you go about to inquire of me."
Bonner.--"How say you, Master Doctor Cole? may not I proceed against him by the law, for that he hath done in my diocese?"
Cole.--"Methinketh Master Philpot needeth not to stand so much with your Lordship in that point as he doth, since you seek not to hinder him, but to further him: therefore I think it best that he go to the matter that is laid against him of the convocation, and to make no longer delay."
Philpot.--"I would willingly show my mind of the matter; but I am sure it will be laid against me to my prejudice when I come to judgment."
Cole.--"Why then you may speak by protestation."
Philpot.--"But what shall my protestation avail in a cause of heresy, (as you call it,) if l speak otherwise than you will have me; since that which I spake in the convocation-house, being a place privileged, cannot now help me?"
Bonner.--"But Master Doctor Cole, may not I proceed against him for that offence he hath done in my diocese?"
Cole.--"You may call him before you, my Lord, if he be found in your diocese."
Philpot.--"But I have by force been brought out of mine own diocese to my Lord's, and require to be judged of mine own ordinary: and therefore I know Master Doctor will not say of his knowledge, that your Lordship ought to proceed against me." And here Master Doctor would say nothing.
Worcester.--"Do you not think to find before my Lord here as good equity in your cause, as before your own ordinary?"
Philpot.--"I cannot blame my Lord of London's equity, with whom (I thank his Lordship) I have found more gentleness since I came, than of mine own ordinary (I speak it for no flattery) this twelvemonth and a half before, who never would call me to answer, as his Lordship hath done now twice. No man is forbid to use his own right due unto him. But I ought not to be forestalled of my right; and therefore I challenge the same for divers other considerations."
Bonner.--"Now you cannot say hereafter but that you have been gently communed withal of my Lords here, and yet you will be wilful and obstinate in your error, and in your own opinions, and will not show any cause why you will not come into the unity of the church with us."
Philpot.--"My Lords, in that I do not declare my mind according to your expectation, is (as I have said) because I cannot speak without present danger of my life. But rather than you should report me, by this, either obstinate or self-willed without any just ground, whereupon I stand; I will open unto you somewhat of my mind, or rather the whole, desiring your Lordships, which seem to be pillars of the Church of England, to satisfy me in the same: and I will refer all other causes in the which I dissent from you, unto one or two articles, or rather to one, which includeth them both; in the which if I can by the Scriptures be satisfied at your mouths, I shall as willingly agree to you as any other in all points."
Bonner.--"These heretics come always with their 'ifs,' as this man doth now, saying, 'If he can be satisfied by the Scriptures:' so that he will always have this exception, 'I am not satisfied,' although the matter be never so plainly proved against him. But will you promise to be satisfied, if my Lords take some pains about you?"
Philpot.--"I say, my Lord, I will be satisfied by the Scriptures in that wherein I stand. And I protest here, before God and his eternal Son Jesus Christ my Saviour, and the Holy Ghost, and his angels, and you here present that be judges of that I speak, that I do not stand in any opinion of wilfulness or singularity, but only upon my conscience, certainly informed by God's word, from the which I dare not go for fear of damnation: and this is the cause of mine earnestness in this behalf."
Bonner.--"I will trouble my Lords no longer, seeing that you will not declare your mind."
Philpot.--"I am about so to do, if it please your Lordship to hear me speak."
Bath.--"Give him leave, my Lord, to speak that he hath to say."
Philpot.--"My Lords, it is not unknown to you that the chief cause why you do count me, and such as I am, for heretics, is because we be not at unity with your church. You say you are of the true church; and we say we are of the true church. You say, that whosoever is out of your church, is damned; and we think verily on the other side, that if we depart from the true church, whereon we are grafted in God's word, we should stand in the state of damnation. Wherefore, if your Lordship can bring any better authorities for your church than we can do for ours, and prove by the Scriptures that the Church of Rome now (of the which you are) is the true catholic church, as in all your sermons, writings, and arguments you do uphold, and that all Christian persons ought to be ruled by the same, under pain of damnation, (as you say,) and that the same church (as you pretend) hath authority to interpret the Scriptures as it seemeth her good, and that all men are bound to follow such interpretations only; I shall be as conformable to the same church as you may desire me, the which otherwise I dare not: therefore I require you, for God's sake, to satisfy me in this."
Cole.--"If you stand upon this point only, you may soon be satisfied if you list."
Philpot.--"It is the thing that I require, and to this, I have said, I will stand; and refer all other controversies wherein I stand now against you; and will put my hand thereto, if you mistrust my word."
Bonner.--"I pray you, Master Philpot, what faith were you of twenty years ago? This man will have every year a new faith."
Philpot.--"My Lord, to tell you plain, I think I was of no faith: for I was then a wicked liver, and knew not God then, as I ought to do; God forgive me."
Bonner.--"No faith! that is not so. I am sure you were of some faith."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have declared to you on my conscience what I then was, and judge of myself. And what is that to the purpose of the thing I desire to be satisfied of you?"
Bonner.--"Master Doctor Cole, I pray you say your mind to him."
Cole.--"What will you say, if I can prove that it was decreed by a universal council in Athanasius's time, that all the Christian church should follow the determination of the Church of Rome? but I do not now remember where."
Philpot.--"If you, Master Doctor, can show me the same granted to the see of Rome by the authority of the Scripture, I will gladly hearken thereto. But I think you be not able to show any such thing: for Athanasius was president of the Nicene council, and there was no such thing decreed, I am sure."
Cole.--"Though it were not then, it might be at another time."
Philpot.--"I desire to see the proof thereof." And upon this Master Harpsfield, chancellor to the bishop of London, brought in a book of Irenĉus, with certain leaves turned in, and laid it before the bishops to help them in their perplexity, if it might be: the which after the bishops of Bath and Gloucester had read together, the bishop of Gloucester gave me the book.
Gloucester.--"Take the book, Master Philpot, and look upon that place, and there may you see how the Church of Rome is to be followed of all men."
I took the book, and read the place, the which after I had read, I said it made nothing against me, but against the Arians and other heretics, against whom Irenĉus wrote, proving that they were not to be credited, because they did teach and follow after strange doctrine in Europe; and that the chief church of the same was founded by Peter and Paul, and had to this time continued by faithful succession of the faithful bishops in preaching the true gospel, as they had received of the apostles, and nothing like to these late-sprung heretics, &c.; whereby he concludeth against them, that they were not to be heard, neither to be credited. "The which thing if you, my Lords, be able to prove now of the Church of Rome, then had you as good authority against me in my cause now, as Irenĉus had against those heretics. But the Church of Rome hath swerved from the truth and simplicity of the gospel, which it maintained in Irenĉus's time, and was then uncorrupted from that which it is now; wherefore your Lordships cannot justly apply the authority of Irenĉus to the Church of Rome now, which is so manifestly corrupted from the primitive church."
Bonner.--"So will you say still, it maketh nothing for the purpose, whatsoever authority we bring, and will never be satisfied."
Philpot.--"My Lord, when I do by just reason prove that the authorities which be brought against me do not make to the purpose, (as I have already proved,) I trust you will receive mine answer."
Worcester.--"It is to be proved most manifestly by all ancient writers, that the see of Rome hath always followed the truth, and never was deceived, until of late certain heretics had defaced the same."
Philpot.--"Let that be proved, and I have done."
Worcester.--"Nay, you are of such arrogancy, singularity, and vain-glory, that you will not see it, be it never so well proved."
Philpot.--"Ha! my Lords, is it now time (think you) for me to follow singularity or vainglory, since it is now upon danger of my life and death, not only presently, but also before God to come? And I know, if I die not in the true faith, I shall die everlastingly. And again I know, if I do not as you would have me, you will kill me and many thousands more: yet had I rather perish at your hands, than to perish eternally. And at this time I have lost all my commodities of this world, and lie in a coal-house, where a man would not lay a dog, with the which I am well contented."
Cole.--"Where are you able to prove that the Church of Rome hath erred at any time? and by what history? Certain it is by Eusebius, that the church was established at Rome by Peter and Paul, and that Peter was bishop twenty-five years at Rome."
Philpot.--"I know well that Eusebius so writeth; but if we compare that which St. Paul writeth to the Galatians, Gal. i., the contrary will manifestly appear, that he was not half so long there. He lived not past thirty-five years after he was called to be an apostle; and Paul maketh mention of his abiding at Jerusalem after Christ's death more than thirteen years."
Cole.--"What! did Peter write to the Galatians?"
Philpot.--"No, I say Paul maketh mention of Peter, writing to the Galatians, and of his abiding at Jerusalem: and further, I am able to prove, both by Eusebius and other historiographers, that the Church of Rome hath manifestly erred, and at this present doth err, because she agreeth not with that which they wrote. The primitive church did use according to the gospel, and there needeth none other proof but compare the one with the other."
Bonner.--"I may compare this man to a certain man I read of which fell into a desperation, and went into a wood to hang himself; and when he came there, he went viewing of every tree, and could find none on the which he might vouchsafe to hang himself. But I will not apply it as I might. I pray you, Master Doctor, go forth with him."
Cole.--"My Lord, there be on every side on me that be better able to answer him, and I love not to fall into disputation; for that now-a-days a man shall but sustain shame and obloquy thereby of the people. I had rather show my mind in writing."
Philpot.--"And I had rather that you should do so than otherwise, for then a man may better judge of your words, than by argument, and I beseech you so to do. But if I were a rich man, I durst wager a hundred pounds, that you shall not be able to show that you have said, to be decreed by a general council in Athanasius's time. For this I am sure of, that it was concluded by a general council in Africa many years after, that none of Africa (under pain of excommunication) should appeal to Rome: the which decree I am sure they would not have made, if by the Scriptures, and by a universal council, it had been decreed, that all men should abide and follow the determination of the Church of Rome."
Cole.--"But I can show that they revoked that error again."
Philpot.--"So you say, Master Doctor; but I pray you show me where. I have hitherto heard nothing of you for my contentation, but bare words without any authority."'
Bonner.--"What, I pray you, ought we to dispute with you of our faith? Justinian in the law hath a title, De fide Catholica, to the contrary."
Philpot.--"I am certain the civil law hath such a constitution: but our faith must not depend upon the civil law; for, as St. Ambrose saith, Not the law, but the gospel hath gathered the church together."
Worcester.--"Master Philpot, you have the spirit of pride wherewith ye be led, which will not let you to yield to the truth: leave it for shame."
Philpot.--"Sir, I am sure I have the spirit of faith, by the which I speak at this present; neither am I ashamed to stand to my faith."
Gloucester.--"What? do you think yourself better learned than so many notable learned men as be here?"
Philpot.--"Elias alone had the truth, when there were four hundred priests against him."
Worcester.--"Oh, you would be counted now for Elias; and yet I tell thee he was deceived, for he thought there had been none good but himself, and yet he was deceived, for there were seven thousand beside him."
Philpot.--"Yea, but he was not deceived in doctrine, as the other four hundred were."
Worcester.--"By my faith you are greatly to blame, that you cannot be content to be of the church which ever hath been of that faithful antiquity."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I know Rome, and have been there, where I saw your Lordship."
Worcester.--"Indeed, I did fly from hence thither, and I remember not that I saw you there. But I am sorry that you have been there: for the wickedness which you have seen there, peradventure causeth you to do as you do."
Philpot.--"No, my Lord, I do not as I do for that cause: for I am taught otherwise by the gospel, not altogether to refuse the minister for his evil living, so that he bring sound doctrine out of God's book."
Worcester.--"Do you think the universal church may be deceived?"
Philpot.--"St. Paul to the Thessalonians prophesieth that there should come a universal departing from the faith in the latter days, before the coming of Christ; saying, Christ shall not come, till there come a departing first."
Cole.--"Yea, I pray you, how take you the departing there in St. Paul? It is not meant of faith, but of the departing from the empire: for it is in Greek, αποστασια.[aposostasia]
Philpot.--"Marry indeed you, Master Doctor, put me in good remembrance of the meaning of St. Paul in that place, for apostasia is properly a departing from the faith, and thereof cometh apostata, which properly signifieth one that departeth from his faith: and St. Paul in the same place after, speaketh of the decay of the empire."
Cole.--"Apostasia doth not only signify a departing from the faith, but also from the empire, as I am able to show."
Philpot.--"I never read it so taken; and when you shall be able to show it (as you say in words) I will believe it, and not before."
Worcester.--"I am sorry that you should be against the Christian world."
Philpot.--"The world commonly, and such as be called Christians; for the multitude have hated the truth, and been enemies to the same."
Gloucester.--"Why, Master Philpot, do you think that the universal church hath erred, and you only to be in the truth?"
Philpot.--"The church that you are of was never universal; for two parts of the world, which is Asia and Africa, never consented to the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, as at this day they do not, neither do follow his decrees."
Gloucester.--"Yes, in the Florentine council they did agree."
Philpot.--"It was said so by false report, after they of Asia and Africa were gone home: but it was not so indeed, as the sequel of them all hitherto doth prove the contrary."
Gloucester.--"I pray you by whom will you be judged in matters of controversy which happen daily?"
Philpot.--"By the word of God. For Christ saith in St. John, The word that he spake shall be judge in the latter day."
Gloucester.--"What if you take the word one way, and I another way; who shall be judge then?"
Philpot.--"The primitive church."
Gloucester.--"I know you mean the doctors that wrote thereof."
Philpot.--"I mean verily so."
Gloucester.--"What if you take the doctors in one sense, and I in another; who shall be judge then?"
Philpot.--"Then let that be taken which is most agreeable to God's word."
Cole.--"My Lords, why do you trouble yourselves to answer him in this matter? It is not the thing which is laid to his charge, but his error of the sacrament; and he, to shift himself off that, brought in another matter."
Philpot.--"This is the matter, Master Cole, to the which I have referred all other questions, and desire to be satisfied."
Worcester.--"It is a wonder to see how he standeth with a few, against a great multitude."
Philpot.--"We have almost as many as you: for we have Asia, Africa, Germany, Denmark, and a great part of France, and daily the number of the gospel doth increase: so that I am credibly informed, that for this religion in the which I stand, and for the which I am like to die, a great multitude doth daily come out of France through persecution, that the cities of Germany be scarce able to receive them. And therefore your Lordship may be sure, the word of God will one day take place, do what you can to the contrary."
Worcester.--"They were well occupied to bring you such news, and you have been well kept to have such resort unto you. Thou art the arrogantest fellow, and stoutest fond fellow that ever I knew."
Philpot.--"I pray your Lordship to bear with my hasty speech; for it is part of my corrupt nature to speak somewhat hastily: but for all that, I mean with humility to do my duty to your Lordship."
Bonner.--"Master Philpot, my Lords will trouble you no further at this time, but you shall go from whence you came, and have such favour as in the mean while I can show you: and upon Wednesday next you shall be called again to be heard what you can say for maintenance of your error."
Philpot.--"My Lord, my desire is to be satisfied of you in that I have required; and your Lordship shall find me, as I have said."
Worcester.--"We wish you as well as ourselves."
Philpot.--"I think the same, my Lords; but I fear you are deceived, and have a zeal of yourselves, not according to knowledge."
Worcester.--"God send you more grace."
Philpot.--"And also God increase the same in you, and open your eyes that you may see to maintain his truth, and his true church."
Then the bishops rose up and consulted together, and caused a writing to be made, in the which I think my blood by them was bought and sold; and thereto they put their hands. And after this I was carried to my coal-house again.
Thus endeth the fourth part of this tragedy. God hasten the end thereof to his glory, Amen.
John Philpot to certain that required him to write his examinations.
"Because I have begun to write unto you of mine examinations before the bishop and others, more to satisfy your desire than that it is any thing worthy to be written; I have thought it good to write unto you also that which had been done of late, that the same might come to light which they do in darkness and in privy corners, and that the world now and the posterity hereafter might know how unorderly, unjustly, and unlearnedly these ravening wolves do proceed against the silly and faithful flock of Christ, and condemn and persecute the sincere doctrine of Christ in us, which they are not able by honest means to resist, but only by tyranny and violence."
The fifth examination of John Philpot, had before the bishops of London, Rochester, Coventry, St. Asaph, (I trow,) and one other, whose see I know not, Dr. Story, Dr. Saverson, Dr. Pendleton, with divers other chaplains and gentlemen of the queen's chamber, and divers other gentlemen, in the gallery of my Lord of London's palace.
Bonner.--"Master Philpot, come you hither. I have desired my Lords here, and other learned men, to take some pains once again, and to do you good. And because I do mind to sit in judgment on you to-morrow, (as I am commanded,) yet I would you should have as much favour as I can show you, if you will be any thing conformable. Therefore play the wise man, and be not singular in your own opinion, but be ruled by these learned men."
Philpot.--"My Lord, in that you say you will sit on me in judgment to-morrow, I am glad thereof; for I was promised by them which sent me unto you, that I should have been judged the next day after: but promise hath not been kept with me, to my further grief. I look for none other but death at your hands, and I am as ready to yield my life in Christ's cause, as you be to require it."
Bonner.--"Lo what a wilful man is this! By my faith it is but folly to reason with him, neither with any of these heretics. I am sorry that you will be no more tractable, and that I am compelled to show extremity against you."
Philpot.--"My Lord, you need not to show extremity against me, unless you list: neither by the law (as I have said) have you any thing to do with me, for that you are not mine ordinary, albeit I am (contrary to all right) in your prison."
Bonner.--"Why, the queen's commissioners sent you hither unto me upon your examination had before them. I know not well the cause; but I am sure they would not have sent you hither to me, unless you bad made some talk to them, otherwise than it becometh a Christian man."
Philpot.--"My Lord, indeed they sent me hither without any occasion then ministered by me. Only they laid unto me the disputation I made in the convocation-house, requiring me to answer the same, and to recant it. The which because I would not do, they sent me hither to your Lordship."
Bonner.--"Why did you not answer them thereto?"
Philpot.--"For that they were temporal men, and ought not to be judges in spiritual causes whereof they demanded me, without showing any authority whereby I was bound to answer them; and hereupon they committed me to your prison."
Bonner.--"Indeed I remember now, you maintained open heresy in my diocese: wherefore the commissioners sent you unto me, that I should proceed against you, for that you have spoken in my diocese."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I stand still upon my lawful plea in this behalf; that though it were as great a heresy as you suppose it, yet I ought not to be troubled therefore, in respect of the privilege of the parliament-house, whereof the convocation-house is a member, where all men in matters propounded may frankly speak their minds. And here is present a gentlemen of the queen's Majesty's that was present at the disputation, and can testify that the questions which were then in controversy were not set forth by me, but by the prolocutor, who required, in the queen's Majesty's name, all men to dispute their minds freely in the same, that were of the house."
The queen's gentleman.--"Though the parliament-house be a place of privilege for men of the house to speak, yet may none speak any treason against the queen, or maintain treason against the crown."
Philpot.--"But if there be any matter which otherwise it were treason to speak of, were it treason for any person to speak therein, specially the thing being proposed by the speaker? I think not."
The queen's gentleman.--"You may make the matter easy enough to you yet, as I perceive, if you will revoke the same which you did there so stubbornly maintain."
St. Asaph.--"This man did not speak under reformation, as many there did, but αγωνιστικώσ [Greek: agonistikos] and κατηγορικως [Greek: kategorikos], which is, earnestly and persuasibly, as ever I heard any."
Philpot.--"My Lords, since you will not cease to trouble me for that I have lawfully done, neither will admit my just defence for that was spoken in the convocation-house by me, contrary to the laws and custom of the realm; I appeal to the whole parliament-house, to be judged by the same, whether I ought thus to be molested for that I have there spoken."
Rochester.--"But have you spoken and maintained the same since that time, or no?"
Philpot."If any man can charge me justly therewith, here I stand to make answer."
Rochester.--"How say you to it now? will you stand to that you have spoken in the convocation-house, and do you think you said then well, or no?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, you are not mine ordinary to proceed ex officio against me, and therefore I am not bound to tell you my conscience of your demands."
St. Asaph.--"What say you now? Is there not in the blessed sacrament of the altar [and with that they put off all their caps for reverence of that idol] the presence of our Saviour Christ, really and substantially, after the words of consecration?"
Philpot.--"I do believe in the sacrament of Christ's body, duly ministered, to be such manner of presence, as the word teacheth me to believe."
St. Asaph.--"I pray you how is that?"
Philpot.--"As for that I will declare another time, when I shall be lawfully called to dispute my mind of this matter, but I am not yet driven to that point. And the Scripture saith, All things ought to be done after an order."
Another bishop.--"This is a froward and vainglorious man."
Bonner.--"It is not lawful for a man by the civil laws to dispute of his faith openly, as it appeareth in the title De Summa Trinitate et fide Catholica."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have answered you to this question before."
Bonner.--"Why, I never asked thee of this before now."
Philpot.--"Yes, that you did at my last examination, by that token I answered your Lordship by St. Ambrose, that the church is congregated by the word, and not by man's law. Wherefore I add now further of this saying, 'That he which refuseth the word, and objecteth the law, is an unjust man, because the just shall live by faith.' And moreover, my Lord, the title which your Lordship allegeth out of the law, maketh it not unlawful to dispute of all the articles of the faith, but of the Trinity."
Bonner.--"Thou liest, it is not so: and I will show you by the book how ignorant he is." And with that he went with all haste to his study, and fetched his book and openly read the text, and the title of the law; and charged me with such words as seemed to make for his purpose, saying, "How sayest thou to this?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I say as I said before, that the law meaneth of the catholic faith, determined in the council of Chalcedon, where the articles of the Creed were only concluded upon."
Bonner.--"Thou art the veriest beast that ever I heard; I must needs speak it; thou compellest me thereunto."
Philpot.--"Your Lordship may speak your pleasure of me: but what is this to the purpose, which your Lordship is so earnest in? You know that our faith is not grounded upon the civil law: therefore it is not material to me whatsoever the law saith."
Bonner.--"By what law wilt thou be judged? Wilt thou be judged by the common law?"
Philpot.--"No, my Lord, our faith dependeth not upon the laws of man."
St. Asaph.--"He will be judged by no law, but as he listeth himself."
Worcester.--"The common laws are but abstracts of the Scriptures and doctors."
Philpot.--"Whatsoever you do make them, they are no ground of my faith, by the which I ought to be judged."
Bonner.--"I must proceed against thee to-morrow."
Philpot.--"If your Lordship so do, I will have exceptionem Joni; for you are not my competent judge."
Bonner.--"By what law dost thou refuse me to be thy judge?"
Philpot.--"By the civil law, De competente judice."
Bonner.--"There is no such title in the law. In what book is it, as cunning a lawyer as you be?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I take upon me no great cunning in the law; but you drive me to my shifts for my defence. And I am sure, if I had the books of the law, I were able to show what I say."
Bonner.--"What? De competente judice? I will go etch thee my books. There is a title indeed, De officiis judieis Ordinarii.
Philpot.--"Verily that is the same De competente judice, which I have alleged." With that he ran to his study, and brought the whole course of the law between his hands, which (as it might appear) he had well occupied, by the dust they were imbrued withal.
Bonner.--"There be the books: find it now, (if thou canst,) and I will promise to release thee out of prison."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I stand not here to reason matters of the civil law, although I am not altogether ignorant of the same; for that I have been a student in the law six or seven years: but to answer to the articles of faith, with the which you may lawfully burden me. And whereas you go about unlawfully to proceed, I challenge, according to my knowledge, the benefit of the law in my defence."
Bonner.--"Why, thou wilt answer directly to nothing thou art charged withal therefore say not hereafter but you might have been satisfied here by learned men, if you would have declared your mind."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have declared my mind unto you and to other of the bishops at my last being before you, desiring you to be satisfied but of one thing, whereunto I have referred all other controversies: the which if your Lordships now, or other learned men, can simply resolve me of, I am as contented to be reformable in all things, as you shall require; the which is to prove that the Church of Rome (whereof you are) is the catholic church."
Coventry.--"Why, do you not believe your creed, Credo ecclesiam catholicam?"
Philpot.--"Yes, that I do: but I cannot understand Rome (wherewithal you burden us) to be the same, neither like to it."
St. Asaph.--"It is most evident that St. Peter did build the catholic church at Rome. And Christ said, Tu est Petrus, et super hanc petram ĉdificabo ecelesiam meam. Moreover, the succession of bishops in the see of Rome can be proved from time to time, as it can be of none other place sthell, which is a manifest probation of ithe cathoPhilpotch, as divers doctors do write."
Philpot.--"That you would have to be undoubted, is most uncertain, and that by the authority which you allege of Christ, saying unto Peter, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, unless you can prove the rock to signify Rome, as you would make me falsely believe. And although you can prove the succession of bishops from Peter, yet this is not sufficient to prove Rome the catholic church, unless you can prove the profession of Peter's faith, whereupon the catholic church is builded, to have continued in his successors at Rome, and at this present to remain."
Bonner.--"Is there any more churches than one catholic church? And I pray you tell me into what faith were you baptized?"
Philpot.--"I acknowledge one holy catholic and apostolic church, whereof I am a member, (I praise God,) and am of that catholic church of Christ whereinto I was baptized."
Coventry.--"I pray you, can you tell what this word catholic doth signify? show, if you can."
Philpot.--"Yes that I can, I thank God. The catholic faith, or the catholic church, is not as now-a-days the people be taught, to be that which is most universal, or of most part of men received, whereby you do infer our faith to hang upon the multitude, which is not so: but I esteem the catholic church to be as St. Augustine defineth the same: 'We judge,' saith he, 'the catholic faith, of that which hath been, is, and shall be.' So that if you can be able to prove that your faith and church hath been from the beginning taught, and is, and shall be, then may you count yourselves catholic: otherwise not. And catholic is a Greek word, compounded of κατα [Greek: kata], which signifieth after or according, and ολον [Greek: olon], a sum, or principal, or whole. So that catholic church, or catholic faith, is as much to say, as the first, sound, whole, or chiefest faith."
Bonner.--"Doth St. Augustine say so as he allegeth it? or doth he mean as he taketh the same? how say you, Master Curtop?"
Curtop.--"Indeed, my Lord, St. Augustine hath such a saying, speaking against the Donatists, that the catholic faith ought to be esteemed of 'things in time past, and as they are practised according to the same, and ought to be through all ages; and not after a new manner, as the Donatists began to profess."
Philpot.--"You have said well, Master Curtop, and after the meaning of St. Augustine, and to confirm that which I have said for the signification of catholic."
Coventry.--"Let the book be seen, my Lord."
Bonner.--"I pray you, my Lord, be content, or in good faith I will break even off and let all alone. Do you think the catholic church (until it was within these few years, in the which a few upon singularity have swerved from the same) have erred?"
Philpot.--"I do not think that the catholic church can err in doctrine; but I require you to prove this Church of Rome to be the catholic church."
Curtop.--"I can prove that Irenĉus (which was within a hundred years after Christ) came to Victor, then bishop of Rome, to ask his advice about the excommunication of certain heretics, the which he would not have done (by all likelihood) if he had not taken him to be supreme head."
Coventry.--"Mark well this argument. How are you able to answer the same? Answer, if you can."
Philpot.--"It is soon answered, my Lord, for that it is of no force; neither this fact of Irenĉus maketh no more for the supremacy of the bishop of Rome than mine hath done, which have been at Rome as well as he, and might have spoken with the pope, if I had list: and yet I would none in England did favour his supremacy more than I."
St. Asaph.--"You are the more to blame, (by the faith of my body,) for that you favour the same no better, since all the catholic church (until these few years) have taken him to be the supreme head of the church, besides this good man Irenĉus."
Philpot.--"That is not likely, that Irenĉus so took him, or the primitive church: for I am able to show seven general councils after Irenĉus's time, wherein he was never so taken; which may be a sufficient proof that the catholic primitive church never took him for supreme head."
The other bishop.--"This man will never be satisfied, say what we can. It is but folly to reason any more with him."
Philpot.--"O my Lords, would you have me satisfied with nothing? Judge, I pray you, who of us hath better authority, he which bringeth the example of one man going to Rome, or I that by these many general councils am able to prove, that he was never so taken in many hundred years after Christ, as by the Nicene, the first and second Ephesine, the Chalcedonian, the Constantinopolitan, the Carthaginian, and that at Aquileia."
Coventry.--"Why will you not admit the Church of Rome to be the catholic church?"
Philpot.--"Because it followeth not the primitive catholic church, neither agreeth with the same, no more than an apple is like a nut."
Coventry.--"Wherein doth it dissent?
Philpot.--"It were too long to recite all, but two things I will name, the supremacy and transubstantiation."
Curtop.--"As for transubstantiation, albeit it was set forth and decreed for an article of faith not much above three hundred years, yet it was always believed in the church."
Bonner.--"Yea, that was very well said of you, Master Curtop."
Philpot.--"Ye have said right, that transubstantiation is but a late plantation of the bishop of Rome, and you are not able to show any ancient writer, that the primitive church did believe any such thing" and with this Curtop shrank away. And immediately after the ambassador of Spain came in, to whom my Lord of London went, leaving the other with me. To whom I said, "My Lords, if you can show me that this Church of Rome (whereof you are members) is the true catholic church, I shall be content to be one thereof, and as conformable to the same as you can require me in all things; for I know there is no salvation but within the church."
Coventry.--"Can you disprove that the Church of Rome is not the catholic church?"
Philpot.--"Yea, that I am able, but I desire rather to hear of you for the proof thereof. And seeing I cannot have my request at your hands, neither be satisfied with any probable authority, I will show you good proof why it is not. For if the primitive church were catholic, as it was indeed, and ought to be, the form and school-mistress of the church to the world's end; then is not the Church of Rome now the catholic church, which dissenteth so far from the same both in doctrine and use of the sacraments."
Coventry.--"How prove you that the Church of Rome now dissenteth in doctrine and use of the sacraments from the primitive church?"
Philpot.--"Compare the one with the other, and it shall soon appear; as you may see both in Eusebius and other ecclesiastical and ancient writers."
Coventry.--"What have you to say more, why it is not the catholic church?"
Philpot.--"Because it is not (by your interpretation of catholic) universal, neither ever was, albeit you falsely persuade the people that it is so. For the world, being divided into three pasts, Asia, Africa, and Europe, two parts thereof, Asia and Africa, professing Christ as well as we, did never consent to the Church of Rome, which is of Europe; which is a sufficient testimony that your faith was never universal."
Coventry.--"How prove you that?"
Philpot.--"All the historiographers, which write of the proceedings of the church, do testify the same. Besides that, this present time doth declare that to be true, which I say: for at this present the Church of Asia and Africa do not consent to the Church of Rome. Yea, and besides all this, most part of Europe doth not agree, neither allow the Church of Rome; as Germany, the kingdom of Denmark, the kingdom of Poland, a great part of France, England, and Zealand, which is a manifest probation that your church is not universal."
And after this, the bishop of London called away the other bishops, and left with me divers gentlemen, with certain of his chaplains, as Dr. Saverson, an Englishman, who had proceeded doctor at Bologna, who after began with me in this matter.
Dr. Saverson.--"Master Philpot, I remember you beyond sea since the time you reasoned with a friar, (a notable learned man,) coming from Venice to Padua in a barge."
Philpot.--"I cannot forget that; for the friar threatened me to accuse me of heresy as soon as he came to Padua, for that I talked with him so boldly of the truth. He was no such learned man as you name him to be, but only in his school points a good purgatory friar."
Dr. Saverson.--"Well, he was a learned man for all that. And I am sorry to hear that you this day, having communed with so many notable learned men, are no more conformable to them than you be."
Philpot.--"I will be conformable to all them that be conformable to Christ in his word. And I pray you, good Master Doctor, be not so conformable to please men more than God, contrary to your learning, for worldly estimation's sake."
Dr. Saverson.--"No, that I am not. Upon what occasion should you think thus of me?"
Philpot.--"Upon no evil that I do know of you, Master Doctor; but I speak as one wishing that you should not be led away from the truth for promotion's sake, as many doctors be now-a-days."
Dr. Saverson.--"I have heard your arguments hitherto, and methinketh that a great many of the old ancient writers be against you in that you do not allow the Church of Rome, neither the supremacy; for St. Cyprian (who is an old ancient writer) doth allow the bishop of Rome to be supreme head of the church."
Philpot.--"That I am sure of he doth not: for he, writing unto Cornelius, then bishop of Rome, calleth him but his companion and fellow bishop, neither attributed to him the name either of pope, or else of any other usurped terms which now be ascribed to the bishop of Rome, to the setting forth of his dignity."
Dr. Saverson.--"You cannot be able to show that St. Cyprian calleth Cornelius his fellow bishop."
Philpot.--"I will wager with you what I am able to make, that I can show it you in Cyprian, as I have said."
Dr. Saverson.--"I will lay none other wager with you, but book for book, that it is not so."
Philpot.--"I agree thereto, and I pray you one of my Lord's chaplains to fetch us Cyprian hither for the trial hereof." And with that one of them went to my Lord's study and brought forth Cyprian, and by and by he turned to the first book of his epistles, the third epistle; and there would have seemed to have gathered a strong argument for the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, because he saith, "it goeth not well with the church when the high priest is not obeyed, which supplieth the stead of Christ, after God's word, and the consent of his fellow bishops and the agreement of the people."
Dr. Saverson.--"How can you avoid this place, which maketh so plainly for the bishop of Rome's supremacy?"
Philpot.--"It maketh not so plain, Master Doctor, on your side, as you gather; as by and by I will give you to understand. But first I challenge the wager which we made, that your book is mine: for here you may see that he calleth Cornelius his fellow bishop, as he doth also in other places. And now, for the understanding of that place, you do misconstrue it, to take the high priest only for the bishop of Rome, and otherwise than it was in his time. For there were by the Nicene council four patriarchs appointed, the patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Constantinople, the patriarch of Alexandria, and the patriarch of Rome; of which four, the patriarch of Rome was placed lowest in the council, and so continued many years, for the time of seven or eight general councils, as I am able to show. Therefore St. Cyprian, writing to Cornelius, patriarch of Rome, (whom he calleth his fellow bishop,) findeth himself offended, that certain heretics, being justly excommunicated by him, (as the Novatians were,) did flee from his diocese, who was their chief bishop, (refusing to be obedient to him, and to be reformed,) to the bishop of Rome, and to the patriarch of Constantinople, and there were received in communion of the congregation; in derogation of good order and discipline in the church, and to the maintaining of heresies and schisms. And that heresies did spring up and schisms daily arise hereof, that obedience was not given to the priest of God, nor that they considered him to be in the church, for the time, the priest, and, for the time, the judge in Christ's stead, (as in the decree of the Nicene council was appointed,) not meaning the bishop of Rome only, but every patriarch in his precinct; who had every one of them a college or cathedral church of learned priests, in hearing of whom by a convocation of all his fellow bishops, with the consent of the people, all heresies were determined by the word of God: and this is the meaning of St. Cyprian."
Dr. Saverson.--"You take it so, but it seemeth to me otherwise."
Philpot.--"Upon what ground it should seem otherwise unto you I know not, but this meaning which I have declared, the general councils, seven or eight one after another, confirmed it so to be, which did not allow one supreme head only."
Pendleton.--"There were not so many general councils, but four only allowed."
Philpot.--"That is not so, Master Pendleton, although there be four specially allowed for the confirmation of the Trinity; but besides these four there were many other general councils, as you may learn by many writers."
A chaplain.--"Did not Christ build his church upon Peter? St. Cyprian saith so."
Philpot.--"St. Cyprian, De simplicitate prĉlatorum, declareth in what respect he so said: 'God gave, in the person of one man, the keys to all, that he might signify the unity of all men.' And also St. Augustine saith in the tenth treatise of St. John, 'If in Peter had not been the mystery of the church, the Lord had not said unto him, I will give unto thee the keys. For if that were said to Peter, the church hath them not; if the church have them when Peter received them, he signified the whole church.' And also St. Jerome, a priest of Rome, writing to Nepotian, saith, 'That all churches do lean to their own pastors,' where he speaketh of the ecclesiastical hierarchy or regiment, where he maketh no mention of the bishop of Rome. And writing Ad Evagium, he saith, that wheresoever a bishop be, whether it be at Rome, or at Evagium, or at Rhegium, he is of one power and of one jurisdiction.'"
Dr. Saverson.--"St. Jerome, De clesti Hier archia? It was St. Dionysius you mean."
Philpot.--"I say not that Jerome wrote any book so intituled; but I say, that in the epistle by me alleged, he maketh mention of the ecclesiastical regiment."
Dr. Saverson.--"I wonder you will stand so stedfast in your error to your own destruction."
Philpot.--"I am sure we are in no error, by the promise of Christ made to the faithful once, which is, that he will give to his true church such a spirit of wisdom, that the adversaries thereof should never be able to resist. And by this I know we are of the truth, for that neither by reasoning, neither by writing, your synagogue at Rome is able to answer. Where is there one of you all that ever hath been able to answer any of the godly learned ministers of Germany, who have disclosed your counterfeit religion? Which of you all, at this day, is able to answer Calvin's Institutions, who is minister of Geneva?"
Dr. Saverson.--"A godly minister, indeed, of receipt of cutpurses, and runagate traitors. And of late, I can tell you, there is such contention fallen between him and his own sects, that he was fain to flee the town, about predestination. I tell you truth, for I came by Geneva hither."
Philpot.--"I am sure you blaspheme that godly man, and that godly church where he is minister; as it is your church's condition, when you cannot answer men by learning, to oppress them with blasphemies and false reports. For in the matter of predestination he is in none other opinion than all the doctors of the church be, agreeing to the Scriptures."
Dr. Saverson.--"Men be able to answer him if they list. And I pray you which of you have answered Bishop Fisher's book?"
Philpot.--"Yes, Master Doctor, that book is answered and answered again, if you list to seek what hath been written against him."
And after this, Dr. Story came in. To whom I said, "Master Doctor, you have done me great injury, and without law have straitly imprisoned me, more like a dog than a man. And, besides this, you have not kept promise with me, for you promised that I should be judged the next day after."
Story.--"I am come now to keep promise with thee. Was there ever such a fantastical man as this is? Nay, he is no man, he is a beast, yea, these heretics be worse than brute beasts; for they will, upon a vain singularity, take upon them to be wiser than all men, being indeed very fools and ass-heads, not able to maintain that, which of an arrogant obstinacy they do stand in."
Philpot.--"Master Doctor, I am content to abide your railing judgment of me now. Say what you will, I am content, for I am under your feet to be trodden on as you list. God forgive it you; yet am I no heretic. Neither you nor any other shall be able to prove that I hold any jot against the word of God otherwise than a Christian man ought."
Story.--"The word of God! Forsooth, the word of God! It is but a folly to reason with these heretics, for they are incurable and desperate. But as I may reason with thee, (not that I have any hope to win thee,) whom wilt thou appoint to judge of the word whereto thou standest?"
Philpot.--"Verily the word itself."
Story.--"Do you not see the ignorance of this beastly heretic? He willeth the word to be judged of the word. Can the word speak?"
Philpot.--"If I cannot prove that which I have said by good authority, I will be content to be counted a heretic, and an ignorant person; and further, what you please."
Story.--"Let us hear what wise authority thou canst bring in."
Philpot.--"It is the saying of Christ in St. John, (chap. xii.,) The word which I have spoken, saith Christ, shall judge in the last day. If the word shall judge in the last day, much more it ought to judge our doings now: and I am sure I have my Judge on my side, who shall absolve and justify me in another world. Howsoever now it shall please you by authority unrighteously to judge of me and others, sure I am in another world to judge you."
Story.--"What! you purpose to be a stinking martyr, and to sit in judgment with Christ at the last day, to judge the twelve tribes of Israel?"
Philpot.--"Yea, sir, I doubt not thereof, having the promise of Christ, if I die for righteousness' sake, which you have begun to persecute in me."
Story.--"I told you it was but vain to argue with this heretic; he is drowned in his heresies, without all learning."
Philpot.--"Sir, I have brought you, for that I have said, good authority out of God's book, to the which you answer nothing, but go about still to give railing judgment against me, without any cause."
Story.--"I will come to you by and by. When the judge at Westminster Hall giveth sentence, doth the word give sentence, or the judge? tell me."
Philpot.--"Civil matters be subject to civil men; and they have authority by the word, to be judges of them. But the word of God is not subject to man's judgment, but ought to judge all the wisdom, thoughts, and doings of men; and therefore your comparison disproveth nothing that I have said, neither answereth any whit thereto."
Story.--"Wilt thou not allow the interpretation of the church upon the Scriptures?"
Philpot.--"Yes, if it be according to the word of the true church: and this I say to you, as I have said heretofore, that if ye can prove the Church of Rome (whereof ye are) to be the true catholic church which I ought to follow, I will be as ready to yield thereto (as long as it can be so proved) as you may desire me."
Story.--"What a fellow is this! he will believe nothing but what he listeth himself. Are we not in possession of the church? have not our forefathers these many hundred years taken this church for the catholic church whereof we are now? and if we had none other proof but this, it were sufficient; for the prescription of time maketh a good title in the law."
Philpot.--"You do well, Master Doctor, to allege prescription of many years, for it is all that you have to show for yourselves. But you must understand, that prescription hath no place in matters belonging unto God, as I am able to show by the testimony of many doctors."
Story.--"Well sir, you are like to go after your fathers, Latimer the sophister, and Ridley, who had nothing to allege for himself, but that he had learned his heresy of Cranmer. When I came to him with a poor bachelor of arts, he trembled as though he had had the palsy, as these heretics have always some token of fear whereby a man may know them, as you may see this man's eyes do tremble in his head. But I despatched them; and I tell thee that there hath been yet never any one burnt, but I have spoken with him, and have been a cause of his despatch."
Philpot.--"You have the more to answer for, Master Doctor, as you shall feel in another world, how much soever you do now triumph of your proceedings."
Story.--"I tell thee, I will never be confessed thereof. And because I cannot now tarry to speak with my Lord, I pray one of you tell my Lord, that my coming was to signify to his Lordship, that he must out of hand rid this heretic out of the way." And, going away, he said to me, "I certify thee, that thou mayest thank none other man but me."
Philpot.--"I thank you therefore with all mine heart, and God forgive it you."
Story.--"What! dost thou thank me? If I had thee in my study half an hour, I think I should make you sing another song."
Philpot.--"No, Master Doctor, I stand upon too sure a ground to be overthrown by you now." And thus they departed all away from me one after another, until I was left all alone. And afterwards, with my keeper going to my coal-house, as I went, I met with my Lord of London, who spake unto me gently, as he hath hitherto in words, saying.
London.--"Philpot, if there be any pleasure I may show you in my house, I pray you require it, and you shall have it."
Philpot.--"My Lord, the pleasure that I will require of your Lordship is to hasten my judgment which is committed unto you, and so to despatch me forth of this miserable world, unto my eternal rest."
And for all his fair speech I cannot attain hitherto, this fortnight's space, neither fire nor candle, neither yet good lodging. But it is good for a man to be brought low in this world, and to be counted amongst the vilest, that he may in time of reward receive exaltation and glory. Therefore, praised be God that hath humbled me and given me grace with gladness to be content therewithal. Let all that love the truth say Amen.
Thus endeth the fifth tragedy.
The sixth examination of John Philpot, had before the right honourable lords, the lord chamberlain to the queen's Majesty, the Viscount Hereford, commonly called Lord Ferrers, the Lord Riche, the Lord St. John, the Lord Windsor, the Lord Chandos, Sir John Bridges, lieutenant of the Tower, and two other more, whose names I know not, with the bishop of London and Dr. Chedsey, the sixth day of November, Anno 1555.
Before that I [Philpot] was called afore the Lords, and whiles they were in sitting down, the bishop of London came aside to me and whispered in mine ear, willing me to use myself before the lords of the queen's Majesty's council prudently, and to take heed what I said: and thus he pretended to give me counsel, because he wished me to do well; as I might now do, if I list. And after the lords and other worshipful gentlemen of the queen's Majesty's servants were set, my Lord of London placed himself at the end of the table, and called me to him, and by the Lords I was placed at the upper end against him; where I kneeling down, the Lords commanded me to stand up, and after in this manner the bishop began to speak.
London.--"Master Philpot, I have heretofore, both privately myself, and openly before the lords of the clergy, more times than once, caused you to be talked withal to reform you of your errors, but I have not found you yet so tractable as I would wish: wherefore now I have desired these honourable lords of the temporalty and of the queen's Majesty's council, who have taken pains with me this day, (I thank them there-for,) to hear you what you can say, that they may be judges whether I have sought all means to do you good or no: and I dare be bold to say, in their behalf, that if you show yourself conformable to the queen's Majesty's proceedings, you shall find as much favour for your deliverance, as you can wish. I speak not this to fawn upon you, but to bring you home into the church. Now let them hear what you can say."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I thank God of this day, that I have such an honourable audience to declare my mind before. And I cannot but commend your Lordship's equity in this behalf, which agreeth with the order of the primitive church, which was, if anybody had been suspected of heresy, as I am now, he should be called first before the archbishop or bishop of the diocese, where he was suspected; secondly, in the presence of others his fellow bishops and learned elders; and thirdly, in hearing of the laity; where, after the judgment of God's word declared, and with the assent of other bishops and consent of the people, he was condemned to exile for a heretic, or absolved. And the second point of that good order I have found at your Lordship's hands already, in being called before you and your fellow bishops, and now have the third sort of men, at whose hands I trust to find more righteousness with my cause than I have found with my Lords of the clergy. God grant I may have, at last, the judgment of God's word concerning the same."
London.--"Master Philpot, I pray you ere you go any further, tell my Lords here plainly whether you were by me, or by my procurement, committed to prison or not, and whether I have showed you any cruelty since ye have been committed to my prison."
Philpot.--"If it shall please your Lordship to give me leave to declare forth my matter, I will touch that afterward."
Riche.--"Answer first of all to my Lord's two questions, and then proceed forth to the matter. How say you? were you imprisoned by my Lord or no? can you find any fault since, with his cruel using of you?"
Philpot.--"I cannot lay to my Lord's charge the cause of my imprisonment, neither may I say that he hath used me cruelly; but rather, for my part, I may say that I have found more gentleness at his Lordship's hands, than I did at mine own ordinary's, for the time I have been within his prison, for that he hath called me three or four times to mine answer, to the which I was not called in a twelvemonth and a half before."
Riche.--"Well, now go forth to your matter."
Philpot.--"The matter is, that I am imprisoned for the disputations had by me in the convocation-house against the sacrament of the altar, which matter was not moved principally by me, but by the prolocutor, with the consent of the queen's Majesty and of the whole house; and that house, being a member of the parliament-house, ought to be a place of free speech for all men of the house, by the ancient and laudable custom of this realm. Wherefore I think myself to have sustained hitherto great injury for speaking my conscience freely in such a place as I might lawfully do it: and I desire your honourable Lordships' judgment, which be of the parliament-house, whether of right I ought to be impeached there-for, and sustain the loss of my living, (as I have done,) and moreover of my life, as it is sought."
Riche.--"You are deceived herein; for the convocation-house is no part of the parliament-house."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have always understood the contrary, by such as are more expert men in things of this realm than I: and again, the title of every act leadeth me to think otherwise, which allegeth the agreement of the spiritualty and temporalty assembled together."
Riche.--"Yea, that is meant of the spiritual lords of the upper house."
Windsor.--"Indeed the convocation-house is called together by one writ of the summons of the parliament, of an old custom; notwithstanding that house is no part of the parliament-house."
Philpot.--"My Lords, I must be contented to abide your judgments in this behalf."
Riche.--"We have told you the truth. Marry, yet we would not that you should be troubled for any thing that there was spoken, so that you, having spoken amiss, do declare now that you are sorry there-for."
London.--"My Lords, he hath spoken there manifest heresy; yea, and there stoutly maintained the same against the blessed sacrament of the altar, [and with that he put off his cap, that all the Lords might reverence and veil their bonnets at that idol as he did,] and would not allow the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the same. Yet, my Lords, God forbid that I should go about to show him extremity for so doing, in case he will repent and revoke his wicked sayings; and if in faith he will so do, with your Lordships' consent he shall be released by-and-by. If he will not, he shall have the extremity of the law, and that shortly."
Chamberlain.--"My Lord of London speaketh reasonably unto you. Take it whiles it is offered you."
Riche.--"How say you? Will you acknowledge the real presence of the body and blood of Christ, as all the learned men of this realm do, in the mass, and as I do, and will believe as long as I live, I do protest it?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I do acknowledge in the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ such a presence, as the word of God doth allow and teach me."
Riche.--"That shall be no otherwise than you list."
London.--"A sacrament is the sign of a holy thing; so that there is both the sign, which is the accident, as the whiteness, roundness, and shape of bread, and there is also the thing itself, as very Christ, both God and man. But these heretics will have the sacraments to be but bare signs. How say you? declare unto my Lords here whether you do allow the thing itself in the sacrament or no."
Philpot.--"I do confess that in the Lord's supper there is in due respects both the sign and the thing signified, when it is duly ministered after the institution of Christ."
London.--"You may see how he goeth about the bush, (as he hath done before with my Lords of the clergy,) and dare not utter his mind plainly."
Riche.--"Show us what manner of presence you allow in the sacrament."
Philpot.--"If it please you, my Lord of London, to give me leave to proceed orderly thereunto, and to let me declare my mind without interruption, I will throughly open my mind therein."
Lord Chandos.--"I pray you, my Lord, let him speak his mind."
Philpot.--"My Lords, that at the first I have not plainly declared my judgment unto you, thereason is this, because I cannot speak hereof without the danger of my life."
Riche.--"There is none of us here that seeketh thy life, or means to take any advantage of that thou shalt speak."
Philpot.--"Although I mistrust not your honourable Lordships that be here of the temporalty; yet here is one that sitteth against me [pointing to my Lord of London] that will lay it to my charge, even to the death. Notwithstanding, seeing your Honours do require me to declare my mind of the presence of Christ in the sacrament, that ye may perceive that I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, neither do maintain any opinion without probable and sufficient authority of the Scripture, I will show you frankly my mind without all colour, whatsoever shall ensue unto me therefore, so that my Lord of London will not let me to utter my mind."
Riche.--"My Lord, permit him to say what he can, seeing he is willing to show his mind."
London.--"I am content, my Lords; let him say what he can, I will hear him."
Philpot.--"That which I do intend to speak unto you, right honourable lords, I do protest here, first, before God and his angels, that I speak it not of vain-glory, neither of singularity, neither of wilful stubbornness, but truly upon a good conscience, grounded on God's word, against the which I dare not do, for fear of damnation which will follow that which is done contrary to knowledge. Neither do I disagree to the proceedings of this realm in religion, for that I love not the queen (whom I love from the bottom of my heart); but because I ought to love and fear God in his word more than man in his laws, though I stand, as I seem to do, in this consideration, and for none other, as God I call to witness. There be two things principally, by the which the clergy at this day do deceive the whole realm; that is, the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, and the name of the catholic church: the which both they do usurp, having indeed none of them both. And as touching their sacrament, which they term of the altar, I say now as I said in the convocation-house, that it is not the sacrament of Christ, neither in the same is there any manner of Christ's presence. Wherefore they deceive the queen's Majesty, and you of the nobility of this realm, in making you to believe that to be a sacrament which is none, and cause you to commit manifest idolatry in worshipping that for God, which is no God. And in testimony of this to be true, besides manifest proof, which I am able to make to the queen's Majesty, and to all you of her nobility, I will yield my life: the which to do, if it were not upon a sure ground, it were to my utter damnation. And whereas they take on them the name of the catholic church, (whereby they blind many folk's eyes,) they are nothing so, calling you from the true religion which was revealed and taught in King Edward's time, unto vain superstition. And this I will say for the trial hereof, that if they can prove themselves to be the catholic church, (as they shall never be able to do,) I will never be against their doings, but revoke all that I have said. And I shall desire you, my Lords, to be a mean for me to the queen's Majesty, that I may be brought to the just trial hereof. Yea, I will not refuse to stand against ten of the best of them in this realm: and if they be able to prove otherwise than I have said, either by writing or by reasoning, with good and lawful authority, I will here promise to recant whatsoever I have said, and to consent to them in all points." And in the declaration of these things more at large, which now I write in sum, the bishop of London eftsoons would have interrupted me, but the lords procured me liberty to make out my tale, to the great grief of the lord bishop of London, as it appeared by the dumps he was in.
London.--"It hath been told me before, that you love to make a long tale."
Riche.--"All heretics do boast of the Spirit of God, and every one would have a church by himself; as Joan of Kent and the Anabaptists. I had myself Joan of Kent a sevennight in my house after the writ was out for her to be burnt, where my Lord of Canterbury and Bishop Ridley resorted almost daily unto her. But she was so high in the spirit, that they could do nothing with her for all their learning: but she went wilfully unto the fire, was burnt, and so do you now."
Philpot.--"As for Joan of Kent, she was a vain woman, (I knew her well,) and a heretic indeed, well worthy to be burnt, because she stood against one of the manifest articles of our faith, contrary to the Scriptures. And such vain spirits be soon known from the true Spirit of God and his church, for that the same abideth within the limits of God's word, and will not go out of the same, neither stubbornly maintain any thing contrary to the word, as I have God's word thoroughly on my side to show for that I stand in."
London.--"I pray you, how will you join me these two scriptures together: Pater major me est; and Pater et ego unum sumus. I must interpret the same, because my Lords here understand not the Latin, that is to say, The Father is greater than I; and, I and the Father are one: but I cry you mercy, my Lords, I have mispoken, in saying you understand no Latin; for the most part of you understand Latin as well as I. But I speak in consideration of my Lord Chandos and Master Bridges his brother, whom I take to be no great Latin men. Now show your cunning, and join these two scriptures by the word, if you can."
Philpot.--"Yes, that I can right well. For we must understand that in Christ there be two natures, the Divinity and humanity, and in respect of his humanity it is spoken of Christ, The Father is greater than I. But in respect of his Deity he said again, The Father and I be one."
London.--"But what scripture have you?"
Philpot.--"Yes, I have sufficient scripture for the proof of that I have said. For the first, it is written of Christ in the Psalms, Thou hast made him a little lesser than angels. It is the 15th Psalm, beginning Cli enarrant." And there I misreckoned, wherewithal my Lord took me:
London.--"It is in Domine Dominus noster. Ye may see, my Lords, how well this man is used to say his matins."
Philpot.--"Though I say not matins in such order as your Lordship meaneth; yet I remember of old, that Domine Dominus noster, and Cli enarrant, be not far asunder. And albeit I misnamed the Psalm, it is no prejudice to the truth that I have proved."
London.--"What say you then to the second scripture? how couple you that by the word to the other?"
Philpot.--"The text itself declareth, that notwithstanding Christ did abase himself in our human nature, yet he is still one in Deity with the Father: and this St. Paul to the Hebrews doth more at large set forth. And as I have by the Scriptures joined these two scriptures together, so am I able to do in all other articles of faith which we ought to believe, and by the manifest word of God to expound them."
London.--"How can that be, seeing St. Paul saith, That the letter killeth, but it is the spirit that giveth life."
Philpot.--"St. Paul meaneth not the word of God written, in itself killeth (which is the word of life, and faithful testimony of the Lord); but that the word is unprofitable and killeth him that is void of the Spirit of God, although he be the wisest man of the world. And therefore St. Paul said, That the gospel to some was a savour of life unto life, and to some other a savour of death unto death. Also an example hereof we have in John vi., of them who hearing the word of God without the Spirit, were offended thereby: wherefore Christ said, The flesh profiteth nothing: it is the Spirit that quickeneth."
London.--"What! do you understand that of St. Paul and of St. John so?"
Philpot.--"It is not mine own interpretation, it is agreeable to the word in other places; and I have learned the same of ancient fathers interpreting it likewise. And to the Corinthians it is written, The natural man perceiveth not the things that be of the Spirit of God; but the spiritual man, which is endued with the Spirit, judgeth all things."
London.--"You see, my Lords, that this man will have his own mind; and will wilfully cast away himself. I am sorry for him."
Philpot.--"The words that I have spoken be none of mine, but the gospel, whereon I ought to stand. And if you, my Lord of London, can bring better authority for the faith you will draw me unto, than that which I stand upon, I will gladly hear the same by you or by any other in this realm."
Wherefore I, kneeling down, besought the lords "to be good unto me, a poor gentleman, that would fain live in the world, if I might, and testify as you have heard me to say this day, that if any man can prove that I ought to be of any other manner of faith than that of which I now am, and can prove the same sufficiently, I will be neither wilful, neither desperate, as my Lord of London would make you believe me to be."
Riche.--"What countryman be you? Are you of the Philpots of Hampshire?"
Philpot.--"Yea, my Lord; I was Sir P. Philipot's son of Hampshire."
Riche.--"He is my near kinsman; wherefore I am the more sorry for him."
Philpot.--"I thank your Lordship that it pleaseth you to challenge kindred of a poor prisoner."
Riche.--"In faith I would go a hundred miles on my bare feet, to do you good."
Chamberlain.--"He may do well enough, if he list."
St. John.--"Master Philpot, you are my countryman, and I would be glad you should do well."
Riche.--"You said even now, that you would desire to maintain your belief before ten of the best in the realm. You did not well to compare with the nobility of the realm. But what if you have ten of the best in the realm to hear you, will you be tried by them?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, your Lordship mistaketh me to think that I challenge ten of the best of the nobility in this realm. It was no part of my mind; but I meant of the best learned on the contrary side."
Riche.--"Well, I take your meaning. What if means be made to the queen's Majesty, that you shall have your request, will you be judged by them?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, it is not meet, that a man should be judged by his adversaries."
Riche.--"By whom then would you be judged?"
Philpot.--"I will make your Honours judges, that shall be hearers of us."
Riche.--"I dare be bold to procure for you of the queen's Majesty, that you shall have ten learned men to reason with you, and twenty or forty of the nobility to hear, so you will promise to abide their judgment. How say you; will you promise here, afore my Lords, so to do?"
Philpot.--"I will be contented to be judged by them."
Riche.--"Yea, but will you promise to agree to their judgment?"
Philpot.--"There be causes why I may not so do, unless I were sure they would judge according to the word of God."
Riche.--"Oh, I perceive you will have no man judge but yourself, and think yourself wiser than all the learned men in this realm."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I seek not to be mine own judge, but am content to be judged by others, so that the order of judgment in matters of religion be kept that was in the primitive church; which is, first that God's will by his word was sought, and thereunto both the spiritualty and temporalty was gathered together, and gave their consents and judgment. And such kind of judgment I will stand to."
London.--"My Lords, he would make you believe that he were profoundly seen in ancient writers of the judgments of the primitive church, and there was never any such manner of judgment used as he now talketh of."
Philpot.--"In the Epistles of St. Cyprian I am able to show it you."
London.--"Ah, I tell you there is no such thing; fetch me Cyprian hither."
Philpot.--"You shall find it otherwise when the book cometh." And Dr. Chedsey, his chaplain (whom he appointed to fetch his hook) whispered the bishop in his ear, and fetched not the book, by likelihood that he should have sustained the reproach thereof, if the book had been fetched. "Well my Lord," quoth I, "Master Doctor knoweth it is so, or else he would have fetched the book ere this."
Riche.--"You would have none other judge, I see, but the word."
Philpot.--"Yes, my Lord; I will be tried by the word, and by such as will judge according to the word. As for an example, if there were a controversy between your Lordship and another, upon the words of a statute, must not the words of the statute judge and determine the controversy?"
Riche.--"No marry, the judges of the law may determine of the meaning thereof."
London.--"He hath brought as good an example against himself as can be."
And here the bishop thought he had good hand-fast against me, and therefore enlarged it with many words to the judgment of the church.
The lords.--"He hath overthrown himself by his own argument."
Philpot.--"My Lords, it seemeth to your Honours that you have great advantage of me by the example I brought in to express my cause: but, if it be pondered thoroughly, it maketh wholly with me, and nothing against me, as my Lord of London hath pretended. For I will ask my Lord Riche here, whom I know to have good knowledge in the laws and statutes of this realm, albeit a judge may discern the meaning of a statute agreeable to the words, whether the same may judge a meaning contrary to the express words or no?"
Riche.--"He cannot so do."
Philpot.--"Even so say I, that no man ought to judge the word of God to have a meaning contrary to the express words thereof, as this false Church of Rome doth in many things." And with this the lords seemed to be satisfied, and made no further replication herein.
Riche.--"I marvel then why you do deny the express words of Christ in the sacrament, saying, This is my body, and yet you will not stick to say it is not his body. Is not God omnipotent? and is not he able as well by his omnipotency to make it his body, as he was to make man flesh of a piece of clay? Did not he say, This is my body which shall be betrayed for you? and was not his very body betrayed for us? therefore it must needs be his body."
London.--"My Lord Riche, you have said wonderful well and learnedly; but you might have begun with him before also in the sixth of John, where Christ promised to give his body in the sacrament of the altar, saying, The bread which I will give is my flesh. How can you answer to that?"
Philpot.--"If it please you to give me leave to answer first my Lord Riche, I will also answer this objection."
Riche.--"Answer my Lord of London first, and after come to me."
Philpot.--"My Lord of London may be soon answered, that the saying of St. John is, that the humanity of Christ, which he took upon him for the redemption of man, is the bread of life, whereby our bodies and souls be sustained to eternal life, of the which the sacramental bread is a lively representation and an effectual coaptation, to all such as believe on his passion. And as Christ saith in the same sixth of John, I am the bread that came down from heaven; but yet he is not material natural bread neither: likewise the bread is his flesh, not natural or substantial, but by signification, and by grace in the sacrament.
"And now to my Lord Riche's argument. I do not deny the express words of Christ in the sacrament, This is my body, but I deny that they are naturally and corporally to be taken; they must be taken sacramentally and spiritually, according to the express declaration of Christ, saying that the words of the sacrament which the Capernaites took carnally, as the papists now do, ought to be taken spiritually, and not carnally, as they falsely imagine, not weighing what interpretation Christ hath made in this behalf, neither following the institution of Christ, neither the use of the apostles and of the primitive church, who never taught, neither declared, any such carnal manner of presence as is now exacted of us violently, without any ground of Scripture or antiquity, who used to put out of the church all such as did not receive the sacrament with the rest, and also to burn that which was left after the receiving, as by the canon of the apostles, and by the decree of the council of Antioch, may appear."
London.--"No, that is not so; they were only catechumeni which went out of the church at the celebration of the communion, and none other."
Philpot.--"It was not only of such as were novices in faith, but all others that did not receive."
London.--"What say you to the omnipotency of God? Is not he able to perform that which he spake, as my Lord Riche hath very well said? I tell thee, that God by his omnipotency may make himself to be this carpet, if he will."
Philpot.--"As concerning the omnipotency of God, I say that God is able to do (as the prophet David saith) whatsoever he willeth; but he willeth nothing that is not agreeable to his word; as that is blasphemy which my Lord of London hath spoken, that God may become a carpet. For, as I have learned of ancient writers, 'God cannot do that which is contrary to his nature,' as it is contrary to the nature of God to be a carpet. A carpet is a creature; and God is the creator; and the creator cannot be the creature. Wherefore, unless you can declare by the word, that Christ is otherwise present with us than spiritually and sacramentally by grace, as he hath taught us, you pretend the omnipotency of God in vain."
London.--"Why, wilt thou not say that Christ is really present in the sacrament? or do you deny it?"
Philpot.--"I deny not that Christ is really in the sacrament to the receiver thereof, according to Christ's institution."
London.--"What mean you by really present?"
Philpot.--"I mean by really present, present indeed."
London.--"Is God really present every where?'
Philpot.--"He is so."
London.--"How prove you that?"
Philpot.--"The prophet Isaiah saith, that God filleth all places: and wheresoever there be two or three gathered together in Christ's name, there is he in the midst of them."
London.--"What? his humanity?"
Philpot.--"No, my Lord, I mean the Deity, according to that you demanded."
Riche.--"My Lord of London, I pray you let Master Doctor Chedsey reason with him; and let us see how he can answer him, for I tell thee he is a learned man indeed, and one that I do credit before a great many of you, whose doctrine the queen's Majesty and the whole realm doth well allow; therefore hear him."
London.--"My Lords, I pray you, will it please you to drink? you have talked a great while, and much talk is thirsty. I will leave Master Doctor and him reasoning together awhile, with your leave, and will come to you by and by again." He went (as I suppose) to make room for more drink, after the lords had drunken. My Lord Riche said to the lords, "I pray you let the poor man drink, for he is thirsty;" and with that he called for a cup of drink, and gave it me, and I drank before them all. God requite it him, for I was athirst indeed. Afterwards Dr. Chedsey began in this wise, making a great process, of the which this is the effect.
Chedsey.--"Master Philpot findeth fault with the convocation-house before your Lordships, that he hath lain thus long in prison, and that he had there a dozen arguments, whereof he could not be suffered to prosecute one thoroughly, which is not so; for he had leave to say what he could, and was answered to as much as he was able to bring; and when he had nothing else to say, he fell to weeping. I was there present and can testify thereof; albeit there is a book abroad of the report of the disputation to the contrary, in the which there is never a true word. And whereas you require to be satisfied of the sacrament, I will show you the truth thereof, both by the Scriptures, and by the doctors."
Philpot.--"It is a shrewd likelihood that you will not conclude with any truth, since you have begun with so many untruths, as to say that I was answered whiles I had any thing to say, and that I wept for lack of matter to say, and that the book of the report of the disputation is nothing true. God be praised, there were a good many of noblemen, gentlemen, and worshipful men that heard and saw the doings thereof, which can testify that you here have made an unjust report before these honourable lords. And that I wept, was not for lack of matter, as you slander me; for I thank God, I have more matter than the best of you all shall ever be able to answer, as little learning as I have. But my weeping was, as Christ's was upon Jerusalem, seeing the destruction that should fall upon her; and I, foreseeing then the destruction which you (through violence and unrighteousness which you there declared) would work against the true church of Christ and her faithful members, as this day beareth witness, was compelled to weep in remembrance of that which I, with infinity more, have felt and shall feel."
All these words I did not then speak out, being interrupted by my Lord Riche, saying that I should suffer him to proceed out in this matter, and afterwards I should have leisure to answer him in every article. But he promised more than he could perform, as the end did well declare, for he had not the consent of the spiritualty to his promise, which now rule the roost. God shorten their cruel days, for his elect's sake. And therefore I add this, which I had purposed to have spoken, if then I might have been suffered, lest any that perfectly know not the things done in the convocation-house and now laid to my charge, if they should not be answered by me, might reckon Dr. Chedsey's sayings to be true. And as concerning the book of the report of the disputations, I wrote the same, and it is true in every argument, as Master Dean of Rochester, and Master Cheyney, archdeacon of Hertford, (yet being alive, and within the realm,) can testify.
Chedsey.--"You have of Scriptures the four evangelists for the probation of Christ's real presence to be in the sacrament after the words of consecration, with St. Paul to the Corinthians; which all say, This is my body. They say not as you would have me to believe, this is not the body. But specially the sixth of John proveth the same most manifestly, where Christ promised to give his body, which he performed in his last supper, as it appeareth by these words, The bread which I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world."
Philpot.--"My Lord Riche, with your leave, I must needs interrupt him a little, because he speaketh open blasphemy against the death of Christ. For if that promise, brought in by St. John, was performed by Christ in his last supper, then needed he not to have died, after he had given the sacrament."
Riche.--"Let Master Doctor make an end of his arguments, and afterward object to him what you can."
Chedsey.--"You must note that there is twice dabo in this saying of St. John, and the first is referred to the sacrament of the altar; and the second to the sacrifice upon the cross. And besides these manifest scriptures, there be many ancient doctors proving the same, as Ignatius, Irenĉus, and St. Cyprian "[whose authority be recited at large, which I do omit because I was not permitted to answer the same].
Riche.--"Now answer, and object to him what you can, and you shall be heard."
Philpot.--"My Lord, the chiefest ground whereon he with the rest of his side do ground themselves against us, be these words, This is my body, with a false pretence of the omnipotency of God. And before I will come to the particular answers of all that he hath alleged, for that your Lordships may the better understand me, what I mean, and whereupon I stand, I will first require Master Doctor to answer me one question. But first of all I do protest to your Honours that I think as reverently of the sacrament as a Christian man ought to do, and that I acknowledge the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, ministered after Christ's institution, to be one of the greatest treasures and comforts that he left us on the earth: and, contrariwise, it is most discomfort and abominable, not being ministered as it ought to he, as it is used now-adays. And now to my question, which is this: Whether these words only, This is my body, spoken by a priest over the bread and wine, may make the body and blood of Christ, as you suppose, or no?"
Staggering what he might say, at last Chedsey said, "That these words alone, pronounced by the priest, be sufficient to make the bread and the wine the very body and blood of Christ really."
Philpot.--"That is blasphemy to say, and against all the scriptures and doctors, who affirm that the form and substance in consecration must be observed which Christ used and did institute, as St. Cyprian saith, 'In the sacrifice which is Christ, only Christ is to be followed.' And by the law it is forbidden to add or take away from God's word. And St. Peter saith, If any man speak, let him speak as the word of God. Wherefore, whosoever saith that these words only, This is my body, do make a presence of Christ, without Bless, take, and eat, which be three as substantial points of the sacrament as This is my body, he is highly deceived. Therefore St. Augustine saith, 'Let the word be joined to the element, and it becometh a sacrament:' so that if the entire words of Christ's institutions be not observed in the ministration of a sacrament, it is no sacrament; as the sacrifices which the ten tribes did offer at Bethel to God, were not acceptable, because they were not in all points done according to God's word. Wherefore, except blessing be made after the word, (which is a due thanksgiving for our redemption in Christ,) and also a showing forth of the Lord's death in such wise as the congregation may be edified, and moreover a taking and eating after Christ's commandment -- except (I say) these three parts be first performed, (which is not done in the mass,) these words, This is my body, which are last placed in the institution of the Lord's supper, cannot be verified. For Christ commanded as well, Take ye, eat ye, as This is my body."
Chedsey.--"Christ said, Take, eat, this is my body, and not, Take ye, eat ye."
Philpot.--"No did, Master Doctor? Be not these the words of Christ, Accipite, manducate? and do not these words in the plural number signify Take ye, eat ye; and not, Take thou, eat thou, as you would suppose?"
Chedsey.--"I grant it is as you say."
Philpot.--"Likewise of consequency, you, Master Doctor, must needs deny, which you have said, that these words, This is my body, being only spoken, be sufficient to make the body and blood of Christ in the sacrament, as you have untruly said."
Then came in the bishop of London again and said, "What is it that you would have Master Doctor deny?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, Master Doctor hath affirmed that these words, This is my body, spoken by the priest, only do make the sacrament."
London.--"Indeed if Master Bridges should speak these words over the bread and wine, they would be of none effect: but if a priest speak them after a due manner, they are effectual, and make a real body."
Philpot.--"Master Doctor hath said otherwise."
London.--"I think you mistake him; for he meaneth of the words duly pronounced."
Philpot.--"Let him revoke that he hath granted, and then will I begin again with that which before was said; that, This is my body, hath no place, except bless, take, and eat, duly go before. And therefore because the same words do not go before This is my body, but preposterously follow, in your sacrament of the mass, it is not the sacrament of Christ, neither hath Christ in it present."
Chedsey.--"If This is my body only do not make the sacrament, no more do bless, take, and eat."
Philpot.--"I grant that the one without the other cannot make the sacrament. And it can be no sacrament unless the whole action of Christ doth concur together according to the first institution."
Chedsey.--"Why, then you would not have it to be the body of Christ, unless it be received?"
Philpot.--"No, verily, it is not the very body of Christ to any other, but such as condignly receive the same after his institution."
London.--"Is not a loaf a loaf, being set on the table, though nobody eat thereof?"
Philpot.--"It is not likely, my Lord; for a loaf is a loaf before it be set on the table. But so is not the sacrament a perfect sacrament before it be duly ministered at the table of the Lord."
London.--"I pray you, what is it in the mean while, before it is received?"
Philpot.--"It is, my Lord, the sign begun of a holy thing, and yet no perfect sacrament until it be received. For in the sacrament there be two things to be considered, the sign, and the thing itself, which is Christ and his whole passion; and it is that to none but to such as worthily receive the holy signs of bread and wine, according to Christ's institution."
Windsor.--"There were never any that denied the words of Christ as you do. Did not he say, This is my body?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I pray you be not deceived. We do not deny the words of Christ: but we say, these words be of none effect, being spoken otherwise than Christ did institute them in his last supper. For an example; Christ biddeth the church to baptize in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: if a priest say these words over the water, and there be no child to be baptized, these words only pronounced, do not make baptism. And again, baptism is only baptism to such as be baptized, and to none other standing by."
Chamberlain.--"I pray you, my Lord, let me ask him one question. What kind of presence in the sacrament (duly ministered according to Christ's ordinance) do you allow?"
Philpot.--"If any come worthily to receive, then do I confess the presence of Christ wholly to be with all the fruits of his passion, onto the said worthy receiver, by the Spirit of God, and that Christ is thereby joined to him, and he to Christ."
Chamberlain.--"I am answered."
London.--"My Lords, take no heed of him, for he goeth about to deceive you. His similitude that he bringeth in of baptism, is nothing like to the sacrament of the altar. For if I should say to Sir John Bridges, being with me at supper, and having a fat capon, Take, eat, this is a fat capon, although he eat not thereof, is it not a capon still? And likewise of a piece of beef, or of a cup of wine; if I say, Drink, this is a cup of wine, is it not so, because he drinketh not thereof?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, your similitudes be too gross for so high mysteries as we have in hand, as if I were your equal I could more plainly declare; and there is much more dissimilitude between common meats and drinks, than there is between baptism and the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ. Like must be compared to like, and spiritual things with spiritual, and not spiritual things with corporal things. And meats and drinks be of their own natures good or evil; and your words, commending or discommending, do but declare what they are. But the sacraments be to be considered according to the word which Christ spake of them, of the which, Take ye, and eat ye, be some of the chief, concurrent to the making of the same, without the which there can be no sacraments. And therefore in Greek, the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ is called κοινονία [Greek:koinonia], i. e. communion, and likewise in the gospel Christ commanded, saying, Divide it among you."
Chedsey.--"St. Paul calleth it a communication."
Philpot.--"That doth more expressly show, that there must be a participation of the sacrament together."
London.--"My Lords, I am sorry I have troubled you so long with this obstinate man, with whom we can do no good; I will trouble you no longer now." And with that the Lords rose up, none of them saying any evil word unto me, half amazed, in my judgment: God work it to good!
Thus endeth the sixth part of this tragedy: the seventh look for with joy.
The seventh examination of John Philpot, had the nineteenth of November, before the bishops of London and Rochester, the chancellor of Lichfield, Dr. Chedsey, and Master Dee, bachelor of divinity.
London.--"Sirrah, come hither. How chance you come no sooner? Is it well done of you to make Master Chancellor and me to tarry for you this hour? By the faith of my body, half an hour before mass, and half an hour even at mass, looking for your coming."
Philpot.--"My Lord, it is not unknown to you that I am a prisoner, and that the doors be shut upon me, and I cannot come when I list. But as soon as the doors of my prison were open, I came immediately."
London.--"We sent for thee to the intent thou shouldst have come to mass. How say you, would you have come to mass, or no, if the doors had sooner been opened?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, that is another manner of question."
London.--"Lo, Master Chancellor, I told you we should have a froward fellow of him; he will answer directly to nothing. I have had him before both the spiritual lords and temporal, and thus he fareth still; yet he reckoneth himself better learned than all the realm. Yea, before the temporal lords, the other day, he was so foolish to challenge the best: he would make himself learned, and is a very ignorant fool indeed."
Philpot.--"I reckon, I answered your Lordship before the lords plain enough."
London.--"Why answerest thou not directly whether thou wouldst have gone to mass with us or no, if thou hadst come in time?"
Philpot.--"Mine answer shall be thus; that if your Lordship can prove your mass, whereunto you would have me to come, to be the true service of God, whereunto a Christian ought to come, I will afterward come with a good will."
London.--"Look, I pray you: the king and the queen, and all the nobility of the realm, do come to mass, and yet he will not. By my faith thou art too well handled: thou shalt be worse handled hereafter, I warrant thee."
Philpot.--"If to lie in a blind coal-house may be counted good handling, both without fire and candle, then may it be said, I am well handled. Your Lordship hath power to entreat my body as you list."
London.--"Thou art a fool, and a very ignorant fool. Master Chancellor, in good faith I have handled him and his fellows with as much gentleness as they can desire. I let their friends come unto them to relieve them. And wot you what? the other day they had gotten themselves up into the top of the leads with a many of prentices, gazing abroad as though they had been at liberty. But I will cut off your resort: and as for the prentices, they were as good not to come to you, if I take them."
Philpot.--"My Lord, we have no such resort to us as your Lordship imagineth, and there cometh very few unto us. And of prentices I know not one, neither have we any leads to walk on over our coal-house, that I wot of: wherefore your Lordship hath mistaken your mark."
London.--"Nay; now you think, because my Lord Chancellor is gone, that we will burn no more. Yes, I warrant thee, I will despatch you shortly, unless you do recant."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I had not thought that I should have been alive now, neither so raw as I am, but well roasted to ashes."
Chancellor.--"Cast not yourself wilfully away, Master Philpot. Be content to be ruled by my Lord here, and by other learned men of this realm, and you may do well enough."
Philpot.--"My conscience beareth me record that I seek to please God, and that the love and fear of God cause me to do as I do: and I were of all other creatures most miserable, if for mine own will only I do lose all the commodities I might have in this life, and afterward be cast to damnation. But I am sure, it is not my will whereon I stand, but God's will, which will not suffer me to be cast away, I am sure."
Chancellor.--"You are not so sure, but you may be deceived."
London.--"Well, since thou wilt not be conformable by fair means, I will proceed against thee ex officio; and therefore hearken here to such articles as I have here written, and I charge thee to make answer to them." And with that he read a libel which he had in his hand of divers articles: and when he had done he bade me answer.
Philpot.--"Your libel, my Lord, containeth in sum two special points: the first pretendeth, that I should be of your diocese, and therefore your Lordship upon divers suspects and infamies of heresy going upon me, is moved to proceed against me by your ordinary-office: the which first is not true, for that I am not of your Lordship's diocese, as the libel doth pretend. And the second is, that I, being baptized in the catholic church, and in the catholic faith, am gone from them; the which is not so, for I am of that catholic faith and church as I was baptized unto."
London.--"What! art thou not of my diocese? Where are ye now, I pray you?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I cannot deny but I am in your coal-house, which is in your diocese, yet I am not of your diocese."
London.--"You were sent hither unto me by the queen's Majesty's commissioners, and thou art now in my diocese: wherefore I will proceed against thee as thy ordinary."
Philpot.--"I was brought hither through violence, and therefore my present being now in your diocese is not enough to abridge me of mine own ordinary's jurisdiction, neither maketh it me willingly subject to your jurisdiction, since it cometh by force, and by such men as had no just authority so to do: no more than a sanctuary man,, being by force brought forth of his place of privilege, doth thereby lose his privilege, but always may challenge the same wheresoever he be brought."
Chedsey.--"Hath not the queen's Majesty authority, by her commissioners, to remove your body whither she will? and ought you not to obey herein?"
Philpot.--"I grant that the queen's Majesty (of her just power) may transpose my body, whither it shall please her Grace to command the same. But yet, by your laws, spiritual causes be not subject to the temporal power. As for example; you, Master Doctor, if the queen's Majesty would to appoint two temporal men to be judges over you in certain spiritual matters, might not you allege the privilege of a clerk, and demand competent spiritual judges in your causes?"
London.--"Doth not a man, I pray you, sortiri forum ratione delicti?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, your rule is true in temporal matters, but in spiritual causes it is not so, which be otherwise privileged."
London.--"What sayest thou then to the second article, and to the other?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I say that I am not bound to answer the second, neither the rest, unless the first be proved."
London.--"Well, suppose the first may be proved, as it will be, what will you say then to the second -- that you are not of the same catholic faith, neither of the same church, now, as you were baptized in?"
Philpot.--"I am of the same catholic faith, and of the same catholic church, which is of Christ, the pillar and stablishment of truth."
London.--"Nay, that you are not."
Philpot.--"Yes, that I am."
London.--"Your godfathers and godmothers were of another faith than you be now."
Philpot.--"I was not baptized either into my godfathers' faith or my godmothers', but into the faith and into the church of Christ."
London.--"How know you that?"
Philpot.--"By the word of God, which is the touchstone of faith, and the limits of the church."
London.--"How long hath your church stood, I pray you?"
Philpot.--"Even from the beginning; from Christ and from his apostles, and from their immediate successors."
Chancellor.--"He will prove his church to be before Christ!"
Philpot.--"If I did so, I go not amiss: for there was a church before the coming of Christ, which maketh pne catholic church."
Chancellor.--"It is so indeed."
Philpot.--"I will desire no better rule than the same which is oftentimes brought in of your side, to prove both my faith and the catholic church; that is, antiquity, universality, and unity."
London.--"Do you not see what a bragging foolish fellow this is? He would seem to be very well seen in the doctors, and he is but a fool. By what doctor art thou able to prove thy church? Name him, and thou shalt have him."
Philpot.--"My Lord, let me have all your ancient writers, with pen, and ink, and paper, and I will prove both my faith and my church out of every one of them."
London.--"No, that thou shalt not have. You shall see how he lieth. St. Cyprian saith, 'There must be one high priest, to the which the residue must obey;' and they will allow no head, neither vicar-general."
Philpot.--"St. Cyprian saith not that there should be a vicar-general over all. For in his book De Simplicitate Prĉlatorum, I am sure he saith the contrary. 'There is but one bishopric, which is wholly possessed of every bishop in part.'"
London.--"Fetch hither the book; thou shalt see the manifest place against thee."
Doctor Chedsey brought the book, and turned to the place in an epistle written unto Cornelius, then bishop of Rome, and recited these words in sum, "That it went not well with the church, where the high priest was not obeyed," and so would have concluded for the confirmation of the bishop's saying.
Philpot.--"Master Doctor, you misconstrue the place of St. Cyprian: for he meaneth not there by the high priest, the bishop of Rome, but every patriarch in his precinct, of whom there were four appointed in his time. And in writing unto Cornelius he meaneth by the high priest, himself, which was then chief bishop of Africa, whose authority the heretics began to despise. Whereof he complaineth to Cornelius, and saith, 'The church cannot be well ordered, where the chief minister by order, after the judgment of the Scriptures, after the agreement of the people, and the consent of his fellow bishops, is not obeyed.'"
London.--"Hath not the bishop of Rome always been supreme head of the church, and Christ's vicar in earth, even from Peter?"
Philpot.--"No, that he was not. For by the word of God he hath no more authority than the bishop of London hath."
London.--"Was not Peter head of the church, and hath not the bishop of Rome, which is his successor, the same authority?"
Philpot.--"I grant that the bishop of Rome, as he is the successor of Peter, hath the same authority as Peter had. But Peter had no more authority than every one of the apostles had."
Chancellor.--"Yes, that St. Peter had; for Christ said specially unto him, I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; the which he spake to none other of his disciples singularly, but to him."
Philpot.--"St. Augustine answereth otherwise to the objection, and saith, That if in Peter there had not been the figure of the church, the Lord had not said to him, To thee I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven. The which if Peter received not, the church hath them not. If the church hath them, then Peter hath them not.'"
London.--"What if I can prove and show you out of the civil law, that all Christendom ought to follow the holy catholic Church of Rome, as there is a special title thereof, De catholica fide et sancta, Romana ecclesia?"
Philpot.--"That is nothing material, seeing the things of God be not subject to man's laws; and divine matters must be ordered by the word of God, and not of man."
A doctor.--"What will you say, if I can prove that Christ builded his church upon Peter, and that out of St. Cyprian? Will you then believe that the bishop of Rome ought to be supreme head of the church?"
Philpot.--"I know what St. Cyprian writeth in that behalf; but he meaneth nothing as you take it."
A doctor.--"St. Cyprian hath these words, 'That upon Peter was builded the church, as upon the first beginning of unity.'"
Philpot.--"He declareth that in an example, that unity must be in the church; he grounded on Peter his church alone, and not upon men. The which he doth more manifestly declare in the book De Simplicitate Prĉlatorum, saying, 'In the person of one man, God gave the keys to all, that he, in signification thereby, might declare the unity of all men.'
A doctor.--"What! will you understand St. Cyprian so? That were good indeed!"
Philpot.--"I think you cannot understand St. Cyprian better, than he doth declare himself."
London.--"I will desire you, Master Chancellor, to take some pains with Master Doctor Chedsey about his examination, for I must go to the parliament-house. And I will desire you to dine with me."
Then the doctor took again his former authority in hand for want of another, and would have made a further circumstance, digressing from his purpose. To whom I said, he knew not whereabout he went; and therewithal he laughed. And I said his divinity was nothing but scoffing.
A doctor.--"Yea, then I have done with you:" and so went away.
Philpot.--"You are too young in divinity to teach me in the matters of my faith. Though you be learned in other things more than I, yet in divinity I have been longer practised than you, for any thing I can hear of you: therefore be not too hasty to judge that you do not perfectly know."
Chancellor.--"Peter and his successors from the beginning have been allowed for the supreme head of the church, and that by the Scriptures, for that Christ said unto him in St. John thrice, Feed my sheep."
Philpot.--"That is no otherwise to be taken, than Go ye and preach, which was spoken to all the apostles, as well as unto Peter. And that Christ said thrice, Feed my sheep, it signifieth nothing else but the earnest study that the ministers of God ought to have in preaching the word. God grant that you of the clergy would weigh your duty in this behalf more than you do. Is this a just interpretation of the Scripture, to take Pasce oyes mats, for to be Lord of the whole world?" In this mean while came in the bachelor of divinity, which is a reader of Greek in Oxford, belonging to the bishop, and he took upon him to help Master Chancellor."
Scholar.--"What will you say if I can show you a Greek author, called Theophylact, to interpret it so? Will you believe his interpretation?"
Philpot.--"Theophylact is a late writer, and one that was a favourer of the bishop of Rome, and therefore not to be credited, since his interpretation is contrary to the manifest words of the Scripture, and contrary to the determination of many general councils."
Scholar.--"In what general council was it otherwise, that the bishop of Rome was not supreme head over all?"
Philpot.--"In Nice council I am sure it was otherwise; for Athanasius was there the chief bishop and president of the council, and not the bishop of Rome."
Scholar.--"Nay, that is not so."
Philpot.--"Then I perceive you are better seen in words, than in knowledge of things: and I will gage with you what you will, it is so; as you may see in the Epitome of the Councils."
Scholar.--"I will fetch Eusebius and show the contrary, and the book of General Councils." He went into my Lord's closet, and brought Eusebius; but the General Councils he brought not, saying (for saving of his honesty) that he could not come by them. And there he would have defended that it was otherwise in Eusebius, but was not able to show the same, and so shrank away confounded.
Chancellor.--"The Church of Rome hath been always taken for the whole catholic church; therefore I would advise you to come into the same with us. You see all the men of this realm do condemn you: and why will you be so singular?"
Philpot.--"I have said, and still do say, that if you can be able to prove it unto me, that I will be of the same. But I am sure that the church, which you make so much of, is a false church, and a synagogue of Satan. And you with the learned men of this realm do persecute the true church, and condemn such as be more righteous than you."
Chancellor.--"Do you hear, Master Doctor, what he saith, that the Church of Rome is the devil?"
Chedsey.--"I wish you did think more reverently of the Church of Rome. What will you say if I can show you out of St. Austin, in his Epistle written unto Pope Innocent, that the whole general council of Carthage did allow the Church of Rome to be chiefest over all other?"
Philpot.--"I am sure you can show no such thing." And with that he fetched the book of St. Austin, and turned to the Epistle, but he could not prove his allegation manifestly, but by conjectures in this wise:--
Chedsey .--"Here you may see, that the council of Carthage writing to Innocent the bishop, calleth the see of Rome the apostolic see. And besides this, they write to him certifying him of things done in the council for the condemnation of the Donatists, requiring his approbations in the same; which they would not have done, if they had not taken the Church of Rome for the supreme head of others. And moreover you may see how St. Austin doth prove the Church of Rome to be the catholic church by continual succession of the bishop until his time, which succession we can prove until our days. Therefore, by the same reason of St. Austin we say now, that the Church of Rome is the catholic church."
Philpot.--"Master Doctor, I have considered how you do weigh St. Augustine; and, contrary to his meaning and words, you would infer your false conclusion. As concerning that it was called by him the apostolical see, that is not material to prove the Church of Rome now to be the catholic church. I will grant it now that it is the apostolical see, in respect that Paul and Peter did once there preach the gospel, and abode there for a certain season. I would you could prove it to be the apostolical see of that true religion and sincerity, as the apostle left it, and did teach the same; the which if ye could do, you might boast of Rome as of the apostolical see: otherwise it is now of no more force, than if the Turk at Antioch and at Jerusalem should boast of the apostolic sees, because the apostles once did there abide, and founded the church of Christ.
"And whereas the whole council of Carthage did write unto Pope Innocent, certifying him of that was done in the general council, and willing him to set his helping hand to the suppressing of the Donatists, as they had done; that fact of the council proveth nothing the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, no more than if the whole convocation-house now gathered together, and agreeing upon certain articles, might send the same to some bishop that upon certain impediments is not present, willing him to agree thereto, and to set them forth in his diocese. The which fact doth not make any such bishop of greater authority than the rest, because his consent is brotherly required.
"And touching the succession of the bishops of Rome, brought in by St. Augustine, it maketh nothing now thereby to prove the same catholic church, unless you can conclude with the same reason as St. Augustine doth. And the rehearsal of the succession of the bishops doth tend to this only, to prove the Donatists to be heretics, because they began, as well at Rome as in Africa, to found another church of their own setting up, than was grounded by Peter and Paul, and by their successors, whom he reciteth until his time, which all taught no such doctrine, neither such church as the Donatists. And if presently you be able to prove by the succession of bishops of Rome, (whereof you do glory,) that such doctrine hath not been taught by any of the successors of Peter's see, as is now taught and believed of us, you have good reason against us: otherwise it is of no force, as I am able to declare."
Chancellor.--"Well, Master Doctor, you see we can do no good in persuading of him. Let us minister the articles which my Lord hath left us, unto him. How say you, Master Philpot, to these articles? Master Johnson, I pray you write his answers."
Philpot.--"Master Chancellor, you have no authority to inquire of me my belief in such articles as you go about, for that I am not of my Lord of London's diocese; and, to be brief with you, I will make no further answer herein than I have already to the bishop."
Chancellor.--"Why then let us go our ways, and let his keeper take him away."
Thus endeth the seventh part of this tragedy.
The sum of a private conference or talk between Master Philpot and the bishop of London.
The next day, in the morning betimes, the bishop sent one of his men unto me, to call me up into his chapel to hear mass.
Bishop's man.--"Master Philpot, where be you?"
Philpot.--"Who is it that calleth me?"
Bishop's man.--"My Lord's will is, you should rise and come to hear mass. Will you come or no?"
Philpot.--"My stomach is not very good this morning: you may tell my Lord I am sick." After this the keeper was sent to bring me to my Lord.
The keeper.--"Master Philpot, you must rise and come to my Lord."
Philpot.--"I am at your commandment, Master ter Keeper, as soon as I can." And going out of the prison, he asked me, saying:
The keeper.--"Will ye go to mass?"
Philpot.--"My stomach is too raw to digest such raw meats of flesh, blood, and bone, this morning." After this my keeper presented me to the bishop in his hall.
London.--"Master Philpot, I charge you to answer unto such articles as my chaplain, Master Dee, and my registrar, have from me to object against you; go and answer them."
Philpot.--"My Lord, all judgments ought to be public. Therefore, if your Lordship have any thing to charge me lawfully withal, let me be in judgment lawfully and openly called, and I will answer according to my duty: otherwise in corners I will not."
London.--"Thou art a foolish knave, I see well enough: thou shalt answer whether thou wilt or no; go thy ways with them, I say."
Philpot.--"I may well go with them at your Lordship's pleasure; but I will make them no further answers than I have said already."
London.--"No, wilt thou not, knave? Have him away, and set him in the stocks: What! foolish knave?"
Philpot.--"Indeed, my Lord, you handle me, with others, like fools: and we must be content to be made fools at your hands; stocks and violence be your bishop-like alms. You go about by force in corners to oppress, and be ashamed that your doings should come to light: God shorten your cruel kingdom for his mercy's sake!" And I was put by and by into the stocks, in a house alone, separate from my fellows. God be praised that he hath thought me worthy to suffer any thing for his name's sake. Better it is to sit in the stocks of this world, than to sit in the stocks of a damnable conscience.
Another conference between Bonner, bishop of London, and Master Philpot and other prisoners.
The next day after, an hour before day, the bishop sent for me again by the keeper.
The keeper.--"Master Philpot, arise, you must come to my Lord."
Philpot.--"I wonder what my Lord meaneth, that he sendeth for me thus early. I fear he will use some violence towards me: wherefore I pray you make him this answer, that if he send for me by an order of law, I will come and answer; otherwise, since I am not of his diocese, neither is he mine ordinary, I will not (without I be violently constrained) come unto him."
Keeper.--"I will go tell my Lord what answer you make." And so he went away to the bishop, and immediately returned with two of the bishop's men, saying that I must come, whether I would or no.
Philpot.--"If by violence any of you will enforce me to go, then I must go, otherwise I will not." And therewith one of them took me with force by the arm, and led me up into the bishop's gallery.
London.--"What, thou art a foolish knave indeed; thou wilt not come without thou be fetched."
Philpot.--"I am brought indeed, my Lord, by violence unto you; and your cruelty is such, that I am afraid to come before you. I would your Lordship would gently proceed against me by the law."
London.--"I am blamed of the lords the bishops, for that I have not despatched thee ere this. And in faith I made suit to my Lord Cardinal, and to all the convocation-house, that they would hear thee. And my Lord of Lincoln stood up, and said that thou wert a frantic fellow, and a man that will have the last word. And they all have much blamed me, because I have brought thee so often before the lords openly: and they say it is meat and drink to you to speak in an open audience, you glory so of yourself. Wherefore I am commanded to take a further order with thee; and, in good faith, if you will not relent, I will make no further delay. Marry, if thou wilt be conformable, I will yet forgive thee all that is past, and thou shalt have no hurt for any thing that is already spoken or done."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have answered you already in this behalf, what I will do. And as for the report of Master White, bishop of Lincoln, I pass not; who is known to be mine enemy, for that I, being archdeacon, did excommunicate him for preaching naughty doctrine. If Christ my Master were called a mad-man, it is no marvel though ye count me frantic."
London.--"Hadst thou not a pig brought thee the other day with a knife in it? Wherefore was it, I pray thee, but to kill thyself? or, as it is told me, (marry, I am counselled to take heed of thee,) to kill me? But I fear thee not. I trow I am able to tread thee under my feet; do the best thou canst."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I cannot deny but that there was a knife in the pig's belly that was brought me. But who put it in, or for what purpose, I know not, unless it were because he that sent the meat thought I was without a knife, and so put it in. But other things your Lordship needeth not to fear: for I was never without a knife since I came into prison. And touching your own person, you should live long, if you should live until I would go about to kill you: and I confess by violence your Lordship is able to overcome me."
London.--"I charge thee to answer to mine articles. Hold him a book. Thou shalt swear to answer truly to all such articles as I shall demand of thee."
Philpot.--"I will first know your Lordship to be mine ordinary, before I swear herein."
London.--"What, we shall have an Anabaptist of thee, which thinketh it not lawful to swear before a judge!"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I am no Anabaptist; I think it lawful to swear before a competent judge, being lawfully required. But I refuse to swear in these causes before your Lordship, because you are not mine ordinary."
London.--"I am thine ordinary, and here do pronounce by sentence peremptory, that I am thine ordinary, and that thou art of my diocese." [And here he bade call in more to bear him witness.] "And I make thee "[taking one of his servants by the arm] "to be my notary. And now hearken to my articles:" to the which (when he had read them) he monished me to make answer, and said to the keeper, "Fetch me his fellows, and I shall make them to be witnesses against him."
In the mean while came in one of the sheriffs of London, whom the bishop (calling for two chairs) placed by him, saying, "Master Sheriff, I would you should understand how I do proceed against this man. Master Sheriff, you shall hear what articles this man doth maintain;" and so he read a rabblement of feigned articles: That I should deny baptism to be necessary to them that were born of Christian parents; that I denied fasting and prayer, and all other good deeds; and I maintained only bare faith to be sufficient to salvation, whatsoever a man did besides; and I maintained God to be the author of all sin and wickedness.
Philpot.--"Hah, my Lord! have ye nothing of truth to charge me withal, but ye must be fain to imagine these blasphemous lies against me! You might as well have said I had killed your father. The Scriptures say, that God will destroy all men that speak lies And is not your Lordship ashamed to say before this worshipful gentleman, (who is unknown to me,) that I maintain these abominable blasphemies which you have rehearsed? which if I did maintain, I were well worthy to be counted a heretic, and to be burned a hundred times, if it were possible."
London.--"I do object them unto thee, to hear what thou wilt say in them, and how thou canst purge thyself of them."
Philpot.--"Then it was not justly said of your Lordship in the beginning, that I did maintain them, since almost I hold none of these articles you have read, in form as they are written."
London.--"How sayest thou? Wilt thou answer to them or no?"
Philpot.--"I will first know you to be mine ordinary, and that you may lawfully charge me with such things; and then afterward, being lawfully called in judgment, I will show my mind fully thereof; and not otherwise."
London.--"Well, then I will make thy fellows to be witnesses herein against thee. Where are they? Come!"
Keeper.--"They be here, my Lord."
London.--"Come hither, sirs: hold them a book. You shall swear by the contents of that book, that you shall (all manner of affections laid apart) say the truth of all such articles as you shall be demanded of concerning this man here present, which is a very naughty man. And take you heed of him, that he doth not deceive you, as I am afraid he doth you much hurt, and strengtheneth you in your errors."
Prisoners.--"My Lord, we will not swear, except we know whereto: we can accuse him of no evil, we have been but a while acquainted with him."
Philpot.--"I wonder your Lordship, knowing the law, will go about, contrary to the same, to have infamous persons to be witnesses: for your Lordship doth take them to be heretics, and by the law a heretic cannot be a witness."
London.--"Yes, one heretic against another may be well enough. And Master Sheriff, I will make one of them to be witness against another."
Philpot.--"You have the law in your hand, and you will do what you list."
Prisoners.--"No, my Lord."
London.--"No, will you not? I will make you swear, whether you will or no. I ween they be Anabaptists, Master Sheriff: they think it not lawful to swear before a judge."
Philpot.--"We think it lawful to swear for a man judicially called, as we are not now, but in a blind corner."
London.--"Why then, seeing you will not swear against your fellow, you shall swear for yourselves; and I do here in the presence of Master Sheriff object the same articles unto you as I have done unto him, and do require you, under the pain of excommunication, to answer particularly unto every one of them when ye shall be examined, as ye shall be by and by examined by my registrar and some of my chaplains."
Prisoners.--"My Lord, we will not accuse ourselves. If any man can lay any thing against us, we are here ready to answer thereto: otherwise we pray your Lordship not to burden us; for some of us are here before you, we know no just cause why."
London.--"Master Sheriff, I will trouble you no longer with these froward men." And so he rose up, and was going away, talking with Master Sheriff.
Philpot.--"Master Sheriff, I pray you record how my Lord proceedeth against us in corners, without all order of law, having no just cause to lay against us."
And after this [we] were all commanded to be put in the stocks, where I sat from morning until night; and the keeper at night upon favour let me out.
Another private conference between the bishop of London and Master Philpot in the coal-house.
The Sunday after, the bishop came into the coal-house at night with the keeper, and viewed the house, saying that he was never here before: whereby a man may guess how he hath kept God's commandment in visiting the prisoners, seeing he was never with them that have been so nigh his nose. And he came not then for any good zeal, but to view the place, and thought it too good for me; and therefore, after supper, between eight and nine, he sent for me, saying--
London.--"Sir, I have great displeasure of the queen and the council for keeping you so long, and letting you have so much liberty. And besides that, you are yonder, and strengthen the other prisoners in their errors, as I have laid wait for your doings, and am certified of you well enough. I will sequester you therefore from them, and you shall hurt no more as you have done, and I will out of hand despatch you, as I am commanded, unless you will be a conformable man."
Philpot.--"My Lord, you have my body in your custody; you may transport it whither you please: I am content. And I would you would make as quick expedition in my judgment, as, you say, I long there-for; and as for conformity, I am ready to yield to all truth, if any can bring better than I."
London.--"Why, will you believe no man but yourself, whatsoever they say?"
Philpot.--"My belief must not hang upon men's sayings, without sure authority of God's word, the which if any can show me, I will be pliant to the same. Otherwise, I cannot go from my certain faith to that which is uncertain."
London.--"Have you then the truth only?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I will speak my mind freely unto you, and upon no malice I bear to you, before God. You have not the truth, neither are you of the church of God; but you persecute both the truth and the true church of God, for the which cause you cannot prosper long. You see God doth not prosper your doings according to your expectations: he hath of late showed his just judgment against one of your greatest doers, who by report died miserably. I envy not the authority you are in. You that have learning should know best how to rule. And seeing God hath restored you to your dignity and living again, use the same to God's glory, and to the setting forth of his true religion; otherwise it will not continue, do what you can." With this saying he was silenced.
London.--"That good man was punished for such as thou art. Where is the keeper? Come, let him have him to the place that is provided for him. Go your way before."
And he followed me, calling the keeper aside, commanding to keep all men from me, and narrowly to search me, (as the sequel did declare,) and brought me to his privy door that goeth into the church, and commanded two of his men to accompany the keeper, and to see me placed. And afterwards I passed through Paul's, up to Lollards' Tower, and after that turned along all the west side of Paul's through the wall, and passing through six or seven doors, came to my lodging through many straits; where I called to remembrance, that strait is the way to heaven. And it is in a tower, right on the other side of Lollards' Tower, as high almost as the battlements of Paul's, eight feet of breadth, and thirteen of length, and almost over the prison where I was before, having a window opening toward the east, by the which I may look over the tops of a great many houses, but see no man passing into them: and whoso walketh in the bishop's outer gallery going to his chapel, may see my window and me standing in the same. And as I was come to my place the keeper plucked off my gown, and searched me very narrowly,, and took away penner, inkhorn, girdle, and knife; but (as God would) I had an inkling a little before I was called, of my removing, and thereupon made an errand to the stool, where, full sore against my will, I cast away many a sweet letter and friendly: but that I had written of my last examination before, I thrust into my hose, thinking the next day to have made an end thereof, and with going it was fallen down to my leg, the which he by feeling did soon espy, and asked what that was. I said, they were certain letters: and with that he was very busy to have them out. "Let me alone," said I, "I will pluck them out." With that I put in my hand, having two other letters therein, and brought up the same writing to my pocket-hole, and there left it, giving him the other two letters that were not of any great importance; the which, to make a show that they had been weighty, I began to tear as well as I could, till they snatched them from me; and so deluded him (I thank God) of his purpose.
After this he went his way, and as he was going one of them that came with him said, that I did not deliver the writings I had in my hose, but two other letters I had in my hand before. "No did?" quoth he, "I will go search him better "the which I hearing, conveyed my examination I had written into another place beside my bed, and took all the letters I had in my purse, and was tearing of them when he came again; and as he came I threw the same out of my window, saying that I heard what he said: wherefore I did prevent his searching again, whereof I was right glad. God be praised that gave me that present shift to blind their eyes from the knowledge of my writings, the which if they had known, it would have been a great occasion of more straiter keeping and looking unto, although they look as narrowly as they may.
The eighth examination of John Philpot, before the bishop of London, the bishop of St. David's, Master Mordant, and others, in the bishop's chapel.
The next day after, my keeper came before day in the morning to call me down, and so was I brought down into his wardrobe, where with a keeper I was left, and there continued all the day. But after dinner I was called down into the chapel, before the bishop of London, the bishop of St. David's, Master Mordant, one of the queen's council, Master Archdeacon of London, and before a great many more Balaamites. And the bishop spake unto me in this wise:--
London.--"Sir, here I object and lay unto you, in the presence of my Lord of St. David's, and of Master Mordant, and of these worshipful men, these articles here in this libel contained."
And openly he read them. To whom when I would particularly have answered to some of his blasphemies, he would not permit me, but said, I should have leisure enough to say what I would when he had said. "And unto these here I add another schedule. Also I require thee to answer to the catechism set forth in the schismatical time of King Edward. Also I will thee to answer to certain conclusions agreed upon both in Oxford and Cambridge. And I here do bring forth these witnesses against thee in thine own presence, namely, my Lord of St. David's, Master Mordant, and Master Harpsfield, with as many of you as were present in the disputation he made in the convocation-house; willing you to testify, of your oaths taken upon a book, the stubborn and unreverent behaviour he did there use against the blessed sacrament of the altar. Give me a book! "And receiving one, he opened the same, saying, I will teach him here one trick in our law which he knoweth not; that is, my Lord of St. David's, because you are a bishop, you have this privilege, that you may swear, by looking on the gospel book, without touching of the same." And so he opened the book in his sight, and shut it again, and caused the others to put their hands on the book, and take their oath, and willed them to resort to his registrar to make their depositions when they might be best at leisure. And afterwards he turned to me and said, "Now sir, you shall answer but two words, whether you will answer to these articles which I have laid unto you, directly, yea, or nay?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, you have told a long tale against me, containing many lying blasphemies, which cannot be answered in two words. Besides this, you promised me at the beginning, that I should say what I could for my defence, and now will you not give me leave to speak? What law is this?
London.--"Speak, yea or nay, for you shall say no more at this time."
The cause was, as I guess, that he saw so many there gathered to hear.
Philpot.--"Then my two words you would have me speak shall be, that I have appealed from you, and take you not for my sufficient judge."
London.--"Indeed, Master Mordant, he hath appealed to the king and to the queen; but I will be so bold with her Majesty, to stay that appeal in mine own hands."
Philpot.--"You will do what you list, my Lord, you have the law in your hands."
London.--"Wilt thou answer or no?"
Philpot.--"I will not otherwise than I have said."
London.--"Registrar, note his answer that he maketh."
Philpot.--"Knock me on the head with a hatchet, or set up a stake and burn me out of hand, without further law: as well you may do so, as do that you do, for all is without order of law. Such tyranny was never seen as you use now-a-days; God of his mercy destroy your cruel kingdom." And whilst I spake this, the bishop went away in haste.
St. David's.--"Master Philpot, I pray you be quiet, and have patience with you."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I thank God I have patience to bear and abide all your cruel intents against me: notwithstanding I speak this earnestly, being moved thereto justly, to notify your unjust and cruel dealing with men in corners, without all due order of law."
After this, at night, I was conducted again by three or four into the coal-house.
The ninth examination of Master Philpot before the bishop of London, and his chaplains.
In the morning, the next day, I was called down betimes by my keeper, and brought again into the wardrobe, where I remained until the bishop had heard his mass; and afterward he sent up for me into his inward parlour, and there he called for a chair to sit down, and brought his infamous libel of his forged articles in his hand, and sat down, willing me to draw near unto him, and said:
London.--"I am this day appointed to tarry at home from the parliament-house, to examine you and your fellows upon these articles; and you stand dallying with me, and will neither answer to nor fro. I wis all your exceptions will not serve you. Will it not be a fair honesty for you, think ye, that when thou comest before my Lord Mayor and the sheriffs, and other worshipful audience, when I shall say before them all, that I have had thee these many times before me, and before so many learned men, and then thou couldst say nothing for that thou standest in, for all thy brags of learning, neither wouldst answer directly to any thing?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have told you my mind plain enough; but yet I do not intend to lose that privilege the law giveth me, the which is, free choice to answer where I am not bound, and this privilege will I cleave unto, until I be compelled otherwise."
London.--"Well, I perceive you will play the obstinate fool. Lay thine appellation when thou comest in judgment, and answer in the mean while to these articles."
Philpot.--"No, my Lord, by your leave I will not answer to them, until my lawful appeal be tried."
London.--"Well, thou shalt hear them."
And with that he began to read them. I shrank back into the window, and looked on a book. And after he had read them over he said unto me.
London.--"I have read them over, although it hath not pleased you to hear me. I marvel, in good faith, what thou meanest to be so wilful and stubborn, seeing thou mayest do well enough if thou list. It is but a singularity. Dost thou not see all the realm against thee?"
Philpot.--"My Lord, I speak unto you in the witness of God, before whom I stand, that I am neither wedded to mine own will, neither stand upon mine own stubbornness or singularity, but upon my conscience instructed by God's word; and if your Lordship can show better evidence than I have for a good faith, I will follow the same."
London.--"What! thou wilt not, lo, for all that! Well, all that is past shall be forgotten; and be thou conformable unto us. I wis thou mightest find as much favour as thou wouldest desire."
Then I, perceiving that he fawned so much upon me, thought it good to give him some comfort of my relenting, to the intent I might give him and his hypocritical generation openly a further foil, perceiving that they dare reason openly with none, but with such as be unlearned, and for lack of knowledge not able to answer, or else with such as they have a hope that, for fear or love of the world, will recant: I said, "My Lord, it is not unknown to you, that I have openly, in the audience of a great number, stood to the maintenance of these opinions I am in, and by learning did offer to defend them; therefore, my Lord, I would it might openly appear to the world that I am won by learning; or else what will they say, but that, either for fear or love of the world, I am without any ground turned from the truth? And if I hear any kind of learning openly showed, I shall be as conformable as you may require me."
London.--"Yea, marry, now ye speak somewhat like a reasonable man. I wis you might have had a great deal more favour in my house, and liberty, than you have had; and you shall lack nothing that is within my house: call for it, and you shall have it. And what is it that you would openly by learning somewhat be satisfied in? tell me."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I have openly said, and do believe it also, that your sacrifice of the mass is no sacrament."
London.--"What! do you deny the presence of Christ in the sacrament?"
Philpot.--"No, my Lord, I deny not the presence of Christ in the sacrament, but I have denied the sacrament of the altar, as it is used in your mass, to be the true sacrament of Christ's institution: and first, it must be proved a sacrament, before there can be any presence granted."
London.--"Why, do you deny the mass to be a sacrament? I pray you what is a sacrament? Is it not a sign of a holy thing, as St. Austin doth define it?"
Philpot.--"Yes, verily, that it is."
London.--"Then I make this argument unto you: a sacrament is the sign of a holy thing: but the mass is the sign of a holy thing; ergo, it is a sacrament."
Philpot.--"You must add this to your major, or first proposition, as St. Augustine doth mean, that a sacrament is the sign of a holy thing instituted of God, and commanded: for otherwise it can be no sacrament, for all men cannot make a sacrament."
London.--"I grant that: and such a sign of a holy thing is the mass of Christ's institution."
Philpot.--"I deny that, my Lord."
London.--"I will prove this by St. Augustine by and by. I will go show you the book, and you shall have any book I have that you will demand. Ho! who is without there? Call me Master Doctor Chedsey, Master Archdeacon, Master Cosins, and other chaplains hither."
"Here, my Lord. Master Doctor Chedsey is gone to Westminster, and Master Archdeacon was here even now."
London.--"Master Cosins, I pray you examine him upon these articles, and write his answer he maketh to every one of them. I will go examine his fellows, and send you St. Augustine by and by. I find this man more conformable than he was before."
Cosins.--"I trust, my Lord, you shall find him at length a good catholic man. Marry, here be a sight of heresies! I dare say you will hold none of them, nor stand in any of them. How say you to the first?"
Philpot.--"Master Cosins, I have told my Lord already, that I will answer to none of these articles he hath objected against me: but, if you will with learning answer to that which is in question between my Lord and me, I will gladly hear and commune with you."
Cosins.--"No, will you? Why, what is that, then, that is in question between my Lord and you?"
Philpot.--"Whether your mass be a sacrament, or no."
Cosins.--"What, the mass to be a sacrament? who ever doubted thereof?"
Philpot." If it be an undoubted truth, you may the sooner prove it; for I doubt much thereof."
Cosins.--"Why, I will prove it. It is the sign of a holy thing: ergo, it is a sacrament."
Philpot.--"I deny your antecedent."
Cosins.--"What, will you so? then there is no reasoning with you."
Thus Master Cosins gave over in the plain field for want of further proof. And then the morrow-mass chaplain began to speak for his occupation; and with that Master Harpsfield came out from my Lord with St. Augustine's Epistles, saying.
Harpsfield.--"My Lord hath sent you here St. Augustine to look upon, and I pray you look what he saith in a certain epistle which he writeth: I will read over the whole. Here you may hear the celebration of the mass, and how it reproveth them that went a hawking and hunting before the celebration of the same, on the sabbath and holy-days."
Philpot.--"I perceive the contents of this epistle, and I see nothing herein against me, neither any thing that maketh for the proof of your sacrament of the mass."
Harpsfield.--"No! doth he not make mention of the mass, and the celebration thereof? what can be spoken more plain?"
Philpot.--"St. Austin meaneth of the celebration of the communion, and of the true use of the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, and not of your private mass, which you of late years have erected in the stead thereof; or this word mass' hath been an old term attributed to the communion even from the primitive church. And I pray you tell me what missa doth signify. I think not many that say mass can well tell."
Cosins.--"No? cannot? That is marvel."
Philpot.--"Then tell me, if you can." But Master Cosins and my morrow-mass chaplain were both dumb, looking upon Master Harpsfield for help; and at length he spake.
Harpsfield.--"You think it cometh of the Hebrew word massah, as though none were seen in the Hebrew but you."
Philpot.--"I have not gone so long to school, to derive the signification of missa out of Hebrew: but I have learned to interpret Greek words by Greek, and Latin by Latin, and Hebrew by Hebrew. I take the communion to be called missa, (sent,) a mittendo, (from sending,) of such things as at the celebration of the communion were sent by such as were of ability, to the relief of the poor, where the rich brought after their devotion and ability, and required the minister, in the celebration of the communion, to pray unto God for them, and to accept their common alms, which they at such times did send for the help of their poor brethren and sisters; and for this cause was it called missa, as learned men do witness. At the which celebration of the mass, all that were present did communicate under both kinds, according to Christ's institution, as they did in St. Augustine's time. But unless you can show that your mass is used as then it was, ye shall never by the name of mass (which St. Augustine attributed to the true use of the communion) prove your private mass to be a sacrament, unless ye can prove the same now to be in your masses as was then, which is clean contrary."
Harpsfield.--"What! deny you the mass to be a sacrament? for shame, speak it not."
Philpot.--"I will not be ashamed to deny it, if you cannot prove it."
Harpsfield.--"Why, it is a sacrifice, which is more than a sacrament."
Philpot.--"You may make of it as much as you list: but you shall never make it a sacrifice, as you may imagine thereof, but first it must be a sacrament, for of the sacrament you deduce your sacrifice."
Harpsfield.--"Why? doth not Christ say, This is my body? and doth not the priest pronounce the same that Christ did?"
Philpot.--"The pronunciation only is not enough, unless the words be therewithal applied to the use, as Christ spake them to. For though ye speak the words of baptism over water never so many times, yet there is no baptism unless there be a Christian person to be baptized."
Harpsfield.--"Nay, that is not like; for Hoc est corpus meum, is an indicative proposition, showing a working of God in the substance of bread and wine."
Philpot.--"It is not only an indicative proposition, but also imperative or commanding. For he that said, This is my body; said also, Take ye, eat ye. And except the former part of the institution of Christ's sacrament be accomplished according to the communion, the latter, This is my body, can have no verification, take it which way you will, and how you will."
Morrow-mass chaplain.--"Why then you will make the sacrament to stand in the receiving, and that receiving maketh it a sacrament."
Philpot.--"I do not say, that the receiving only maketh it a sacrament, but I say, that a common receiving must needs be concurrent with the true sacrament, as a necessary member, without the which it cannot be a sacrament; because Christ hath made this a principal part of the sacrament, Take ye, eat ye, which you do not in your mass according to Christ's institution. Wherefore it can be no sacrament, for that it wanteth of Christ's institution."
Cosins.--"We do forbid none to come to it, but as many as list may be partakers with us at the mass, if they require it."
Philpot.--"Nay, that they shall not, though they require it; you will minister but one kind unto them, which is not after Christ's institution. Besides that, you ought, before you go to mass, to exhort all that be present, to make a sacrifice of thanksgiving, for Christ's passion with you, and exhort them to be partakers with you, according to Christ's commandment, saying unto all that be present, Take ye, eat ye: and likewise, by preaching, show forth the Lord's death, which you do not."
Cosins.--"What if all things be done even as you would have it, and whilst the minister is about to minister the sacrament, before any have received it, there rise a certain hurly-burly, that the communicants be compelled to go away: is it not a sacrament for all that none have communicated beside the priest?"
Philpot.--"In this case, where all things are appointed to be done according to God's word, if incident necessity had not let, I cannot say but it is a sacrament, and that he which hath received, hath received the true sacrament." After this the morrow-mass priest made this apish reason:
The morrow-mass priest.--"If the sacrament of the mass be no sacrament, unless all do receive it, because Christ said, Take ye, eat ye; then the sacrament of baptism is no sacrament where there is but one baptized, because Christ said to his apostles, Go preach the gospel to all creatures, baptizing all nations in the name of the Father, &c."
Philpot.--"In that saying of Christ, baptizing all nations is a commandment to the apostles, to baptize all sorts of men, and to exclude none that believe, be he Gentile or Jew; not meaning all at once, for that were impossible. And there are many examples that baptism may be singularly ministered to one person, as we have example in Christ baptized of John, and in the eunuch baptized of Philip, with many more such like: but so have you not of the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ; but contrariwise, by the express words of St. Paul, you are commanded to use it in a communion and participation of many together, As oft as ye come together to eat [meaning the Lord's supper] tarry one for another. And also the minister in the celebration of the sacrament speaketh unto all that be present in Christ's behalf, to communicate with him, saying, Take ye, and eat ye. Wherefore, as many as be present and do not communicate, break God's commandment in not receiving the same. And the minister is no just minister that doth not distribute the sacrament, as Christ did, to all that are present; and where God's word is transgressed, there is not Christ present, and consequently it is no sacrament."
Harpsfield.--"What! would you have it no sacrament without it be a communion?"
Philpot.--"I make it not so, but God's express word teacheth me so, yea, also all the ancient writers; as St. Chrysostom, writing upon the Epistle to the Ephesians, saith, 'that the oblation is in vain, where none doth communicate with the priest.' If by his judgment the action of the priest alone is in vain, where is no communion, how can that be a sacrament, which he calleth a vain oblation, and a vain standing at the altar?"
Cosins.--"You are such another fellow as I have not heard, that will not have the mass to be a sacrament: you are no man for me to reason withal. Come, let us go [pointing to the morrow-mass chaplain]: we will leave you, Master Archdeacon, and him together." And so they went away. Afterward the archdeacon fell into earnest persuasions with me, saying:
Harpsfield.--"Master Philpot, you and I have been of old acquaintance a long time. We were school-fellows both in Winchester and in Oxford many years. Wherefore I must wish you as well to do as myself, and I pray you so think of me."
Philpot.--"I thank you for your good will towards me. But if you be deceived, (as I am sure you are,) I shall desire you not to wish me deceived with you; for afore God, I tell you plainly, you are highly deceived, and maintain false religion, and be not those men you take yourselves for; and if you do not repent, and leave off your persecuting of Christ's truth, you will go to the devil for it. Therefore consider it in time. I give you warning, for else, in the day of judgment, I shall be a witness against you, that I told you this, here talking together."
Harpsfield.--"Fie, that is but your own vain singular opinion. I perceive you are now still that man you were in Oxford."
Philpot.--"I trust you can report no notorious evil that ever you knew by me there."
Harpsfield.--"I can say no evil of your conversation, but I knew you to be a studious man. Marry, if you remember when we met in disputation in parvis, you would not lightly give over; and for that cause I speak what I have said."
Philpot.--"Master Harpsfield, you know in the schools of Oxford, when we were young men, we did strive much upon vain glory, and upon contention, more than for the truth; but now, our years and our riper learning teach us to fall to a truth, which must be our portion for ever. And if I was then, in my time of ignorance, earnest in my own cause, I ought now to be earnest in my Master Christ's cause, and his truth. I know now that nothing done upon vain glory and singularity can please God, have it never so godly a show: wherefore I pray you judge not so of me now."
Harpsfield.--"What, will you think yourself better learned than all the learned men in this realm?"
Philpot.--"My faith hangeth not upon the learned of the world, but upon the learned of God's word."
Harpsfield.--"Well, I will talk with you no more as now, but pray to God to open your heart."
Philpot.--"I pray God open both our hearts, to do more his will, than we have done in times past."
Harpsfield.--"Ho! keeper, take him away with you."
Philpot.--"I pray you, Master Harpsfield, tell me what this pronoun hoc doth demonstrate and show, in this indicative proposition, as you call it, Hoc est corpus meum, This is my body?"
Harpsfield.--"It doth demonstrate the substance of bread, which by the words spoken by the priest, and by the omnipotency of God, is turned into the substance of Christ's very body."
Philpot.--"Is the substance of the bread, as you say, turned into Christ's body?"
Harpsfield.--"Yea, that it is."
Philpot.--"Why, then Christ's body receiveth daily a great increase of many thousand pieces of bread into his body, and that is his body become now, which was not before; and by this you would seem to make, that there is an alteration in Christ's glorified body, which is a wicked thing to think."
Then Harpsfield fetched about again, and remembering better himself, and seeing the inconvenience of his first assertion, of the transubstantiation of bread into Christ's body, he said, that the substance of bread, after the words spoken by the priest, was evacuated or vanished away by the omnipotency of God."
Philpot.--"This is another song than you sang first; and here you may see how contrary you are to yourselves: for indeed your schoolmen do hold, that the very substance of bread is really turned into the substance of Christ's body. And now, you perceiving of late the inconvenience which is objected against you in that opinion, you are driven to imagine a new shift, and say, the substance of bread is evacuated, contrary to that your church hath first believed and taught. Oh, what contrariety is there among you, and all to deface the sincere truth!"
Harpsfield.--"Is not God omnipotent? and cannot he do as he hath said?"
Philpot.--"But his omnipotence will not do as you say, contrary to his word and to his honour. It is not God's honour to include him bodily into a piece of bread, and of necessity to tie him thereto. It is not God's honour for you to make a piece of bread God and man, which you see before your face doth putrify after a certain time. Is not God's omnipotency as able to give his body with the sacramental bread, as to make so many turnings-away of the bread as you do, and that directly against the Scripture, which calleth it bread many times after the consecration? Are you not ashamed to make so many alterations of the Lord's holy institution as you do, and to take away the substantial parts of the sacrament, as, Take ye, eat ye; Drink ye all of this; Do ye this in remembrance of me: and to place in their steads, Hear ye, gaze ye, knock ye, worship ye, offer ye, sacrifice ye for the quick and the dead? If this be not blasphemy to God and his sacraments, to add and to pluck away in this sort, and that contrary to the mind of all ancient writers, and contrary to the example of Christ and all his apostles, tell me."
Harpsfield.--"I know you have gathered the sayings of the doctors together which make for your purpose: I will talk no longer with you."
Philpot.--"I pray God open both our hearts, to do more his will, than we have done in times past."
Harpsfield.--"Ho! keeper, take him away with you."
The tenth examination of John Philpot, before the bishop of London, his registrar, and others.
The next day after dinner I was brought into my Lord's upper hall, and there he called me before him and his registrar, and before Dr. Chedsey, in the presence of two homely gentlemen, and a priest which I knew not: at what time the bishop said.
London.--"I do here lay unto this man in your presence, (requiring you to be a witness against him, as much as you know in any of them,) these articles, this book of the catechism made in King Edward's days, also these conclusions agreed upon both in Oxford and Cambridge. Also I lay unto him, that he hath despised the censures of the church, and hath stood accursed more than this twelvemonth, and never required absolution thereof. How say you, wast thou not accursed by my Lord Chancellor?"
Philpot.--"I was excommunicated by him wrongfully, and without any just cause, and without order of law; being never personally cited."
London.--"Didst thou not tell me the other day, when I required thee to come to the mass, that thou wast excommunicated, and therefore by the law couldst not hear mass? How long hast thou been thus excommunicated?"
Philpot.--"More than a twelvemonth and a half."
London.--"Lo, you may hear what he saith: write it."
Philpot.--"But as you would have written, that I have said I have been thus long excommunicated; so also let him write, that I did require of my Lord Chancellor that did excommunicate me, my absolution, but he would not give it me, saying, that I was excommunicatus ipso jure, because I was a heretic, as it pleased him to call me; therefore accursed by your law: and so commanded me to prison, where I remain."
Gentleman.--"Why do you not require absolution at my Lord's hands here now?"
Philpot.--"Because he is not mine ordinary, neither hath by the law any thing to do with me of right."
London.--"What an obstinate fool is this! I tell thee I will be thine ordinary, whether thou wilt or no."
Philpot.--"And because of this your unrighteous force towards me, I have appealed from you, and require you, Master Registrar, that my appeal may be entered in writing."
London.--"Have you heard such a froward fellow as this? he seemed yesterday to be very tractable, and I had a good hope of him. I tell thee thou art of my diocese."
Philpot.--"I am of Winchester diocese, and not of London diocese."
London.--"I pray you may not a man be of two dioceses at once?"
Philpot.--"No, that he cannot."
London.--"Lo, will you see what an ignorant fool this is in the law, in the which he would seem to be seen! I tell thee a man may be of three dioceses at once: as if thou wert born in London, by reason thereof thou shouldst be of my diocese: or else if thou wert not born here, but hadst a dignity, also thou art to be counted of my diocese: or else by reason of thy habitation in my diocese."
Philpot.--"In none of these respects I am of your Lordship's diocese. But for all that, this will not follow, that I, dwelling at Winchester, am at that present of London diocese."
London.--"What wilt thou lay thereof? Wilt thou recant if I prove it?"
Philpot.--"But what shall I win, if you do not?"
London.--"I will give thee my bishopric, if I prove it not."
Philpot.--"Yea, but who shall deliver it me if I win?"
London.--"Thou art an arrogant fool. Enter their oaths, and take these witnesses' depositions. I must be gone to the parliament-house."
After this spake unto me a priest standing by, asking me whether I was kin to my Lord Riche, or no.
Philpot.-- I said, "He said so himself to me the other day, but how, I know not."
Chedsey.--"I heard him say he was his nigh kinsman."
Balaamite.--"Why, then you and I must be of kin, for he is my nigh kinsman. How chanceth it that you and I be of contrary judgments?"
Philpot.--"It is no marvel; for Christ prophesied, That the father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father, for my truth's sake."
Balaamite.--"You do hold (as I understand) against the blessed sacrament of the altar, and against the holy mass."
Philpot.--"If you can prove it a sacrament, I will not hold against you."
Balaamite.--"What, prove it a sacrament, quoth he! Doth not St. Paul say, That such things as the eye hath not seen, neither ear heard, hath God prepared for them that love him?"
Philpot.--"That saying of St. Paul concerneth nothing your sacrament; but is meant of the heavenly joys that be prepared for all faithful believers."
Balaamite.--"Why, then I perceive you understand not St. Paul. By God, you are deceived."
Philpot.--"You ought not to swear, kinsman, if you will that I shall so call you; and without disworship of our kindred, I understand St. Paul as well as you, and know what I say." [And with that showed him a Greek Testament with Erasmus's translation, and with the old also, demanding him which text he was best acquainted withal.]
Balaamite.--"I knew Greek too once, as well as you; I care not which you read."
Philpot.--"You know them then all alike; you understand the one as well as the other." With this my Balaamite kinsman departed in a fury.
The next day after I was brought down again, after dinner, to the chapel, and there my Balaamite kinsman (to verify the Scriptures, that a man's own kinsfolks shall be his enemies) came in with the bishop as a witness against me: and there the bishop caused another that came to him about other matters, to swear also to be a witness against me, which was a priest also; saying, "You shall swear to depose all the truth of certain articles you shall be inquired of concerning this man; and here I (according to the law) do bring them forth in thy presence."
Philpot.--"My Lord, I do not agree to the production of them, but do appeal from all these and other your proceedings against me: and require you, Master Registrar, that my appeal may be entered, and I will give you for your labour."
Registrar.--"Your appeal shall be entered at leisure. Whom do you appeal unto? tell me."
Philpot.--"I appeal to a higher judge, as to the lieutenant of the archbishopric of Canterbury; for I know not who is bishop thereof at this present." With that the bishop went away, and my Balaamite kinsman, looking big upon me, but said never a word.
Thus have I in haste scribbled out all my examinations hitherto, that the same which hath been done unto me in dark, might come to light, and that the papists' unjust proceedings, and nakedness in their false religion, might be known to their con- fusion. Jesus is Emmanuel, that is, God with us. Amen. 1555.
The examinations of Master Philpot in open judgment, by Bishop Bonner, in the consistory at Paul's, on the thirteenth and fourteenth of December.HE bishop, having sufficiently taken his pleasure with Master Philpot in his private talks, and seeing his zealous, learned, and immutable constancy, thought it now high time to rid his hands of him, and therefore on the thirteenth and fourteenth days of December, sitting judicially in the consistory at Paul's, he caused him to be brought thither before him and others, as it seemeth, more for order's sake, than for any good affection to justice and right judgment. The effect as well of which their two sundry proceedings, as also of one other, had the eleventh day of the same month in his chapel, appears in a manner to be all one. The bishop therefore first speaking to Master Philpot, said:--
"Master Philpot, amongst other things that were laid and objected unto you, these three things ye were especially charged and burdened withal. The first is, that you, being fallen from the unity of Christ's catholic church, do refuse and will not come to be reconciled thereunto. The second is, that you have blasphemously spoken against the sacrifice of the mass, calling it idolatry. And the third is, that you have spoken against the sacrament of the altar, denying the real presence of Christ's body and blood to be in the same. And according to the will and pleasure of the synod legative, ye have been oft by me invited and required to go from your said errors and heresies, and to return to the unity of the catholic church, which if ye will now willingly do, ye shall be mercifully and gladly received, charitably used, and have all the favour I can show you. And now, to tell you true, it is assigned and appointed me to give sentence against you, if you stand herein, and will not return. Wherefore, if ye so refuse, I do ask of you, whether you have any cause that you can show, why I should not now give sentence against you?"
Philpot.--"Under protestation, not to go from my appeal that I have made, and also not to consent to you as my competent judge, I say, touching your first objection concerning the catholic church, I neither was nor am out of the same. And as touching the sacrifice of the mass, and the sacrament of the altar, I never spake against the same. And as concerning the pleasure of the synod, I say, that these twenty years I have been brought up in the faith of the true catholic church, which is contrary to your church, whereunto you would have me to come: and in that time I have been many times sworn (as well in the reign of King Henry the Eighth, as in the reign of good King Edward his son) against the usurped power of the bishop of Rome, which oath I think that I am bound in my conscience to keep, quia teneor reddere Domino juramentum. But if you, or any of the synod, can by God's word persuade me that my said oath was unlawful, and that I am bound by God's law to come to your church, faith, and religion, whereof you be now, I will gladly yield, agree, and be conformable unto you; otherwise not."
Bonner then, not able, with all his learned doctors, to accomplish this his offered condition, fell to persuading of him, as well by his accustomed vain promises, as also by bloody threatenings, to return to their church: to the which Philpot answered, "You, and all other of your sort, are hypocrites, and I would all the world did know your hypocrisy, your tyranny, ignorance, and idolatry."
Upon these words, the bishop did for that time dismiss him, commanding that on Monday the sixteenth day of the same month, between the hours of one and three in the afternoon, he should again be brought thither, there to have the definitive sentence of condemnation pronounced against him, if he remained then in his former constancy.
The last examination of Master John Philpot; December the sixteenth.
At which day and time, Master Philpot being there presented before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester, and Lichfield, Bonner, bishop of London, began to talk in this manner.
London.--"My Lords, Stokesley my predecessor, when he went to give sentence against a heretic, used to make this prayer: Deus qui errantibus, ut in viam possint redire, justitiĉ veritatisque tuĉ lumen ostendis, da cunctis qui christiana professione censentur, et illa respuere quĉ huic inimica sint nomini, et ea quĉ sint apta sectari per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. Which I will follow." And so he read it with a loud voice in Latin. To which Master Philpot said, "I would ye would speak in English, that all men might hear and understand you; for Paul willeth that all things spoken in the congregation to edify, should be spoken in a tongue that all men might understand."
Whereupon the bishop did read it in English: and when he came to these words, "To refuse those things which are foes to his name;" Philpot said, "Then they all must turn away from you; for you are enemies to that name, (meaning Christ's name,) and God save us from such hypocrites as would have things in a tongue that men cannot understand."
London.--"Whom do you mean?"
Philpot.--"You, and all other that be of your generation and sect. And I am sorry to see you sit in the place that you now sit in, pretending to execute justice, and to do nothing less but deceive all men in this realm." And then turning himself unto the people, he further said, "Oh! all you gentlemen, beware of these men, (meaning the bishops,) and all their doings, which be contrary unto the primitive church. And I would know of you, my Lord, by what authority you proceed against me."
London.--"Because I am bishop of London."
Philpot.--"Well, then ye are not my bishop, nor have I offended in your diocese. And moreover I have appealed from you, and therefore by your own law you ought not to proceed against me; especially being brought hither from another place by violence."
London.--"Why, who sent you hither to me?"
Philpot.--"That did Dr. Story and Dr. Cook, with other the king and queen's commissioners. And, my Lord, is it not enough for you to worry your own sheep, but ye must also meddle with other men's sheep?"
Then the bishop delivered to Philpot two books, one of the civil law, and the other of the canon, out of the which he would have proved that he had authority to proceed against him in such sort as he did. Master Philpot then, perusing the same, and seeing the small and slender proof that was there alleged, said unto the bishop, "I perceive your law and divinity is all one; for you have knowledge in neither of them; and I would ye did know your own ignorance: but ye dance in a net, and think that no man doth see you." Hereupon they had much talk, but what it was, it is not yet known. At last Bonner spake unto him, and said, "Philpot, as concerning your objections against my jurisdiction, ye shall understand that both the civil and canon laws make against you; and as for your appeal, it is not allowed in this case; for it is written in the law, A judice dispositionem juris exequente non est appellandum."
Philpot.--"My Lord, it appeareth by your interpretation of the law, that ye have no knowledge therein, and that ye do not understand the law: for, if ye did, ye would not bring in that text."
Hereupon the bishop recited a law of the Romans, that it was not lawful for a Jew to keep a Christian man in captivity, and to use him as a slave, laying then to the said Philpot's charge, that he did not understand the law, but did like a Jew. Whereunto Philpot answered, "No, I am no Jew, but you, my Lord, are a Jew; for you profess Christ, and maintain antichrist; you profess the gospel, and maintain superstition: and ye be able to charge me with nothing."
London and other bishops.--"With what can you charge us?"
Philpot.--"You are enemies to all truth; and all your doings be naught, full of idolatry, saving in the article of the Trinity."
Whilst they were thus debating the matter, there came thither Sir William Garret, knight, then mayor of London, Sir Martin Bowes, knight, and Thomas Leigh, then sheriffs of the same city, and sat down with the said bishops in the said consistory; where and what time Bishop Bonner spake these words in effect as followeth "Philpot, before the coming of my Lord Mayor, because I would not enter with you into the matter wherewith I have heretofore, and now intend to charge you withal, until his coming, I did rehearse unto you a prayer both in English and in Latin, which Bishop Stokesley, my predecessor, used when he intended to proceed to give sentence against a heretic."
And here Bonner did again read the said prayer both in English, and also in Latin: which being ended, he spake again unto him, and said, "Philpot, amongst other, I have to charge you specially with three things. First, whereas you have fallen from the unity of Christ's catholic church, you have thereupon been invited and required, not only by me, but also by many and divers other catholic bishops, and other learned men, to return and come again to the same: and also you have been offered by me, that if you would so return, and confess your errors and heresies, you should be mercifully received, and have so much favour as I could show unto you. The second is, that you have blasphemously spoken against the sacrifice of the mass, calling it idolatry and abomination. And thirdly, that you have spoken and holden against the sacrament of the altar, denying the real presence of Christ's body and blood to be in the same."
This being spoken, the bishop recited unto him a certain exhortation in English, the tenor and form whereof is this.
Bishop Bonner's exhortation to John Philpot.
"Master Philpot, this is to be told you, that if you, not being yet reconciled to the unity of the catholic church, from whence ye did fall in the time of the late schism here in this realm of England, against the see apostolic of Rome, will now heartily and obediently be reconciled to the unity of the same catholic church, professing and promising to observe and keep to the best of your power the faith and Christian religion observed and kept of all faithful people of the same: and moreover, if ye which heretofore, especially in the years of our Lord 1553, 1554, 1555, or in one of them, have offended and trespassed grievously against the sacrifice of the mass, calling it idolatry and abominable, and likewise have offended and trespassed against the sacrament of the altar, denying the real presence of Christ's body and blood to be there in the sacrament of the altar, affirming also withal, material bread and material wine to be in the sacrament of the altar, and not the substance of the body and blood of Christ: if ye, I say, will be reconciled as is aforesaid, and will forsake your heresies and errors before touched, being heretical and damnable, and will also allow the sacrament of the mass, ye shall be mercifully received, and charitably used with as much favour as may be: if not, ye shall be reputed, taken, and judged for a heretic (as ye be indeed). Now do you choose what ye will do; you are counselled herein friendly and favourably."
The bishop's exhortation thus ended, Master Philpot turned himself unto the lord mayor, and said "To you, my Lord Mayor, bearing the sword, I speak; I am glad that it is my chance now to stand before that authority that hath defended the gospel and the truth of God's word. But I am sorry to see that the authority which representeth the king and queen's persons, should now be changed, and be at the commandment of antichrist; and ye" [speaking to the bishops] "pretend to be the followers of the apostles of Christ, and yet be the very antichrists and deceivers of the people. And I am glad that Christ hath given me power to stand here this day, and to declare and defend my faith, which is founded on Christ. Therefore, as touching your first objection, I say, that I am of the catholic church, whereof I was never out, and that your church (which ye pretend to be the catholic church) is the Church of Rome, and so the Babylonical, and not the catholic church: of that church I am not. As touching your second objection, which is, that I should speak against the sacrifice of the mass, I do say that I have not spoken against the true sacrifice, but I have spoken against your private masses that you use in corners, which is blasphemy to the true sacrifice; for your sacrifice daily reiterated is a blasphemy against Christ's death, and it is a lie of your own invention: and that abominable sacrifice which ye set upon the altar, and use in your private masses instead of the living sacrifice, is idolatry, and ye shall never prove it by God's word. Therefore ye have deceived the people with that your sacrifice of the mass, which ye make a masquing. Thirdly, whereas you lay to my charge, that I deny the body and blood of Christ to be in the sacrament of the altar, I cannot tell what altar ye mean, whether it be the altar of the cross, or the altar of stone: and if ye call it the sacrament of the altar in respect of the altar of stone, then I defy your Christ, for it is a rotten Christ. And as touching your transubstantiation, I utterly deny it, for it was brought up first by a pope.
"Now as concerning your offer made from the synod, which is gathered together in antichrist's name; prove me that to be of the catholic church, (which ye shall never do,) and I will follow you, and do as you would have me to do. But ye are idolaters, and daily do commit idolatry. Ye be also traitors; for in your pulpits ye rail upon good kings, as King Henry, and King Edward his son, which have stood against the usurped power of the bishop of Rome; against whom also I have taken an oath, which if ye can show me by God's law that I have taken unjustly, I will then yield unto you: but I pray God turn the king and queen's heart from your synagogue and church, for you do abuse that good queen."
Here the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield began to show where the true church was, saying, "The true catholic church is set upon a high hill."
Philpot.--"Yea, at Rome, which is the Babylonical church."
Coventry.--"No, in our true catholic church are the apostles, evangelists, and martyrs; but before Martin Luther, there was no apostle, evangelist, or martyr of your church."
Philpot.--"Will ye know the cause why? Christ did prophesy that in the latter days there should come false prophets and hypocrites, as you be."
Coventry.--"Your church of Geneva, which ye call the catholic church, is that which Christ prophesied of."
Philpot.--"I allow the church of Geneva, and the doctrine of the same; for it is una, catholica, et apostolica, and doth follow the doctrine that the apostles did preach; and the doctrine taught and preached in King Edward's days was also according to the same. And are ye not ashamed to persecute me and others for your church's sake, which is Babylonical, and contrary to the true catholic church?"
And after this they had great conference together, as well out of the Scriptures, as also out of the doctors. But when Bonner saw that by learning they were not able to convince Master Philpot, he thought then by his defamations to bring him out of credit; and therefore, turning himself unto the lord mayor of London, he brought forth a knife, and a bladder full of powder, and said:
"My Lord, this man had a roasted pig brought unto him, and this knife was put secretly between the skin and the flesh thereof, and so was it sent him, being in prison. And also this powder was sent unto him, under pretence that it was good and comfortable for him to eat or drink; which powder was only to make ink to write withal; for when his keeper did perceive it, he took it and brought it unto me. Which when I did see, I thought it had been gunpowder, and thereupon I put fire to it, but it would not burn. Then I took it for poison, and so gave it to a dog, but it was not so. Then I took a little water, and it made as fair ink as ever I did write withal. Therefore, my Lord, you may understand what a naughty fellow this is."
Philpot.--"Ah, my Lord! have you nothing else to charge me withal but these trifles, seeing I stand upon life and death? Doth the knife in the pig prove the Church of Rome to be a catholic church?" &c.
Then the bishop brought forth a certain instrument, containing articles and questions, agreed upon both in Oxford and Cambridge, whereof you have mention before. Also he did exhibit two books in print; the one was the catechism made in King Edward's days, anno 1552, the other concerning the true report of the disputation in the convocation-house, mention whereof is above expressed. Moreover he did bring forth, and laid to Master Philpot's charge, two letters; the one touching Bartlet Green, the other containing godly exhortations and comforts, which both were written unto him by some of his godly friends; the tenor whereof we thought here also to exhibit.
A letter exhibited by Bonner, written by some friend of Master Philpot's, and sent to him, concerning the handling of Master Green in Bishop Bonner's house at London.
"You shall understand that Master Green came unto the bishop of London on Sunday last, where he was courteously received: for what policy the sequel declareth. His entertainment for one day or two, was to dine at my Lord's own table, or else to have his meat from thence. During those days he lay in Dr. Chedsey's chamber, and was examined. Albeit in very deed the bishop earnestly and faithfully promised many right worshipful men, (who were suitors for him, but to him unknown,) that he in no case should be examined; before which, Master Fecknam would have had him in his friendly custody, if he would have desired to have conferred with him, which he utterly refused. And in that the bishop objected against him singularity and obstinacy, his answer thereunto was thus: 'To avoid all suspicion thereof, although I myself am young, and utterly unlearned in respect of the learned, (and yet I understand, I thank my Lord,) yet let me have such books as I shall require; and if I, by God's Spirit, do not thereby answer all your books and objections contrary thereto, I will assent to you.' Whereunto the bishop, and his, assented, permitting him at the first to have such books: who at sundry times have reasoned with him, and have found him so strong and rife in the Scripture and godly fathers, that since, they have not only taken from him such liberty of books, but all other books, not leaving him so much as the New Testament. Since, they have baited and used him most cruelly. This Master Fecknam reported, saying farther, that he never heard the like young man, and so perfect. What shall become further of him, God knoweth; but death I think, for he remaineth more and more willing to die, as I understand. Concerning your bill, I shall confer with others therein, knowing that the same court is able to redress the same: and yet I think it will not be reformed, for that I know few or none that dare or will speak therein, or prefer the same, because it concerneth spiritual things. Notwithstanding, I will ascertain you thereof; committing you to the Holy Ghost, who keep you and us all, as his."
The copy of another letter, written by the faithful and Christian-hearted lady, the Lady Vane, to Master Philpot, exhibited likewise by Bishop Bonner.
"Hearty thanks rendered unto you, my well-beloved in Christ, for the book ye sent me, wherein I find great consolations, and, according to the doctrine thereof, do prepare my cheeks to the strikers, and my womanish back to the burdens of reproof. And so, in the strength of my God I trust to leap over the wall; for his sweetness overcometh me daily, and maketh all these apothecary drugs of the world even medicinal-like in my mouth. For the continuance whereof, I beseech thee, my dear fellow-soldier, make thy faithful prayer for me, that I may with a strong and gladsome conscience finish my course, and obtain the reward, though it be no whit due to my work. I am not content that you so often gratify me with thanks for that which is none worthy, but duty on my part, and small relief to you. But if you would love me so much that I might supply your lacks, then would I think ye believed my offers to be such, as agreed with my heart. And for the short charges ye speak of, the means are not so pleasant, if God (whom my trust is in) will otherwise prepare; but Solomon saith, All things here have their time; you to-day, and I to-morrow, and so the end of Adam's line is soon run out. The mighty God give us his grace, that during this time, his glory be not defaced through our weakness! Because you desire to show yourself a worthy soldier, if need so require, I will supply your request for the scarf ye wrote of, that ye may present my handy-work before your Captain, that I be not forgotten in the odours of incense, which our beloved Christ offereth for his own; to whom I bequeath both our bodies and souls.
"Your own in the Lord.
ver and besides these letters, the bishops did also bring forth a supplication made by Master Philpot unto the high court of parliament, whereof mention is made in the first of the two letters last mentioned; the copy whereof doth here ensue as followeth:
"To the king and queen's Majesty's Highnesses, the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons of this present parliament assembled.
"In most humble wise complaineth unto this honourable court of parliament John Philpot, clerk, that whereas there was by the queen's Highness a parliament called in the first year of her gracious reign, and after the old custom a convocation of the clergy, your suppliant then being one of the said convocation-house, and matters there rising upon the using of the sacraments, did dispute in the same, knowing that there all men had and have free speech, and ought not to be after-troubled for any thing there spoken: and yet, that notwithstanding, not long after the said parliament, your said suppliant (without any act or matter) was commanded to prison to the King's Bench by the late lord chancellor, where he hath remained ever since, until now of late that my Lord the bishop of London hath sent for your said suppliant to examine him (being none of his diocese) upon certain matters, wherein they would have your orator to declare his conscience, which, the said bishop saith, he hath authority to do, by reason of an act of parliament made in the first and second years of the king and queen's Majesties' reigns, for the reviving of three statutes made against them that hold any opinion against the catholic faith: whereby be affirmeth, that every ordinary may, ex officio, examine every man's conscience And for that your said orator hath and doth refuse, that the said bishop of London hath any authority over your said orator, for that he is neither his diocesan, nor hath published, preached, nor held any opinion against the catholic faith, (notwithstanding the said bishop of London detaineth him in the coal-house, in the stocks, without either bed or any other thing to lie upon but straw,) and for that your said orator cannot appeal for his relief, from the said bishop, to any other judge, but the same bishop may refuse the same by their law, and therefore hath no succour and help, but by this high court of parliament, for the explanation of the said act; therefore may it please you, that it may be enacted by the king and queen's Majesties, the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons of this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that no bishop nor ordinary shall commit or detain in prison any suspected person or persons for the catholic faith, except he or they have spoken, written, or done some manifest act against the catholic faith, and the same to be lawfully proved against every such person or persons, by the testimony of two lawful witnesses, to be brought before the said person or persons so accused, before he or they shall either be committed to prison, or convicted for any such offence or offences; the said former statute, made in the said first and second year of our said sovereign lord and lady notwithstanding: whereby your said orator shall not only be set at liberty, and divers others now remaining in prison; but also the blood of divers of the queen's Majesty's true and faithful subjects preserved."
The condemnation of the worthy martyr of God, John Philpot.
These books, letters, supplications, and other matters being thus read, the bishop demanded of him, If the book intituled, "The true Report of the Disputation," &c., were of his penning, or not? Whereunto Philpot answered, that it was a good and true book, and of his own penning and setting-forth.
The bishops, waxing now weary, and being not able by any sufficient ground, either of God's word, or of the true ancient catholic fathers, to convince and overcome him, fell by fair and flattering speech to persuade with him; promising, that if he would revoke his opinions, and come home again to their Romish and Babylonical church, he should not only be pardoned that which was past, but also they would, with all favour and cheerfulness of heart, receive him again as a true member thereof. Which words when Bonner saw would take no place, he demanded of Master Philpot, (and that with a charitable affection I warrant you,) whether he had any just cause to allege, why he should not condemn him as a heretic. "Well," quoth Master Philpot, "your idolatrous sacrament, which you have found out, ye would fain defend; but ye cannot, nor ever shall."
In the end the bishop, seeing his unmovable stedfastness in the truth, did pronounce openly the sentence of condemnation against him. In the reading whereof, when he came to these words, Teque etiam tanquam hĉreticum, obstinatum, pertinacem, et impnitentem, &c., Master Philpot said, "I thank God that I am a heretic, out of your cursed church; I am no heretic before God. But God bless you, and give you once grace to repent your wicked doings, and let all men beware of your bloody church."
Moreover, while Bonner was about the midst of the sentence, the bishop of Bath pulled him by the sleeve, and said, "My Lord, my Lord, know of him first whether he will recant or no." Then Bonner said, (full like himself,) "O let him alone; "and so read forth the sentence.
And when he had done, he delivered him to the sheriffs; and so two officers brought him through the bishop's house into Paternoster Row, and there his servant met him, and when he saw him he said, "Ah! dear master."
Then Master Philpot said to his man, "Content thyself, I shall do well enough; for thou shalt see me again."
And so the officers thrust him away, and had his master to Newgate; and as he went, he said to the people, "Ah! good people; blessed be God for this day." And so the officers delivered him to the keeper. Then his man thrust to go in after his master, and one of the officers said unto him, "Hence, fellow! what wouldst thou have?" And he said, "I would go speak with my master." Master Philpot then turned him about, and said to him, "To-morrow thou shalt speak with me."
Then the under-keeper said to Master Philpot, "Is this your man?" and he said, "Yea." So he did license his man to go in with him: and Master Philpot and his man were turned into a little chamber on the right hand, and there remained a little time, until Alexander the chief keeper did come unto him; who, at his entering, greeted him with these words; "Ah!" said he, "hast not thou done well to bring thyself hither?" "Well," said Master Philpot, "I must be content, for it is God's appointment: and I shall desire you to let me have your gentle favour; for you and I have been of old acquaintance." "Well," said Alexander, "I will show thee gentleness and favour, so thou wilt be ruled by me." Then said Master Philpot, "I pray you show me what you would have me to do." He said, "If you would recant, I will show you any pleasure I can." "Nay," said Master Philpot, "I will never recant, whilst I have my life, that which I have spoken, for it is most certain truth; and in witness hereof I will seal it with my blood." Then Alexander said, This is the saying of the whole pack of you heretics." Whereupon he commanded him to be set upon the block, and as many irons upon his legs as he could bear, for that he would not follow his wicked mind.
Then the clerk told Alexander in his ear, that Master Philpot had given his man money. And Alexander said to his man, "What money hath thy master given thee?" He answered, "My master hath given me none." "No!" said Alexander, "hath he given thee none? That I will know, for I will search thee." "Do with me what you list, and search me all that you can," quoth his servant "he hath given me a token or two to send his friends, as to his brother and sisters." "Ah! "said Alexander unto Master Philpot, "thou art a maintainer of heretics: thy man should have gone to some of thine affinity; but he shall be known well enough." "Nay," said Master Philpot, "I do send it to my friends: there he is, let him make answer to it. But good Master Alexander, be so much my friend, that these irons may be taken off." "Well," said Alexander, "give me my fees, and I will take them off: if not, thou shalt wear them still." Then said Master Philpot, "Sir, what is your fee?" He said four pound was his fees. "Ah," said Master Philpot, I have not so much; I am but a poor man, and I have been long in prison." "What wilt thou give me then," said Alexander?" Sir," said he, "I will give you twenty shillings, and that I will send my man for; or else I will lay my gown to gage. For the time is not long (I am sure) that I shall be with you; for the bishop said I should be soon despatched."
Then said Alexander unto him, "What is that to me?" And with that he departed from him, and commanded him to be had into limbo. And so his commandment was fulfilled; but before he could be taken from the block, the clerk would have a groat.
Then one Witterence, steward of the house, took him on his back, and carried him down, his man knew not whither. Wherefore Master Philpot said to his man, "Go to Master Sheriff, and show him how I am used, and desire Master Sheriff to be good unto me." And so his servant went straightway, and took an honest man with him.
And when they came to Master Sheriff, (which was Master Macham,) and showed him how Master Philpot was handled in Newgate, the sheriff, hearing this, took his ring off from his finger, and delivered it unto that honest man which came with Master Philpot's man, and bade him go unto Alexander the keeper, and command him to take off his irons, and to handle him more gently, and to give his man again that which he had taken from him. And when they came again to the said Alexander, and told their message from the sheriff. Alexander took the ring, and said, "Ah! I perceive that Master Sheriff is a bearer with him, and all such heretics as he is: therefore to-morrow I will show it to his betters." Yet at ten of the clock he went in to Master Philpot, where he lay, and took off his irons, and gave him such things as he had taken before from his servant.
MARY.] ENGLISH ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 575
Upon Tuesday at supper, being the seventeenth day of December, there came a messenger from the sheriffs, and bade Master Philpot make him ready, for the next day he should suffer, and be burned at a stake with fire. Master Philpot answered and said, "I am ready; God grant me strength, and a joyful resurrection." And so he went into his chamber, and poured out his spirit unto the Lord God, giving him most hearty thanks, that he of his mercy had made him worthy to suffer for his truth.
In the morning the sheriffs came according to the order, about eight of the clock, and called for him, and he most joyfully came down unto them. And there his man did meet him, and said, "Ah! dear master, farewell." His master said unto him, "Serve God, and he will help thee." And so he went with the sheriffs to the place of execution; and when he was entering into Smithfield, the way was foul, and two officers took him up to bear him to the stake. Then he said merrily, "What! will ye make me a pope? I am content to go to my journey's end on foot." But first, coming into Smithfield, he kneeled down there, saying these words, "I will pay my vows in thee, O Smithfield!"
Illustration -- John Philpot in Smithfield
And when he was come to the place of suffering, he kissed the stake, and said, "Shall I disdain to suffer at this stake, seeing my Redeemer did not refuse to suffer a most vile death upon the cross for me?" And then with an obedient heart full meekly he said the 106th, the 107th, and the 108th Psalms. And when he had made an end of all his prayers, he said to the officers, "What have you done for me?" and every one of them declared what they had done; and he gave to every of them money.
Then they bound him to the stake, and set fire unto that constant martyr, who the eighteenth day of December, in the midst of the fiery flames, yielded his soul into the hands of Almighty God, and full like a lamb gave up his breath, his body being consumed into ashes.
Thus hast thou, gentle reader, the life and doings of this learned and worthy soldier of the Lord, John Philpot; with all his examinations that came to our hands: first penned and written with his own hand, being marvellously preserved from the sight and hand of his enemies; who by all manner of means sought not only to stop him from all writing, but also to spoil and deprive him of that which he had written; for the which cause he was many times stripped and searched in the prison, of his keeper: but yet so happily these his writings were conveyed and hid in places about him, or else his keeper's eyes so blinded, that, notwithstanding all this malicious purpose of the bishops, they are yet remaining, and come to light.