Being retired from Landshut, a pretty little town and castle in Bavaria, lying on the Isar, we continued our march after his Majesty, and marched towards Freising, where we joined with his Majesty, and incamped overnight in the fields, where his Majesty had intelligence, that Wallenstein with a strong army, was on his march towards the upper Pfalz, which made his Majesty make the greater haste to visit Munich, the Duke of Bavaria his chief town of residence, having made the Bishop of Freising pay fifty thousand dollars, and promise contribution beside, out of the whole bishopric, and continuing our march the sixth of May, towards Munich; on our way, the commissioners from Munich did come and salute his Majesty, offering all kind of submission, for to spare from plundering of their city, and from ruinating of their houses and policy. His Majesty lying overnight in the fields, within half a mile of the city, his Majesty commanded Colonel Hepburne with our brigade to march away and to make the circuit of the town, & to lie over-night at the bridge that went over the Isar, with his brigade to guard the bridge, that none should pass or repass till his Majesty's coming to the town, which accordingly we obyed, and guarded the bridge till the next morning: his Majesty encamped the whole army without the town, marching in with our brigade alone, where Colonel Hepburne's regiment had the watch on the market place, and the guarding of the ports; his Majesty of Sweden and the King of Bohemia being lodged on the castle, I was commanded with our regiment, and my Lord Spence's regiment, led by Lieutenant Colonel Musten, and ordained to lie in the great court of the palace, night and day at our arms, to guard both the Kings' persons, and to set out all guards about the Palace, where I was commanded with our whole officers, not to stir off our watch, having allowance of table and diet for us and our officers within his Majesty's house, to the end we might the better look to our watch: and the command of all directions under stairs was put upon me, being then commander of the guards; where I had power over the whole offices belonging to the house, and might have commanded to give out anything to pleasure cavaliers; having stayed in this charge three weeks nobly entertained.
Here in Munich the Boarish-Boares alleged the dead were risen, since before his Majesty's coming, by the Duke's command, the great cannon were buried, side by side in the Magazin house; whereof his Majesty being made acquainted, they were digged up out of the ground, and carried away to Augsburg, above one hundred and forty pieces of cannon great and small, whereof there were twelve apostles, and other cannon which formerly were taken from the Elector Palatine, and the Duke of Brunswick, with their names and arms on them, of which one was found, wherein there were thirty thousand ducats of gold, being a present for a King.
Likewise in this magazine house there were found clothes and arms ready to clothe an army of ten thousand foot, which helped our army much; many other rareties were gotten in this house worth much money, which were transported away by both the Kings. As also all the Duke's servants of his whole houshold were there, that bare offices about the house, and the house itself was as well replenished and furnished, as any king's palace needed to be, of all magnificent furniture, for bed, board and hangings, which were sumptuous and costly.
Here also about this palace were pleasant gardens, fish-ponds, water-works, and all things yielding pleasure in the most splendid grandeur, that can be imagined, with a pleasant tennis-court for recreation, where both the kings sometimes did recreate themselves.
Moreover this house was so magnificently situated, that for three miles about it there was such pleasant hare hunting, that sometimes we could see the hares flocking together in troops above twenty; As also for the Prince's pleasure there could be brought together in prospect of the palace, heards of deer, sometimes above five hundred at once, and sometimes for pleasure, a thousand to be brought together.
His Majesty having remained here above a fortnight, and getting intelligence of some turbulent uproars made by the Papist boors in Schwabenland, his Majesty leaving General Banier to command over the army at Munich; his Majesty with a strong party of horse, and two brigades of foot, marched towards Memmingen in Schwabenland, and having presently stilled the uproar, he retired upon Augsburg, and from thence to Munich again, where his Majesty on a sudden taxed the town in a hundred thousand rex-dollars, which the burghers and clergy were willing to give his Majesty, to keep the city unplundered, for which sum there were fifty of the special burghers and clergy given as pledges unto his Majesty, till payment were made of the moneys against a certain day; and to that effect, the pledges were sent with a convoy unto Augsburg, to be kept there till the moneys were paid.
His Majesty then fearing that Wallenstein lately made generalissimus to the Emperor's whole army, was coming with a strong army out of Bohemia, and his Majesty thinking he was to fall with those forces into the Duke of Saxony's country, and seeing the Duke of Bavaria had his army ready at Rheinsberg, and the pass open, he might join with Wallenstein when he pleased, and therefore his Majesty resolved suddenly to break up with his army from Munich, giving orders all should be in readiness against the twenty sixth of May, to march towards Donauwörth, and from thence in haste to Nuremberg.
The thirty-one Observation.
Wise generals must resolve in time to rule their affairs according to the occurrences happening in the course of wars: for the Duke of Bavaria finding himself, after Tilly's death and his loss sustained at Rain on the Lech, not bastant to rencounter his Majesty's army in the fields, he very wisely resolved to make a defensive war, betaking himself with his army within his strengths and passes, collecting his forces together at those two places of Ingolstadt and Rheinsberg, which his Majesty perceiving, thought again, it was not time for him to enter in beleaguering of such strengths being so strongly beset, and so well provided, especially seeing his enemies were drawing strong to the fields from all parts.
The Spaniard forcing his troops on the Rhine within the Palatinate, General Major Ossa coming behind him with an army in Schwabenland, the Duke of Bavaria lying strong with his army betwixt him and Nuremberg, on the passes of Ingolstadt and Rheinsberg, Wallenstein also drawing near to the Duke of Saxony, with a strong army to fall into his country, betwixt his Majesty and home; and Papenheim then domineering in the nether Saxon Kreises: in consideration whereof, his Majesty very wisely resolved to hang the little towns, cloisters and abbacies belonging to the Papists in Bavaria by the purse: taking of them on the sudden all the moneys they were able to give him, and pledges for the rest, promising unto them, unless they would duly pay their promised contribution unto his commissaries, the next time he would burne their dorps and houses, and put all to the sword; whereas then he had used clemency, in hope they would give the like obedience unto him as unto the Duke their master. For his Majesty did see, the enemy forced him by a diversion; And therefore he used his time while he was in Bavaria; that they might not forget he had been there: but rather took tokens with him; as men, money, arms, rare monuments of antiquity, and rich jewels, and which was worse (wherein his Majesty had neither hand nor direction) many of their houses, dorps and castles were burnt to the ground by evil and wicked instruments, that repaid burning with burning, using the Papists at home, as they used Protestants abroad, being near the Baltic coast, they never dreamed that the Protestants would come so far up as to repay them under the foot of the Alps. And had Gustavus lived, we had gone near to warm them within Rome, for their by-past cruelties, where we see, that God the righteous judge punisheth sin with sin, and man by his own iniquity.
His Majesty leaving no garrison in Bavaria, to keep the country the better in awe and obedience, he took hostages and pledges of special men from them along with him, to make them the readier to pay the sums they had promised; as also their contribution: and to make them the loather to rise again in arms against his Majesty's garrisons, which lay adjacent unto them.
The Duke of Bavaria's forces being retired within their strengths & passes, finding themselves not bastant to offend his Majesty's army, they fall out on the other side of the Danube, towards the upper Pfalz, making their incursions there, and take in Weissenburg, where they used both burghers and soldiers more unhumanly, then became Christians to do.
In like manner we see here the diligence and celerity used by his Majesty, according to the occasions that happened, in going so suddenly towards Ossa, and in returning again at the post, with a convoy of dragoniers towards Munich, to break up with his army, having left Duke Barnard of Weimar with General Major Ruthven to attend on Ossa his army, on the borders of Tyroll, towards Landau and the BOdense, till business were pacified.
Here then we see, that his Majesty's diligence and experience in warlike actions was so great, that his enemies never plotted that enterprise, but how soon it came once to his knowledge, he presently with celerity and quickness of judgment could find out the contrary remedy, ever to make himself appear in effect the most fortunate commander that ever we read of. For his great experience in warlike actions did confirm his judgment and his courage; for he was not affraid to do what he did learn and practise before; and like a wise General, he did ever watch against all unlooked for strokes: for nothing could come wrong unto him, because he was alike for all, having had the whole compend of wit in his brains, he could well and wisely govern the Common-wealth, to fight battles was his delight; in the making of leaguers he excelled all other Generals (as Tilly did know) engines to devise, to pass over rivers or fosses or walls, was his master-piece (as Tilly's death can witness at the Lech) to plant batteries or to change, therein he was profound; witness also his crossing the Lech; if lines or approaches were to be altered, his judgment then behoved to be used; in a word he was the master of military discipline, being risen from a prentice, to the great professor of arts, in this eminent and high calling of a soldier: where it is requisite, that as a man is valorous and judicious, so he ought to be constant in keeping his word and truth inviolable, as this king did to all his confederates, and to his enemies also. And therefore as a most precious jewel, his remarkable example of virtue is to be followed by those, who would prove heroic and magnificent as he was.
And therefore I was serious to pry so deep into his actions, as that those, whom I wish to succeed him in his virtues, may follow his practises used in the conquest of a great part of Germany: for his spirit alone and skill in wars was better then thousands of armed men. The like gifts I heartily wish to my noble patron his Highness, the Prince Elector Palatine, whom I wish to succeed him, not only in his virtues but in his conquest also.
Seeing then the greatest part of human happiness doth consist in virtue, whoever then would be wise, let him fix his eyes and his mind to judge other men's actions, thereby to correct his own, looking unto all that was and is, to th'end that through their example he may learn to better himself; for so long he shall flourish, as wisdom and counsel are his guides, which both I wish we may follow.