His Majesty having got intelligence of the ruffle, General Tilly had given at Bamberg to Field Marshal Horne, and hearing the Field Marshal was retired on Schweinfurt, incontinent his Majesty's army was brought together at Mainz, and leaving the Rex-chancellor Oxensterne in the Pfalz at Mainz, as director, and to attend on the Spanish forces, till the Pfalz were cleared of the enemy.
The sixth of March, his Majesty did break up from Frankfurt, where in the fields before Aschaffenburg, the army made a show in presence of his Majesty of Bohemia, Marquess of Hamilton, and divers others, men of quality, and having passed the bridge, we quartered overnight in the fields on the back side of the hill, and the next day continued our march towards Lohr, and having sent before to make provision for the army in all parts, where he resolved to quarter, through Franconia being free of our enemies. The next night we quartered at Ehrenfeld, and our brigade passing by Gemünden we marched on Karlstadt, where we quartered overnight: the next day continuing our march, we joined at night with the army at Dettelbach, where before our upbreaking the next morning, a fire being entered in the suburbs, as his Majesty was marching out of quarter, those of Spence's regiment were blamed for this accident, though innocent: Nevertheless his Majesty's rage continued the whole day, and we being separated, his Majesty marched on Kitzingen, on the Main to join with the Field Marshal; and we were commanded to march on Ochsenfurt on the Main, and from thence to Windsheim, where we again were to join with the army, having ever our cannon and ammunition wagons along with us.
On Sunday in the afternoon, his Majesty again over-viewed the army, being set in order of battle, the Field Marshalls forces, and some new forces having joined with us, being pleasant to behold, where in time of the show, his Majesty of Bohemia did come and salute our brigade, being resaluted with all due respect of the whole body of the brigade, where his Majesty was pleased to show us, how glad he was of the good report and commendation, his Majesty of Sweden had given of our good service, the continuance whereof he heartily wished.
Our army this day was above twenty thousand men, horse and foot, besides those did belong to the artillery, being all in good order, General Tilly having understood of his Majesty's coming, and of the strength of his army, he thought, as best for the safety of his army, not to stay our coming, and besetting Bamberg and Forchheim with new levied men, taking the old soldiers with him, he marched towards Newmarke in the upper Palatinate, having taken all the best things he could find within the Bishopric of Bamberg with him on wagons: And having sent his General Quartermaster before him towards Lohhoff, he was met by some of the Swedens party, and being killed, all his letters were brought unto his Majesty, and before his Majesty broke up with the army, he caused to publish an edict over all Franconia, that all sort of people which had before been fugitives for fear of religion, they were all free to return unto their houses again, not being molested or troubled in the peaceable labouring of the ground.
Likewise on this march, a strong party of our army, led by Colonel Sparereutter, rencountering with the enemies' party by Schäbisch Hall, after a long skirmish the Imperialists were made to retire with loss towards the castle of Danberg, where Lieutenant Colonel Buckoy, that had the command of the Imperialists, was sore wounded, a rut-master of the Crabbats and a lieutenant was killed; and above twenty six soldiers, besides a hundred and thirty were taken prisoners. The news came to his Majesty on our march, which we continued from Windsheim on Wolmersdorf; and from thence, the next day being the twentieth of March to Fürth, a pass on the river of Pegnitz, a mile from Nuremberg; where the army lay but one night, so long as his Majesty did visit Nuremberg; and the next day our march continued towards a little town called Schwabach, where his Majesty rested the army two days, till that the Duke of Weimar's forces, with General Banier coming from Thuringia, were come within one days march of us; his Majesty's intentions being towards Donauwörth on the Danube; where my Cousin Fowles with both his regiments joined with us. His Majesty of Sweden accompanied with the King of Bohemia and Palsgrave Augustus, and divers Princes more, before their coming to Nuremberg, they were met by the lords of the town, with a great convoy on horseback, and were most nobly welcomed, where the whole inhabitants were overjoyed at the sight of his Majesty of Sweden, but chiefly their affections most abundantly did extend towards his Majesty of Bohemia, which is impossible for any tongue to express. But well I know, my eyes did see their eyes shedding tears of joy, being overjoyed with the sight of two kings at once, as they thought, sent by the King of Kings for their reliefs; and to make their welcome the more respected, the whole city, burghers and soldiers were in their brightest arms; and being conveyed unto the city, they were sumptuously banqueted; and in testimony of their love, they gifted unto his Majesty of Sweden four half cartowes, with all furniture belonging to them, together with two silver globes, one celestial, the other terrestial: there were also presented unto him drinking credences many, with some antiquities that were rare, and with all testifying their affection in way of compliment, they assure his Majesty that not only with words but with their whole estate, they were ready to serve the common cause, to, die and live with his Majesty, in the defence of the public. His Majesty thus taking leave of Nuremberg, promises to continue their friend, and shows them he was to go with his army towards the Danube stream, to see how to get a pass over the Danube for to visit the Duke of Bavaria, and he hoped he would make Tilly with his army to retire thence. But Tilly finding his Majesty's army growing still stronger and stronger, he retired back unto the upper Palatinate, and from thence, he crossed the Danube to join with the Duke of Bavaria, to hinder our coming unto Bavaria; being then, of his own forces, near eighteen thousand men, foot and horse: But many of them were new levied folks; and the Duke of Bavaria had also a strong army together; but for the most part, they were such as could not endure the noise or whisling of the cannon bullets.
By this time, Grave Henry William Fonselins, being shot in the leg before Bamberg, was departed at Schweinfurt of a burning fever, contracted through the pain of the shot; whose death his Majesty of Sweden did much lament.
The twenty-seventh Observation.
The fifth of March, 1632, his Majesty having left sure footing in the Pfalz, with a bridge over the Rhine, and the Main, where it enters into the Rhine; where also was begun, as the trophy of his victory, the foundation of a city and strength called Gustavusburg. Then in the beginning of the Spring, we sprung forth from the Rhine, towards the Danube stream, being on this march royally accompanyed by his Majesty of Bohemia, whom his Majesty esteemed of, as of himself, in all quartering ordaining his quarters before his own; continuing the march, through Franconia in surety, having the year before freed that whole circle from the enemy, so that the ihabitants had given their oath of fealty unto his Majesty.
This march was pleasant, through a plentiful country at this time, being a progress befitting two kings, with a royal army, and forces from other parts joining with us; as we drew near our enemies; we made all sure behind us, both for our retreats in case of need, as also for the safety of those were to come after us; and thirdly, for the furnishing our army in ammunition and victuals, to be brought unto us in case of want.
His Majesty here being of intention to get a pass over the Danube (having before made the town of Ulm sure) for his retreat; for the more abundance, his Majesty resolved to have the pass of Donauwörth, being the right pass betwixt Nuremberg and Augsburg.
Before Tilly's army could join with the Duke of Bavaria, his Majesty resolved it was not best to give them time, but with celerity concluded to march towards them, knowing it was but folly and madness, to stay till they were joined; and the Duke of Bavaria being assured of his Majesty coming to visit his country, he closed the passes the best he could; both Donauwörth, Rain, and Ratisbon. And as he did beset well the frontier garrisons, before his Majesty's coming, he also very circumspectly betimes took all victuals out of his Majesty's way, towards Ingolstadt, as a wise commander ought to do, where he made his magazine, being the only part, he was assured of for his retreat; and such a part, as he knew well, we were not able to get without treason; and then being assured he had time to provide an army to oppose his Majesty, himself not being taken unawares.
It is the duty of all good commanders, at their down lying and uprising from quarters, to be very careful to prevent fire; seeing thereby the whole army may be endangered by the loss of men, ammunition, arms and artillery; and since such loss is irrecoverable, our care should be the greater to avoid the hurt. And therefore order should be given to all guards, to make diligent rounds over the quarters, to prevent the like accidents, and to give orders to the gavileger and his servants, to oversee all fires, and to see them quenched, at all upbreakings, and dislodging: otherwise, the enemy being near, great inconvenience might happen, and if any enemy, at such times, trusting to our disorder, should offer to invade us, finding the contrary, it were easy to beat them back; as also, it were a fit time to try their valour, they being more than half afraid. But I will advise all you, that desire to gain credit, to seek out your enemy, rather than to stay his coming unto you, and by this means, haply you may set up your trophies in his own country, to speak to posterity, as doth Gustavusburg betwixt the Main and the Rhine.