Donauwörth being taken, and beset again with a Swedens garrison, caused a great fear and astonishment to seaze upon all the Papists in Bavaria, which made the Jesuits and monks fly unto Dilligen, Munich, Neuburg, and Ingolstadt: where above twenty thousand of the clergy were unwilling to fight with the Duke against his Majesty's forces, and seeing Windlingen, the castle of Oberdorffe; and divers other places taken in by his Majesty, those of Neuburg desired his Majesty's safeguards, in respect the Swedens were making great booty over all, wherever they came hanging the Papists by their purse, not sparing to torment their shins, as they did in Pomerania and in the Marks of Brandenburg to the Protestants, in exacting their moneys, which they were made to repay again, Lege talionis.
General Tilly by this time had intrenched his army about the Rhine, by the side of the Lech, to hinder his Majesty's passage unto Bavaria, with a strong army, which lay on the other side of the river, right against Tilly's army, where his Majesty did set over a bridge made with boats and planks, having planted seventy two pieces of cannon, great and small, on the borders of the river, which did play continually into the midst of Tilly's army, who were drawn up in battle, on the other side, to hinder his Majesty's passage, but our messengers were so swift and diligent, that through importunity, they obtained a grant of the passage, where many were made to lie dead by our cannon; for those that were not hurt by the bullets, they were lamed by branches and trees, cut by the cannon, being they stood in a thick wood, which shooting continued a whole day, being on the fifth of April 1632; a day ominous to General Tilly, who was shot in the knee with a cannon bullet; a cruel blow for an old man of seventy two years, who, being carried from thence to Ingolstadt, died within three days, being cruelly tormented with the smart of his wound.
Tilly being gone, the army discouraged for their great loss sustained; The Duke remarking his Majesty would force the passage, he thought best in time to retire, taking his flight confusedly upon Ingolstadt and Neuburg: after that Altringer, then a Colonel, was shot in the head, and above a thousand did lie dead on the place they stood on.
His Majesty having crossed over with the army, he incontinent commanded certain troops to follow the fugitives, getting orders to cut them off as they were found.
This victory happily attained unto by his Majesty, incontinent the town of Rain, being the first frontier garrison in Bavaria, rendered up, and his Majesty having beset Rain with a garrison, he marched with the army alongst the Lech side on Augsburg; where by the way a commissary from Neuburg came to his Majesty, making their excuse for receiving of Tilly's forces, and withal they declared, that the enemy had quit their town again; and therefore they interposed with his Majesty for neutrality, which being refused unto them, a garrison was sent to keep them in awe, to bring their lands in contribution, and to repair the bridge which was broken by the Duke's command.
His Majesty having continued his march towards Augsburg, the eighth of April we lay down before it, and immediately we set over a bridge over the Lech, during which time the commandant spared not his ammunition, but continually cannonaded amongst us; but our batteries being once ready, they received their interchange, and his Majesty offered the garrison free passage, and to retire in safety with his folks, whether he pleased, otherwise there should no quarter be granted unto them, if they pressed to hold out longer, whereupon the governor resolved to accept of his Majesty's offer, and having made his accord, on the tenth of April he marched out, and was conveyed towards Ingolstadt.
Incontinent thereafter, his Majesty did beset the town with a strong garrison, and the next day before his Majesty entered the town, all Papists were ordained to assemble and meet at Lechhausen, where they were set off the town council, that were known to be Papists, and Protestants were placed; So that the fourteenth of April his Majesty entered the town, going first unto the church called St. Anne's Church, and there in presence of his Majesty of Bohemia, Palsgrave Augustus, and Duke William of Weimar, Duke Hannes of Holstein, Markgrave Christopher Fontarlach and Baden, and other potentates and ambassadors, did hear a sermon, and praised God for the victory obtained against their enemies; The text being taken out of the twelfth Psalm and fifth verse. For the oppression of the needy, and for the sighs of the poor, I will now up saith the LORD, and will set at liberty him, whom the wicked had snared.
After sermon his Majesty went to the market place, where some Swedens regiments were brought, and where the burghers were also enjoined to come to present their service unto his Majesty, and a table being set openly and covered, a present was sent to his Majesty from the new set Protestant Council, of corn, fish and wine, and the next day being the fifteenth of April, his Majesty with the whole army, was ready to march unto Bavaria.
The twenty ninth Observation.
GENERAL Tilly being near unto his end, behoved to make a march unto Bamberg, to show the Swedens by his retreat the right pass unto Bavaria, with his own death. Wherin we have a notable example of an old expert general, who being seventy two years of age, was ready to die in defence of his religion and country, and in defence of those whom he served, being then general for the Catholic League: which end of his should encourage all brave cavaliers, following the laudable profession of arms, to follow his example in life and death, as valorous soldiers: where we see, that though death be fatal unto all, yet such a death, as happened unto this old general, is only proper unto the valiant, who though often contemned death and eschewed death, during the warfare, yet at last he is overtaken by God's Almighty hand and power, though formerly in his life-time he had escaped, by the same providence, many dangers. And sometimes we see in the very entrance of wars, some suddenly taken away, to teach us always to trust more unto God then unto the arm of man, which is but a vain strength.
Likewise, though this worthy General did fight often, and obtained many notable victories till this time, against kings, yet at last he is overcome by a king, and a more skilful general then he was, and though before the battle of Leipzig, he did give no higher title to his Majesty then to a cavalier: Nevertheless his Majesty hearing of his death, called him Honourable old Tilly, whose acts were so heroic in his life time, that after his death, they were his everlasting monuments, making his memory eternal, suffering his name never to rot with the time. And my wish were, I might prove as valiant in advancing Christ's kingdom (though I should die in the quarrel) as he was forward in hindering of it; my death then should not be bitter unto my friends, I leaving an immortal name behind me.
Also here we see the great force of artillery, either in forcing of passes against our enemies, or in maintaining of passes with a little advantage of ground, for seventy two pieces of ordnance, with such continuance, were of mighty force to make passage to an army: for this victory was obtained by the force of our cannon alone, which made the enemy run away, before we could come at them to fight, and the discouragment given unto them, by the loss of their leaders caused their disorder, and consequently safety to us in our passage. Where we see, that as victory is from God, so the help, judgment and dexterity of good commanders is furthersome to the victory, as the lawful means ordained by God.
Moreover we see here, how easy it is for a victorious army, that is once master of the field, to take in frontier garrisons, while as they are possessed instantly with a panic fear, especially being taken at the stot or rebound, before they have time to digest their fear. But had General Tilly drawn up his army out of reach of his Majesty's cannon, and resolved to suffer his Majesty to have set over his army, the pass being so narrow, that scarce three men could march in front, Tilly's advantage had been the greater to receive them as they came, who might have cut them off by divisions, which had been more to his credit: yet we see as the prophet says, Except the LORD watch, the watch-man watcheth in vain. And we see, God would have these people punished for their former cruelties; and therefore he took away their judgment, and confounded their counsel, making them err, till they ran to their own ruin.
As his Majesty's judgment in command was great, so his example was good and commendable, in giving God thanks in his church, for his victories and for the preservation of his life from danger; wherein his Majesty chiefly showed the example of his piety and religious exercise, for he knew well that religion and justice were the fundaments of all good society, and being much inclined unto both, he would win the people by his own example: since of all men it becomes kings and princes worst to be irreligious and ungodly: for on earth we have nothing more worthy than religion to be respected and honoured, it being unto heaven our guide, on earth the fountain of our justice, whereby we govern our affairs well or ill, expelling and putting away unjustice or unrighteousness: for where there is most religion or piety; there also is most happiness: and without her no crown can be established; and as his Majesty was religious himself, so he maintained good laws and good discipline, grounded on religion and holiness of life, which made the happy events and fortunate end of his warlike expeditions to follow. Blessed therefore shall they be, who follow his Majesty's example in this, as in all other his warlike enterprises; for I dare affirm on my conscience, never man served this master truly (whom his Majesty our master did serve with his heart) without a reward.