Monro His Expedition - The thirty-fourth Duty discharged at Nuremberg, and of the occurrences there.

The thirty-fourth Duty discharged at Nuremberg, and of the occurrences there.

His Majesty having recognosced the city and situation thereof, finding his forces weak in respect of the enemies, he resolved to take all the advantage he could in setting down his leaguer, for the preservation of his army, and the safety of the city, and therefore he caused to draw the draught of the leaguer to go in a circular orb, round the whole city, the water running through the midst of it; The leaguer begun at the East, without the suburbs called in Dutch Mark, were towards the South, to the part called Lichtenhof; where his Majesty's quarter was, and from thence towards the West, to the town's new works, crossing over the water; This leaguer being accomplished in ten days, and in full defence, with strong skonces, redoubts, fosses, batteries, and being well fortified round with stackets, without the fosse; and at all sorting ports, being well foreseen with slaught-booms and triangles; well fastened and close; his Majesty then upon the North side of the city, made the retrenchment go likewise round the city, being also well fortified with strong skonces and fosses, from the East unto the West, beginning at the Mark flect, and going round the Indenbuhl, even to St. John, and the water closed: Above the water on the height, was made a great skonce, and another great skonce was made in the corner at Gostenhof, with deep water graffs, having works without it again, and half moons: also before Steenehoole, over against Schwenau there was another skonce, fast and strong: Likewise at the back of the dorp Steinbuhl, towards the leaguer, there was another strong skonce made: likewise towards the wood at the South, on the street called Rottenbacher street there was made an extraordinary strong skonce, set about with four crossed stackets, of strong timber, so that there was no means to storm it; the like was made on the street called Althoffer street. These works, skonces and redoubts being accomplished, a great number of cannon great and small, were brought on the works; the batteries all ready, there could be reckoned in the leaguer about this town, without the walls, of cannon on their carriages, above three hundred, great and small.

Our leaguer thus fortified, the Imperial army led by the Duke of Friedland Wallenstein joined with the Duke of Bavaria his forces, consisting both of fifty thousand men, having the first of July taken in Schwabach; the second day after they drew towards the dorp called Stein over against Nuremberg, which doth lie about a Dutch mile from the town; there they begun to pitch a leaguer, and from Stein towards the flect called Zirndorf, the leaguer being well fortified, on the seventh of July, the Duke [ W] of Friedlandmade his leaguer also towards Zirndorf on the top of the hill called Altberg; wherein he took, for an advantage, an old ruinous and waste castle, near which there lay a hunting house in the wood, on the top of the hill over against the flect-fort, which was called the old strength in Dutch, This fort he caused strongly to palisade without the works, with fosses and stackets without the fosse, other great and strong skonces; he caused to make, and divers other strong skonces on the old hill, the fosses and breast works were all fortified with great and strong trees, and within the works, were several barrels or hogsheads filled with sand and stones for throwing, placed on the batteries, and by this strong and great leaguer Wallenstein did cut off from his Majesty's army and the town of Nuremberg all kind of victuals or provision, could come unto them by the Axile, thinking thereby to block up his Majesty's army, forcing him to take another resolution, and then he thought to compel the Kings Majesty to a peace, according to his mind.

These two armies thus encamped and set down opposite one against another, they begun all of them, as they went forth in the country about, to steal, to rob, to plunder and to spoil the whole country, for to supply with victuals and other furniture these two great new-founded cities of short continuance, though it is certain, many of them did get life-rent-leases of their new built houses.

Thus having set down the manner of both the armies' encamping, we lay still one against another a long time, neither giving nor offering offence one to another, except it were by mere accident in the country, amongst straggling troops. Nevertheless though we looked on each others, we had our watches night and day, before one another's noses, without loosing of one pistol, or without one alarm in two months time, as if in effect there were a stillstand of peace.

During this time we were thus looking one to another, the Spaniard finding his Majesty with the main army far off, he resolved to take his time in the Pfalz, and crossing the Mosel again towards Alzey; his Excellence the Rex-chancellour Oxensterne having intelligence of their coming, he did bring his horsemen over the Rhine and suffered the Spaniard to draw near Mainz, and then marched unto them; in the mean time the Spanish General Comissary Lucas Cagro did break up with twelve companies of horse, giving orders to the rest to follow him, of intention to fall unlooked for on the Rhinegrave's quarter; But he did count without his host, the Rhinegrave's folk being betimes acquainted of their coming, and to their help, having got a supply timely sent unto them by his Excellence the Rex-chancellor, the enemy was so welcomed by them, that he was put in confusion, and then chased so hard, that there were a hundred and twenty killed unto him, many taken prisoners, and seven standards of theirs were taken, as trophies of the Rhinegrave's victory over them.

In revenge whereof shortly after, the Grave for Ridberg with a strong party of horse and foot did fall upon that part of the Pfalz, called Handsrucke betwixt the Moselle and the Nahe, and coming on Hochspeyer, where the Swedens Colonel called Hornegt without any resistance gave over Hochspeyer, notwithstanding of a succour was sent unto him from Mainz that was at hand: whereupon the Colonel was afterwards brought prisoner to Mainz, to be adjudged there for his evil carriage.

The Spaniard taking out of Hochspeyer cannon, ammunition and arms with all that could be found, together with a great deal of money exacted from the burghers, he had also an intention on Worms, but in vain, being strongly beset with the Swedens forces, so that the Spaniards at this time, as many times before, were forced to quit the Pfalz, and to draw back again into Holland; and the States' army being come to lie before Maastricht, were forced to break up from Hochspeyer with their army, and whole baggage and cannon: The Swedens getting notice of their upbreaking, desirous to convey them, the Rex-chancellor and Palsgrave Christian breaks up from Mainz towards Alsheim, and the next day they came to Beloheim, two miles from the part the Spaniard had broken up from, and following them hard till they got sight of the Spanish army, which the Spaniard perceiving directs his baggage before, and drew up in battle on a plain near a wood, where incontinent they were brought in disorder by the Swedens, that they were forced with the loss of three cornets and some foot, to retire into the wood, and finding the whole Swedens army following up, they resolved with one consent by flying to save themselves were their best, and taking the night to their help, they marched so hard as they could. But yet the Swedens continued their march after them, till the Spaniard coming to a pass in the hills, threw off the bridges behind them; Nevertheless the Swedens repaired the bridges and followed hard after, and by Lauterecken came in sight of them again, that neither day nor night were they suffered to rest, so that the Spaniard was forced to burn some of his baggage on his march, and some he left to the Swedens, that they might, the lighter they were, come the easier off: in the end a part of them by Lauterecken was attrapped by the Rhinegrave's horsmen, where some were cut down and their baggage taken. The Spaniard thus in great fear, and confounded by the hastiness of his march, and the Swedens wearied with long following, were content at last, the Spaniards should go their way with so little reputation out of the Pfalz, at their last good night, having lost above two thousand men and their whole baggage.

By this time also the boors in Schwabenland again began to be tumultuous and unquiet, so that by Kempten, they drew together very strong, of full intention to chase the Swedens out of their lands. But this uproar continued but short; for when the Swedens forces drew out of the garrisons, they killed the most part, and drove the rest unto woods, to seek their food with the swine, in burning a number of their dorps, to give them work to think on against the winter, to build new houses, or to dwell in woods: but repenting their rebellion, they turned their arms against their own masters, that moved them to rise against the Swedens: and cutting off a number of them, they possessed their houses, turning good Swedens again, being beaten with the rod of correction in their bodies and means.

By this time Duke Barnard of Weimar, with his troops did cut off above five hundred men of Leopoldus folk by Füssen on the Lech, where he caused to demolish sundry skonces made up by the country-boors, in time of their uproar, and divers of their skins were pierced by musket and pistol, till they were taught to be more sober and quiet, on their own charges; and after this uproar was settled, the Leopoldish boors again out of Tirol recollected stronger forces, and marched towards the Lech again on Füssen, and Landsberg, both strong passes, and got them in; yet in the end all turned to a slight conclusion: for Duke Barnard of Weimar again, having come upon them with his forces; First he took in Landsberg, and then on the sixteenth of July, he cut off two companies of Leopoldish dragoniers, and a Troop of horsemen, by a town called Rosshaupten, where few or none did escape, and in the end, marching on Füssen, having stormed the town, they cut off above three hundred of the garrison, and took prisoners eleven hundred with their officers; and a number of the country gentlemen, that were Papists, and sought to save themselves in that strength, were deceived, their colours being taken from them, and above a thousand of their soldiers were forced to take service.

By this time also a little fleck, Freidberg in Schwabenland near to Augsburg, treacherously having called some Crabbats of the enemies to their assistance, they murdered all the Swedens safeguards that lay thereabout; whereupon the Swedens forces, to be revenged on them, did fall upon the fleck, or little town, and killed all the male-kind they could find, and taking their wives and children out of the town to the fields, they set the town on fire; so that there is no memory left of this town, for their perfidiousness to those they got to save them from the injuries of others.

I hope the reader will excuse this extravagancy of discourse, seeing all this time we lay idle at Nuremberg, being sometimes without employment in our calling, I thought better to collect at this time somewhat of the actions of others, than to be altogether idle. Therefore I crave pardon again, to tell as yet somewhat that happened about this time in the nether Saxon Kreises, which I set down in paper, as his Majesty was informed of it, we being then at Nuremberg without hostile employment.

By this time the Earl of Pappenheim, a worthy brave fellow, though he was our enemy, his valour and resolution I esteemed so much of, that it doth me good to call his virtuous actions somewhat to memory, and the success he had at this time in warlike and martial exploits, in the nether Saxon Kreises. First then he had not only offended the Hessen and Lüneburg, but also by skirmish he made them feel the dint of the valour, which accompanied him unto his death; and as they felt his skill in the fields by fighting disbanded in skirmish, so also they were made to understand his experience in beleaguering of towns, having taken in before their noses, their army being near unto him, Einbeck and divers places more, and then having recrued his army again out of Westphalia, he then marched on Stade, and relieved it before General Tott his nose, that lay before it, and about it; and all things succeeding still well with him, he not alone relieved the town in making the Swedens to quit it, but also cut off unto them fifteen hundred men, which were but novices, being new levied; and he did get divers colours of theirs, as trophies of his victory; amongst others he did get three colours of Colonel Monro of Obstell his regiment, which were then led by Captain Francis Sinclaire, who after a little skirmish had with the enemy, their powder being spent, and they environed by the horsemen, knowing of no relief, took quarters for the soldiers, and the officers were prisoners, being long kept unrelieved at Minden, above a year and a half; but the Captain having ransomed himself came loose soon after he was taken; but two Lieutenants Monro, and Ensign Monro remained eighteen months longer in prison.

Pappenheim after relieving of Stade, having gotten intelligence, that Duke Francis Carolus of Saxony Löwenberg had come to the Swedens, with two strong regiments, of intention to block up Stade again, the Swedens growing still stronger and stronger, so that it was thought Pappenheim was inclosed as in a snare or grin, and which was worse, that he was scarce of victuals in the town, and the town not strong enough to hold out, he then resolved to quit it, taking out with him the Imperial garrison that was therein, and taking his march again towards the Weser stream; so that he leaving it, the Swedens patronizing the town they did beset it again with a garrison.

Shortly after this brave fellow rencountering again with some Hessen troops, he did sore beat them also back and side. By this time General Lieutenant Bawtishen had got the command of the Swedens army, after General Tott had quit it; who incontinent after followed Pappenheim towards the Weser; But this brave fellow Pappenheim not for fear of Bawtish coming, but being called by the Infanta for aid, crossed the Weser; and coming on the River of Rhine, continued his march towards Maastricht to assist the Spaniard in their need. This brave commander, as he was full of action, so he was still employed, and I was sorry he was not of my mind in serving the good cause.

Pappenheim gone to Maastricht, Lüneburg, and General Bawtish (under whom was my brother Colonel Monro of Obstell) they returned towards Duderstadt, which Pappenheim had strongly beset before his going away, and they nevertheless got it in with little pains, by reason the soldiers, that were therein, being fifteen hundred begun to mutiny, and to give themselves over unto the Swedens service; after this they commanded some forces to blocker Wolfenbüttel, wherein the Duke of Lüneburg in person was employed; And General Major King, being with some forces employed on a post apart, the Duke hearing the enemy was marching strong, for the relief of the town, he did break up, and marched away for his own safety, without advertizing General Major King of the danger he was left unto, by the enemies' approaching so strong, till in the end they came so near to the General Major's post, having no conshaft of them, till they had strongly invironed him with their horsemen, so that the General Major finding no passage open, he being pursued did valourously with a few men defend themselves, till in end being weakest, they were made to yield, where after divers wounds honourably received, the General Major was taken prisoner, and kept long under cure, till that after he ransomed himself, and being come loose again, he levied more forces of horse and foot for the Swedens service, to be the better revenged of his enemies, and after that fortunately and valourously behaved himself, with the general applause as well of strangers as of his countrymen; being also well reported of by his very enemies, so that since his virtues and noble carriage have still advanced his credit, which for my part, I wish to continue, he being now Lieutenant General.

Having thus far spoken of the passages, which occurred by this time in the nether Saxon Kreises, I return again to show the rest of our intelligence at Nuremberg, come from the Bishopric of Trier on the Rhine; where also on divers occasions did pass some rare accidents.

This Bishop having concluded a neutrality with his Majesty of France, as also with his Majesty of Sweden, but seeing the Spanish not to remove, neither yet that the principals of the gentry of the Land were willing to embrace the neutrality: Nevertheless, the Bishop remained in his former resolution, and the strength called vulgarly Herman Stein, he gives it to the French, so that they being so near, in neighbourhood to the Spaniard in Coblenz, they did agree together as cats and rats: in the end the French seeing the Spanish garrison growing weak day by day, the Swedens by virtue of their confederacy with the French, they came in for their own hand, as third men, and drawing before Coblenz, after a short beleaguering, they make the Spaniard quit it, and getting of the city a sum of money, they remove, giving the city over unto the French: the Spaniard after losing of Coblenz, Montabaur, Engers, and other places thereabouts belonging to the Bishopric of Trier, they go their ways.

The Field-marshal Gustavus Horne, being by this time sent by his Majesty from Nuremberg towards the Rhine stream, to make resistance to the Imperialists beginnings there; coming towards Trarbach on the Moselle: with his forces, being the pass the Spaniard was wont to cross at, to come unto the Pfalz; after a short beleaguering, he got in the town and castle by accord, and then retired unto the Main to draw more forces together, and from thence continued his march towards Mannheim, of intention to join with the Duke of Württemberg, for to make resistance to Ossa and the Imperialists, which were recollecting themselves strongly in Alsace again, having understood Ossa was joined with three regiments of the Catholic League, the Grave Von Brunckhurst his regiment of horse; as also the Freiherr Von Rollingen his regiment, and Colonel Metternicht his regiment of foot, which were levied for the defence of Coblenz; but shortly after; through the alteration that happened in those quarters, were brought unto Alsace; and being joined to twenty-five companies of horse, and some regiments more of foot, they crossed the Rhine unto Durlach, and further unto Bretten, where they compelled the Swedens garrison there, being two hundred, to take service of them, and then plundered out the town, burnt the ports, and demolished a part of the walls, being in Württemberg-land.

The Grave Von Mountecucule was General over these folks, who perceiving that the Duke of Württemberg with some new levied forces had passed over Kinbis, he retired upon Knittlingen, and s•aling the town, puts three hundred to the sword, plundered all out, and burnt all the town to three houses.

By this time the garrison of Heidelberg coming towards Weisloch, wherein did lie a company of dragoniers, and a troop of horse of the Markgrave Von Tourloch's folk beleaguers it, and by casting fire in the town sets three houses on fire, whereof the Field Marshal Gustavus Horne being made foreseen, he with all his forces did break up, and marched; the Heidelbergish garrison being acquainted with this advancement of the Field-marshals, they incontinent retired in great haste on Heidelberg, and having before their up-breaking from Heidelberg desired succours from Ossa and Mountecucule, their corporal and six horsemen at their back coming being taken prisoners by the Swedens, the Field-marshal did find by their Letters, that on the sixth of August, their whole horsemen had appointed rendezvous at Metternich, to go for Weisloch, whereupon his Excellence did draw near to their rendezvous place, and attended their coming, being unlooked for by them, in the mean time the Imperialists were advertised, that those of Heidelberg had got in Weisloch, and were again blocked up by some Swedens forces, whereupon Ossa, Mountecucule, the Colonel Mountelabam, and Witzone, with the fore-troops of horse, being a thousand horse, march on for the relief, and unlooked for were pursued by the Swedens, whereof two hundred, among whom was the Colonel Mountelaban and other officers, were killed, many taken, and the rest all scattered. Whereupon Ossa and Mountecucule, with the rest of the folk, that were lying at Oberhausen and Rhinehausen, in all haste did set over the Rhine at Philippsburg. The Field-marshal followed hard, and finding he could get no more of them, he returned over the Rhine again, and getting the Strasbourg pass Rheinbrücke, he held on his march further unto Alsace with the horsemen, during which time his foot forces with the Württembergers beleaguered the pass Stolhossen, and getting it in by accord, they marched five thousand strong over at Strasbourg unto upper Alsace, whereat the Imperialists were mightily afraid, and without night or days rest they marched towards Colmar, Breisach, in the upper Alsace in all haste, by taking them to those parts for their retreat, but the Swedens following them hot-foot, they took in divers places, and made good booty on their march, and at last, after in-taking of Offenburg by accord, they marched then towards Bentfeld, the Bishop his chief strength, and beleaguered it.

By this time also, Field-marshal Arnheim leading the Saxons army, did fall in strong into Silesia, taking in Glogau, and other parts thereabouts, and all the Imperialists marched towards him with a strong and mighty army. There were incontinent certain Swedish and Brandenburg forces joined with Arnheim, who did set on the Imperialists by Steinau, beat them in the fields, and followed them unto Breslau; and then after the Imperialists intrenched themselves betwixt Breslau and the Oder. Nevertheless, they were hunted up again by the Swedens and Saxons, who followed them from place to place, and did get the thumb at Breslau, where they did get great booty from the Imperialists, and not contented with this, the Swedens and Saxons followed them over the River at Ollawe, and did set on the Imperialists again, not far from Wimslau, obtaining a great victory over them again, where many brave fellows were taken prisoners, many also were killed, and the rest scattered; so that the Swedens and Saxons were masters of the greatest part of Silesia, and they made the town of Breslau to accommodate themselves in confederacy, on certain conditions, with the Swedens and Saxons, while as we at Nuremberg for six weeks together used no great hostility, but lay secure within our leaguers, as within walled towns, but at such times as we were commanded forth, as convoys for our horsemen, that went for forage, and then sometimes we lighted on one another, striving always for elbow-room, whereof at length the Imperialists made us very crimp or scarce, having but one quarter of our leaguer free, to bring in our forage, being only from the Southwest.

The thirty-fourth Observation.

WE read in Dion, that after Caesar had won the Battle of Pharsalia, amongst the honours the Senate had ordained to be given unto him, they commanded to dress for him a triumphing chariot, which was set opposite to Jupiter within the Capitol, and that he should stand on a globe, representing the world, with the inscription, semi-deus est: Even so the lords of Nuremberg in consideration of the great respect they carried unto his Majesty of Sweden, at the first entering their city, after the battle of Leipzig, they presented two globes unto his Majesty, a terrestial and a celestial, in sign of their love and obedience unto his Majesty, and his Majesty again by his royal word; promised, under God to defend and protect them against all mortals; and being thus engaged unto them, their enemies menacing their ruin, with a mighty and a strong army, being minded to overcome them with the sword, or to make them starve by hunger, having closed up as they thought all passes, where through succours could come unto them, by planting of a wonderful strong leaguer about them, of intention to block them, and his Majesty's army both within them, being then but weak within their trenches and walls.

His Majesty again like a wise general, pondering and considering how weighty his enemies' enterprises were, in seeking to overcome Nuremberg, and knowing, if that once they did get Nuremberg on their side, the rest of the great cities would follow, in regard whereof his Majesty resolved, the safest course for him and the town both was, to set down his leaguer strongly betwixt the town and the enemy, as well to hinder their correspondence, in case of their unconstancy, as for their defence, in case of their loyalty. For his Majesty knew well there was as great virtue in keeping of a conquest, as in getting of it: And therefore at this time, as formerly at Stettin, Werben and at Würtzburg against Tilly, he resolved to take him to a defensive war, with the spade and the shovel, putting his army within works, having the supply of such a back-friend as Nuremberg was, to assist him with men, meat and ammunition, until such time as he might weary his enemy, as formerly he had done, or that succours might come to him, that he were bastant for them in the fields; and having thus happily resolved, both the army's strongly intrenched before others, they did bring the eyes of all the potentates in Europe upon their actions, and designs, to see how the end would prove, and who should be thought wisest of both. But you shall see that he that was at this time the terror of the world, the subduer of Sweden, the daunter of Poland and Denmark, and  the hope of Britain, Holland and Germany, was able even unto his death to suppress the pride and tyranny of the house of Austria, and of his ministers and servants, being all but novices in wars, in comparison to the Lion of the North, the invincible Gustavus, who in glory and dignity did far surpasse all his enemies, as is cleared by his former wisdom, in governing his victories, and hereby his great care and diligence in preserving his friends from the fury of their enemies, exercising his army within a close leaguer, to handle their arms well, after his own new discipline, being taught to keep their faces to their enemies in retiring as in advancing, never turning backs on their enemies as of old.

It is also to be admired the great provision this city was provided with, being no sea-town, as of victuals and ammunition, where it was reported that they had oats, which was distributed to the army, that had been kept above a hundred years, and this city was ever from the beginning renowned for their wisdom and policy in counsel, more then for their force in arms, from whence did come the Dutch proverb, that he who had the wit of Nuremberg, the money of Ulm, the pride of Augsburg, with the power of Venice, might do much in this world.

Here then at Nuremberg, as at a safe bay, his Majesty like unto a wise master of a ship perceiving the storm coming on, casts out his best anchors, riding out the storm till it blows over, and then finding the gale to favour him, he lanches forth to look for his enemies. For his Majesty knew well when it was time to give a blow, as he did know the surest way to ward and hold off a blow: and we see here his Majesty's counsel was of much worth to the good of the city, as his power in arms; so that his very enemies did not only praise his wisdom, but oft-times did admire it, and as the enemy did strive to starve us, his Majesty knew well, that such a strong army as they were in the dog-days, lying in the leaguer in time of so great infection, betime would become near as weak as we were. As also his Majesty knowing the evil that is incident to all army's through idleness, he pressed to keep us still in handling and exercising our arms; for he knew well, mans nature was like Iron, that did rust when it was not used, and on the contrary, he knew that well exercised soldiers, as he had, would desire to fight, when novices (as his enemies had) would be afraid to stir out of their leaguers: for oft-times it is not the multitude doth the turn, but it is art begets victory.

Having spoken in the discharge of this duty of the actions of some worthy personages, I mind here to observe somewhat in commemoration of the persons worths that did lead them.

First then we see, that the Spaniard divers times was forced with little credit to retire out of the Pfalz, and that in respect he never turned faces about in making use of ground, cannon, pike or musket: which proves his retreats to have been dishonourable, and the leaders to have been no soldiers. For we presuppose, in four days retreat the defender could once have made choice of ground, where making use of his cannon, his enemies would be glad they had not advanced so far; but rather that they had suffered them to pass: but an enemy once feared never fights well, except extremity make him desperate, and then it is not safe to deal with him.

Likewise we see here, as they were not all Spaniards, that fled, so they were not all Swedens, that followed; so that we find there are some good of  all nations: but it is certain that at such times the worth and valour of a leader is best known, not only in fighting examplary to others, but specialy in directing others.

We see here, that the turbulent insurrection of the boors in Schwabenland is soon stilled, when they want a head to lead them, where we see, the giddy-headed multitude doth ever wag like the bush: for though sometimes they grow pale for fear, they are so impudent, that they never blush at their faults, though oft-times they are well corrected for their errors.

Here also we see, the valour and policy of Duke Barnard much to be commended, as a prudent commander in all his enterprises, overcoming more by wit and policy, than by dint of arms. For though resolution never fails, yet by stratagems he overcomes more, than by killing; and being victorious he did show his clemency, that another time his enemies might yield the sooner unto him, seeing he had used these well, whom formerly he had subdued: and this cavalier being noble, according to his birth, he knew that the strength of victory consisteth in the using of it well, which made hime ever give the better quarters; for as he was noble, to make him the more noble, he was endued with reason; so that he conjoined nobility with virtue, which made his worth much esteemed of, and though he was descended of noble progenitors, yet his mind raised him above his condition, he being fit to command army's, and his birth did beget the greatest obedience next unto his Majesty over the whole army, being resolute, noble, and prudent withal.

In the former discourse had of the acts of that noble and worthy cavalier, though our enemy Pappenheim, his name merits to be enregistred, for his valorous courage, extraordinary diligence in his expeditions, and the fortunate success, that did accompany his valorous conduct at divers times, even unto his death. This noble cavalier was so generous, that nothing seemed difficult unto him, fearing nothing, not death itself, once resolved, and as he was valiant, so he was most diligent in all his expeditions; for while he lived, those armies next unto him were never suffered to sleep sound, which made his Majesty of Sweden esteem more of him alone, then of all the generals that served the Emperor, wishing one day he might rencounter with him, to try his valour, whom he honoured so much, though his enemy.

This valorous captain after the Battle of Leipzig, was the first that adventured, with a single convoy, to pass through his Majesty's armies, unto the nether Saxon Creitz to put life in the cause, being come again betwixt his Majesty of Sweden and home, desirous to gain credit, he delayed no time, but on the contrary used all diligence, till he got an army of old soldiers together out of the garrisons, and then began to take advantage of his enemies, catching them unawares, like a valiant captain and chieftain, he suffered no grass to grow where his army did tread, but traversed from one place to another, adding and augmenting still to his own credit, but diminishing and substracting from the reputation of other generals, till he obtained the name and fame of the most valiant, and most vigilant general that served the Emperor, being in effect more furious sometimes in his conduct then requisite for a general, fearing nothing but the indignation of his superior, whom he served valianty and truly. This kind of boldness, though haply it doth prosper for a time, yet sometimes in others, it  may overwhelm all the good fortune that formerly they attained unto. For nothing is less to be allowed of in a commander, then boldness without reason, though sometimes things happen to succeed well, being pregnable for such daring men, as the King of Sweden and Pappenheim was, being both truly courageous. Nevertheless, this daring is not to be made a custom of; so being oft-times the example is as faulty, as the deed in an army.

This Pappenheim in his attempts, so far as I could learn, was unblameable in his carriage, as a leader, except at Maastricht, where he was blamed for too much forwardness with disadvantage, having lost more men then the attempt proved credible.

As this valiant cavalier strived to do notable service unto the Emperor, even so Field Marshal Gustavus Horne, being a valiant cavalier, without either gall or bitterness (as they say) but on the contrary he was wise, valiant, sober, modest, vigilant and diligent, striving in all his actions to please God, and his master the King of Sweden.

And as Pappenheim was thought bold, and heady in his resolutions; The other Gustavus Horne was remiss in advising, but very resolute and courageous in the execution; parts most worthy praise in a commander, being subaltern to another's command, as he was unto his Majesty of Sweden, who could never enterprise of himself, more than was allowed unto him by his instructions had in writing, so as he attempted nothing rashly, he feared no danger, once being entered, and he was so meek in his command, that with love he obliged the cavaliers that followed him, to obedience, more then another could do by austerity: being the best means to conquer with, and the safest way to maintain reputation and credit; Thus beloved of all men, he was very wise, and silent, keeping a decorum in his actions and gestures, being to my judgment powerful to command himself, as he did command others.

Here also we have occasion to praise the wise and valorous conduct of the Field Marshal Arnheim in Silesia, where he obtained great victory over his enemies, being endued with a singular gift befitting a great commander, in giving every man that was under his command, his due means allowed to him by his superior, a rare quality in a great commander, being one of the special points that is powerful to oblige the love of officers, and soldiers unto their superiors, making them refuse nothing against their enemies they are commanded unto: in the greatest extremity soldiers can fear no danger, being well paid by their superiors.

This virtue iustitia distributiva includes many other virtues under it, proper to a great commander, as his actions in Silesia do witness, having obtained several victories there over the Imperialists.

As for the vices of men of this quality, making profession of arms, being my superiors, duty will not permit me to speak, but reverently of them; And therefore what faults they have (as none lives without some) they shall be better divulged by some other tongue then mine: Nam quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri nefeceris

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