Monro His Expedition - Glossary and Translations

Glossary and Translations

Glossary of obsolete words, or words used in an obsolete sense; and translations of Latin phrases.

 

Admire

Wonder

Advertise

To warn or inform

Advertisement

Warning or notification

Aequo pede

"With an equal foot" – The reference is to Horace, Odes, 1.4.13-14. pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas

regumque turris. "Pale death kicks equally at (the door of) the pauper's hovel as at the king's tower"

Allege

Say

Alter homo

Another man

Amtman

A bailiff or steward

Ante omnia

Before everything

Antipathite

An enemy or opponent

Bale an Bouche

With loaded weapons

Bank

A particular drum-call which signalled all the soldiers to assemble.

Barm

Sediment in beer

Bastant

Capable

Battle

a) The main force of an army, in the centre of the line.
b) Battle order.

Beadman

A person employed to pray

Beastial

Domestic animals

Beat a bank

To play a particular drum-call which signalled all the soldiers to assemble.

Bedrid

Confined to bed by illness or injury

Belly-god

An exceptionally greedy person

Blocker

Besiege, blockade

Boarish-Boares

Bayerisch boors i.e. Bavarian peasants

Bonum omen

A good omen

Boors

Country people

Bruit

Rumour

Buckler

A small round shield

Burghers

Townspeople

Cadouk

A bonus payment or reward, often allocated from booty plundered from civilians

Canonists

Scholars learned in Church law (usually, but not always, Catholic)

Capitulate

To bargain, come to an agreement

Caracole

To wheel to the right or left.

Cartow

A kind of cannon, also called a quarter-cannon, which fired a ball of a quarter of a hundred-weight (12.5 kg)

Castean

Made of chestnut leaves

Casualty

A payment or reward made when certain defined things happen.

Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea linguae

Arms submit to the toga, and wreaths to the tongue i.e. as we would say, "The pen is mightier than the sword"

Centner

A hundredweight (50 kg. approx.)

Champaign

An area of level open land

Chirurgian

A surgeon

Cithern

A instrument like guitar, with metal strings and played with a plectrum.

Clap

A violent blow

Cleared

Clearly shown

Clicket

The loop or catch which fastens a scabbard to a sword belt

Comfortable

Encouraging

Commandment

Government or authority

Commodity

Commercial dealings

Commove

Disturb

Conceit

Knowledge, conception

Concilium formatum

A appointed council

Concredited

Assigned or entrusted

Conform

Appropriate

Conjunctis viribus

With united forces

Contemn

To despise

Contentation

Contentment

Contestation

Struggle

Convenient

Appropriate; right and proper

Convoy

A accompanying unit of men

Cornet

Variously: a company of cavalry, its standard, or the officer commanding it.

Corps-de-gard

A guard hut or sentry box

Counterscarp

The outer bank of a fortification

Crabbats

Regiments of light cavalry, originally Croatian but later including many soldiers from other places. They had an evil reputation for cruelty and rapaciousness.

Credence

A sideboard

Cuirassier

A cavalry soldier, so called from wearing a cuirass, which is a piece of armour covering the upper torso, with a breast-plate and a back-plate connected by leather straps.

Cullion

A low scoundrel

Cunctation

Hesitation, delay

Deals

Planks

Debauched

Corrupted

Decretals

A collection of decrees issued by the Roman Emperor

Dern

To chase an animal into its lair

Disbandon

Scatter, run away

Dorp

A village or small town

Dragonier

A soldier who travelled on horseback but fought on foot

Dread

Regarded with great respect

Dutch

German

Dutch Mile

About 7.5 km or 4.5 English miles

Dutchland

Germany

En passant

While passing

Et contra

And the reverse

Et jure

And justly

Et meritò

And deservedly

Eternize

To make immortal

Ex opposito

Opposite

Ex utroque Rex

In every way a king

Experimented

Experienced

Fantastic

Having wild notions

Feared

Frightened

Firework

An explosive shell or bomb

Flanker

To defend on or from the flanks

Flankerens

Positions placed so as to defend one anothers' flanks

Flect

A small village

Forisfamiliate

To be forisfamiliate, is to have received a portion of one's inheritance while one's father is still alive, and having no further claim on his estate

Forlorn hope

A squad of solders sent forward of the main body of an army, to begin the attack

Fosse

A wide trench or dry moat

Führ

To lead, guide (From German Führen)

Fured

Conveyed

Furer

Bearer

Furing

Bearing, carrying

Furrier

An officer sent in advance of an army, to find and arrange accommodation and food.

Gabion

A wicker basket full of earth, used as temporary fortification, as sandbags are used nowadays.

Gainestand

Defy

Garner

A granary

Gatlop

The gauntlet, a punishment where the victim was made to walk between two lines of men, each of whom struck him with a stick or whip.

Gavileger

The chief provost (see under proforce) of an army.

Graff

A wide ditch or moat

Grafschaft

County

Grin

A snare for animals consisting of a running noose tied to a branch or stake

Gross

In Fighting in gross = en masse, with the whole force engaged.

Hackbut of crock

A very heavy flintlock musket which was supported for firing on a tripod or long rod with a fork at the top (the crock), placed near the muzzle, while the soldier held the butt.

Hagapells

Finnish light cavalry, so called from their battle cry "Hakkaa päälle!", meaning "Cut them down!"

Hanger

A short sword, worn hanging from a belt

Hardly

With great effort

Harvest

Autumn

Hinc inde

From both sides

Hinterhalt

An ambush (German)

Hodie mihi, cras tibi

Today mine, tomorrow yours

Hoff

A house or mansion

Hofstaffe

General staff

Homo homini quid interest

How men differ from each other!

Incontinent

Immediately, without hesitation

Inter pocula

Literally "In their cups" i.e. while drinking

Jars

Quarrels

Jeddart-staff

A weapon consisting of a sword blade fixed to a long handle

John Thomsons man

A henpecked husband; one dominated by his wife.

Jure belli

According to the law of war

Jure talionis

According to the law of retaliation–"An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth"

Justitia distributiva

Distributive justice, i.e portioning out goods & rewards etc. fairly.

Kammerjunkare

A senior servant of the king, corresponding to Groom of the Chamber in England

Land

A province

Leaguer

A fortified camp

Lege talionis

According to the law of retaliation–"An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth"

Magazine

A storehouse

Malheur

Misfortune

Menagers

Competent managers

Menagry

Management

Monomachia

Single combat

Morgenstern

A weapon consisting of a spiked iron ball fastened to, or hanging by a chain from, a long handle

Nail

To nail (or spike) a gun was to block the touch-hole by driving a nail into it, thus making it impossible to fire.

Nam ardua & difficilis virtutis est via, tamen, nil tam difficile est, quod non solertia vincat

Although a virtuous life is laborious and difficult, there is nothing so difficult that skill cannot overcome it.

Nam quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri nefeceris

Do not do to others what you would not want them do to you

Nam ubi orta est culpa, ibi poena consistit

For where blame is due, that constitutes the punishment.

Nomine tenue

In name

Obnubilate

To darken or obscure by cloud

Omni modo

In every way

Oppugnation

Attack

Paction

A treaty of agreement

Painful

Painstaking

Parole

Word of honour

Parter

One who parts combatants to prevent a fight

Partizan

A long handled spear, sometimes with an axe blade or hook like a halberd

Patronizing

Defending

Per vices

In turn

Perdue

A sentry in an exceptionally dangerous  position

Pest

Bubonic plague (The Black Death)

Petard

A kind of bomb used to blow down a wall or door.

Plane

To elevate, angle

Polemarch

In Athens, the third archon, originally the titular military commander-in-chief; afterwards a civil magistrate having under his care the children of parents who had lost their lives in the service of their country, and the resident aliens. (OED)

Pole-shable

A weapon consisting of a sword blade attached to the end of a long wooden shaft

Popular

The common people

Pousse

Thrust

Pro Deo et Religione tuenda

Defending God and Religion

Proforce

Provost, an officer whose duty was to suppress and punish offences committed by soldiers

Proviant

Provisions supplied to soldiers

Providentia Dei omnia gubernantur, & quae putatur poena, medicina est

The providence of God rules all things, and what is thought to be a punishment, is a medicine

Py a Pyano

Soft of foot

Quid est homini inimicissimum

What is man's greatest enemy?

Ran-forced

Broke open

Ravelin

A fortification consisting of two walls or banks meeting at a sharp angle

Recognosce

To reconnoitre

Recrue

Reinforce

Redder

One who parts combatants to prevent a fight

Redoubt

A small fortification near to, but detached from, the main defences of a fort.

Regrated

Lamented

Reins

The loins or kidneys

Repare

Revenge

Res est irrevocabilis, et quod factum est infectum fieri nequit

The thing is irrevocable, and what is done cannot be undone.

Rixdollar

A coin worth about 5 English shillings

Ruffle

A defeat

Rut-master

The commander of a troop of cavalry

Rutter

A soldier of cavalry

Scalade

Using scaling-ladders to take a walled town or fortress

Scout

A kind of flat-bottomed boat

Sedes belli

The seat of war

Semi-deus est

He is a demigod

Seria mista jocis

The serious mixed with the funny

Shamble

A slaughter-house

Sile

To blindfold

Sine quo nihil

Without which (there is) nothing

Singulis noctibus per vices

One night on and one night off alternately

Sith

Since

Skonce

An earthen bank raised as part of defensive works.

Slaught-boom

A heavy beam of wood used as a barricade

Sleight

Clever

Slightly

Injuriously

Sling-piece

A kind of long-barrelled cannon

Soldateska

Soldiery

Sorting Port or Door

A door in the wall of a fortress or walled town, through which small groups can be let out and in, either for reconnaissance, or to make a hit-and-run raid on a besieging force.

Span

A measure of about 9 inches

Splent

Splintered

Stacket

A palisade, i.e. a fence made of stakes driven into the ground and sharpened at the top

Stadt-holder

Governor of a city or province

Stallmeister

Manager of the Royal stables

Steadable

Servicable, helpful

Stell

To place cannon in position

Stift

Region

Stillstand

An armistice or ceasefire

Stot

To bounce off or rebound

Strait

Narrow, difficult to pass

Strength

A fortified position

Succour

Assistance, reinforcements

Succourse

To assist, reinforce

Suddenly

Quickly

Summa

Total

Summum jus

The greatest force of the law

Sutler

A supplier of food to an army

Swound

A swoon, fainting fit

Tam arte, quam marte

As much by skill as by strength

Targe

A small light shield

Three Kings day

The feast of the Epiphany, 6th January

Thwart

Full of obstructions

Torn

A tower

Totus orbis componebatur ad exemplum Regis

The whole world was fashioned according to the example of the king

Travailed

Laboured

Treen

Made of wood

Trinket

A stream or narrow channel

Tuck

A tap of a drum or blast of a trumpet

Ut antea

As before

Vivit enim post funera virtus: & animus moderatis laboribus adjuvatur, immoderatis autem abluitur

The virtuous live on even after death; and the temperate soul advances by its deeds, while the intemperate is washed away.

Waist

The middle part of the upper deck of a ship, between the quarter-deck and the forecastle

Wakerife

Wide awake, watchful

Water-graff

A trench filled with water used as a defence

Weal

Benefit, advantage

Weathergall

A partial rainbow,or other atmospheric phonemenon believed to predict a storm

Without

Outside

 

 

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