Glossary

 

Of obsolete words, or words used in an obsolete sense

 

Abandon

To dominate absolutely

Abidden

Waited for

Abjected

Thrown down, cast off

Abusion

Deceit or shameful usage

Accalmed

Quelled, knocked down

Acon

Aachen, Aix-la-Chapelle

Acquite

Requite, reward

Adnichil

To reduce to nothing, annihilate.

Advertisement

Attention, consideration

Affiance

N) Trust, confidence
V) to pledge

Aforce

To attempt

After-clap

An unexpected blow at an opponent who thought the fight was over.

Agrise

To be disgusted and frightened

Aigre-douce

Sour-sweet

Alcumyn

Alchemy "gold", an alloy based on brass.

Alderbest

Best of all, in the best manner possible

Ale pole, Ale stake

A pole, or stake, set up before an ale-house as a sign

Algife

Even if

Allectives

Alluring things

Allegate

To use in argument

Allege

N) An argument
V) To use as an argument

Ambages

Roundabout, over-elaborate or deceitful talk.

Amice

A fur-lined gown or cloak worn by members of religious orders

An

If

Anchor

An anchorite, a hermit

Ane

A, an

Angel

A gold coin, worth in Skelton's time, 6s. 8d. (one-third of a pound)

Animosity

Bravery

Antetheme

A text or saying said at the beginning of a sermon as its theme or subject

Apayed

Rewarded

Appair, Appare

Appair, Appare

To impair, damage or weaken

Appal

To make pale, make to decay

Appareil

Apparel, accoutrements

Apple-john

"A kind of apple said to keep two years, and to be in perfection when shrivelled and withered." (OED)

Apposal

A question or puzzle posed to be answered, or the posing of such a question.

Appose

To question, examine or audit

Appropried

Assigned

Aquite

To pay back, requite

Arrearage

The state of being in debt or in arrears of payment

Arrect

To raise, to subject to examination, to appoint

Arret

To charge or impute the guilt of something

Ascry

To declare publicly, to challenge

Aspect

To have aspect = to look carefully at

Asperly

Sharply

Assay

To attempt. In At all assays = in all sorts of trials or enterprises

Assoil

Absolve

Assurd

To burst out

Astroloby

An astrolabe, a mediaeval astronomical instrument.

Attame

To tame

Attemperance

Moderation

Attercop

A spider, a venomous malignant person.

Aureat

Golden

Avale

To sail with the tide or current

Avaunt

A boast

Avised

Considered, observed

Axes

i.e. accesses = fits or seizures

Aye

Ever

Babion

A baboon

Baile

As a signal to combatants = start fighting!

Bained

Bathed

Balass

A rose-red ruby

Bale

a) Evil (still found in the form baleful = full of evil)
b) A set of dice

Ban

To curse

Bararag

An onomatopoeic rendering of the sound of a trumpet.

Barley-hood

A bout of drunkenness

Barm

The yeasty froth on top of fermenting ale or beer

Barratous

Quarrelsome

Basnet

A kind of helmet

Bass

Kiss

Bate

N) Dissension, strife
V) to restrain

Baulk

Post or crossbeam, roof-beam of a house

Bawd

To foul or dirty

Bawdias

Dirty people

Bayard

A bay horse

Bayard's bun

A kind of bread used for feeding horses

Bead-roll

A list of persons to be prayed for

Bedell

A messenger

Bedene

Together, accompanying.

Begared

Decorated, adorned

Belimmed

Disfigured

Belly-joy

Gluttony

Ben

Are

Bend

To tie together

Berne

A warrior or hero; a man generally.

Beseen

Having an appearance

Beshrew

To curse

Bestad

Bested, overcome

Bet

Ornamented

Bewray

To expose, reveal a secret of someone, betray.

Bib

To tipple

Bid

Endured

Bight

A noose

Bill

a) A Mediaeval weapon resembling a halberd.
b) A letter or written document

Bird-bolt

A blunt arrow used to kill birds.

Birle

To pour out a drink

Blain

A blister, sore or pustule

Blazy

To blazon, i.e. to describe the armorial bearings of a lord or knight; hence to describe fully.

Blee

Colour, complexion

Bless

To wound

Blin

To cease or desist from something.

Blinkard

One who blinks dazedly because he is drunk

Blist

Wounded

Blo

Blackish blue

Blommer

Uproar, confusion

Blother

To blether, talk nonsense

Blow-bowl

A drunkard

Blundering

Disturbance

Blur

A blister

Bob

To strike

Bonne

Bonny ie. pretty one

Boot

Source of assistance, remedy

Bootless

Without remedy

Boscage

A thicket or field of bushes

Botch

A swelling or tumour

Botchment

An addition, something extra

Bote

Bit (= past tense of Bite)

Bots

A parasitic disease of horses

Bottle

A bundle of hay or straw

Bottom

A ball of thread

Bouge

The rations or rewards of Court

Bounce

A blow

Bourd

A joke

Bourne

Burnished

Bowsy

Boozy i.e. drunken

Brace

a) To embrace
b) to boast

Braid

At a braid = in an instant, very soon

Brake

a) A cage or trap
b) An instrument of torture
c) broke, broken

Brand

A stick burning at one end, a torch

Brast

Burst, be destroyed

Bremly

Fiercely

Bren

To burn

Brent

Burned

Breviate

To cut short

Bribance

Corruptibility, venality

Bribery

Petty theft

Bridling cast

A parting drink, "One for the road."

Brim

Furious

Brin

To burn

Brock

A badger

Brooken

Endured

Brothel

A prostitute, or worthless person of either sex

Bruit

Rumour

Bruited

Spoken about, famous

Budge fur

Lambskin

Budget

A leather bag or pouch

Bullion

A knob or stub

Burgonions

Burgundians

Bushment

An ambush

Busk

To prepare oneself

Busked them

Prepared themselves

Buskin

A kind of boot

But if

Unless

Butting

A term of endearment

Buttons

Buds

Byke

A bees' nest or swarm

Byse

According to the OED, a kind of fur used for trimming clothes; but see note 141 to The Garland of Laurel

Cacodemonial

Of or relating to evil spirits or angels

Caitiff

A wretch, miserable scoundrel

Cale

To gambol, move irregularly

Calkins

The parts of a horseshoe which are turned up to prevent slipping

Callet

A lewd woman, trull, drab

Calodemonial

Of or relating to good spirits or angels

Calstock

A cabbage-stalk

Cammock

A crooked stick

Camous

A pug nose

Camously

Crookedly

Can

To know

Cantle

A chunk or piece cut off a larger thing e.g. from a cheese, loaf of bread, pie etc.

Capper

A cap and hat maker

Captation

An attempt to get something by blandishments or artifice

Carect

A magic charm or inscription

Careful

Full of cares or suffering

Carle

A coarse ruffian or country boor, a culchie

Carling

The now extinct gairfowl or great auk (Alca impennis)

Carlish

Ruffianly, coarse

Carre

A pool of water in a bog or marshy ground

Cast

a) Contrivance, stratagem
b) To vomit

Caterans

Scottish freebooters or marauding soldiery

Caudle

A kind of gruel given to sick people, pregnant women, etc.

Caury-maury

A kind of coarse cloth

Cautelous

Deceitful, crafty

Cayser

Caesar i.e. emperor

Cense

To burn incense

Chaffer

Merchandise

Chair

A chariot

Chaldee

Chaldea i.e. Syria; Characters of Chaldee i.e in the Aramaic language

Chanon

A canon, in the ecclesiastical sense.

Chare

To drive away

Chase

A place, spot

Check

N) A merry taunt
V) To bandy words

Cheer

Face, appearance

Chevisaunce

Provisions, supplies, money. To make a chevisaunce = to borrow money

Chieve

To accomplish something, acquire wealth etc.

Chincherd

A stingy or grasping person

Chish

Perhaps, a generic name for a dog?

Chitter

To shiver with the cold

Civilian

Of the city, urban

Clarioner

A trumpeter

Clatter

To prattle, talk nonsense

Cle

 

Clepe

To call by name e.g. Cleped was she Madame Eglantine = Her name was Madame Eglantine (Chaucer, Prologue to the Canterbury Tales)

Clicket-gate

A wicket gate or gate with a latch.

Clip

To embrace

Clokes

Claws

Clout

N) A rag
V) To patch with a piece of cloth or leather

Co

A Jackdaw

Coarcted

Restricted

Cock

In by Cock's wounds, by Cock's heart etc = God

Cockly

Wrinkled

Cockwat

? A cuckold (see note 12 to The Bowge of Court)

Coinquinate

To sully or defile

Collop

Fried eggs with ham or bacon

Come

To become

Comicar

A writer of comedies

Comnaunt

Commons (in the sense of a community dining-hall)

Complexion

Bodily constitution or temperament

Comprise

To remember, bear in mind

Condescend

To agree

Condescending

Agreeing, conformable with

Conditions

Qualities

Coney

A rabbit

Confettered

Leagued together

Conject

To imagine

Conning

Knowledge, learning

Contemplation

Request

Contribute

To force to pay tribute

Convenable

Suitable, agreeable

Convey

To steal

Conveyance

Theft

Coot

A kind of water-fowl (Fulica atra)

Cope

A heavy cloak, often specially ornamented or coloured and worn as a badge of office by a provost, cardinal etc.

Copious

Perhaps "wearing a cope?"

Copyhold

A kind of tenure in England of ancient origin: tenure of lands being parcel of a manor, ‘at the will of the lord according to the custom of the manor’, by copy of the manorial court-roll

Cordelier

A Franciscan friar

Corporace, corporas

A cloth laid on the altar on which the chalice and paten are placed during Mass

Corporal

Bodily

Costious

Costly

Counter

To sing an accompaniment to the melody of a song

Courage

Mind or spirit

Courser

A horse used for hunting

Couth

To know, or believe to be so.

Coverture

Shelter

Covetise

Greed, covetousness

Crag

Neck or throat

Crake

To boast

Craker

Boaster, big talker

Crazed

Crushed, enfeebled

Creak

In cry creak = to give in, surrender

Creancer

A tutor

Creke

To complain, cry out

Crose

A crosier

Cruse

A jug or tankard

Cuck-stool

An instrument of punishment for scolds, whores, fraudulent tradespeople, etc., consisting of a chair, in which the offender was fastened and exposed to the jeers of the bystanders, or taken to the nearest water and ducked in it.

Cue

Half a farthing i.e. one-eighth of a penny

Cule

Rump, bottom

Culerage

The plant water-pepper (Polygonum hydropiper) which was used as a cure for diarrhoea. In large doses it causes severe irritation of the bowels, hence its alternative name arse-smart

Culver

A wood-pigeon (Columba palumbus)

Cunning

Knowledge and abilities

Cure

Under his cure = under his care, authority

Curtal

A horse with a docked tail

Custrel

An attendant on a knight or man-at arms

Custron

A bastard

Cut

A horse with its tail cut short

Cutter

A robber

Dagged

Clogged with dirt

Dagswane

A coverlet of coarse cloth

Dain

To disdain

Dainously

Disdainfully

Dan

A title of honour for a knight, poet or scholar

Dangerous

Arrogant, difficult to please

Dant

A profligate woman

Dare

To be frightened, to hide oneself

Daw

Literally, a jackdaw (Corvus monedula); metaphorically, a fool.

Dawpate

A fool

Deal

Part, bit

Dearworth

Valuable, costly

Debilite

Worn out, feeble

Decachord

Ten-stringed

Decline

To recite the grammatical cases of a noun

Decollation

Beheading

Decretal

A Papal decree

Dedecorate

Disgraceful

Deem

To judge

Defend

Forbid

Delated

Accused, brought to court

Deliber

To think, believe

Demean

To manage

Demeanance

Demeanour, Behaviour

Demeaning

Demeanour

Demency

Madness, dementia

Demure

Wise, serious

Demurrance

Dwelling, living with

Deprave

Vilify, insult

Depute

Appointed, prescribed

Derain

To contest

Despite

Insults or outrageous behavious

Deuce-ace

A throw of a one and a two with two dice -- a losing throw in various games; hence bad luck, misfortune

Devise

Gift, legacy or a thing bestowed

Dicts

Sayings

Diffuse

Difficult to understand, complex

Ding

Knock

Dint

A blow

Disable

To disparage, speak ill of

Disavail

To damage, harm

Discomfect

Discomfited

Discrive

Normally, to describe, but in this context would seem to mean search for or discover

Discure

To say openly

Discured

Discovered, shown

Discuss

To decide, determine

Disguised

Misbehaved

Disour

A jester

Dissiper

Something or someone which dissipates

Distain

To defile

Distichon

A couplet

Dite

A ditty, short poem

Divendop

A dabchick (Podiceps minor, a small water fowl)

Doddy-pate

A fool, blockhead

Dome

Doom, or judgement

Dong

Struck

Donny

Deaf or stupid

Dotages

Stupidities

Dotterel

A kind of plover (Charadrius morinellus), noted for its stupidity in allowing itself to be easily caught, hence, a fool

Doubted

Dreaded

Douce

Sweet

Dough-bake

Insufficiently baked

Dow

A dove

Dowsypere

Originally one of the twelve chief knights or paladins (Douze peers) of the emperor Charlemagne, hence used for any very important person

Draff

Spent brewing grains or pig-swill made from them

Dranes

Drones

Draught

A move at chess

Drib

To drip, dribble

Drivel

A menial kitchen servant

Droichis

Dwarf's

Drony

Snoring

Dump

A reverie or absent-minded state

Dyne

Dun-coloured, dark

Edifiy

To build

Eftsoons

Again

Egyptian

A Gypsy

Eisel

Vinegar

Eke

Also

Elate

Raised up

Eld

Age

Electuary

An ointment consisting of some active ingredient mixed with honey or syrup

Elenches

Syllogistical arguments

Embassade

A diplomatic mission, or a member or members thereof

Embossed

a) Swollen
b) Foaming at the mouth

Embullioned

Studded

Emportured

Importuned

Enbattled

Fortified

Enbibed

Soaked

Enbolned

Puffed up

Enbosed

Covered in foam

Encheason

Cause

Encrampished

Cramped, distorted

Endewed

Moistened

Endue

To digest food

Energial

Physical

Engine

Talent, intelligence

Engladed

Made glad

Engrossed

a) Written out or engraved
b) Plumped out, swollen

Enharped

Curved, like a scimitar

Enhatched

Inlaid

Ennewed

Coloured, embellished

Enow

Enough

Enprowed

Improved

Ensaime

To clean of grease

Ensample

Example

Ensorded

Defiled

Entached

Decorated

Enthymeme

A rhetorical and impressive but perhaps dubious argument

Entreated

Treated

Envive

Enliven

Epicede

An elegy or lament

Epilogation

Final argument or summary

Equipollence

Equality of power or influence

Erst

At first, or before the next thing mentioned

Escry

To cry out against

Esperance

Hope, expectation

Eure

Luck

Evangelie

The Gospels

Everichon

Every one

Exhibition

A scholarship, or grant of money for studying

Eyen

Eyes

Fabble

Chatter, foolish talk

Fact

A deed or action

Faint

To make cowardly, to frighten

Faitor, Faitour

Faitor, Faitour

A vagabond, cheat or imposter

Falchion

To cut with a falchion,(a kind of wide-bladed sword)

Famously

Vigorously

Fang

To catch , seize

Farly

Something wonderful or strange

Faugh

An exclamation of disgust

Favell

Deceitful flattery

Fay

Faith

Feat

Neat, pretty

Featly

Neatly, elegantly

Feign

Sing falsetto. See also note 11 to Against a Comely Custron

Fele

At great length

Fell

1. The skin or hide of an animal
2. Frightful, deadly

Fenestral

Having many windows

Ferly

Wonderful

Fet

1. To fetch, fetched
2. A lively person

Fetches

Thefts

Fetis

Handsome, well-formed

Fiefed

Granted property as a feudal vassal

Fiest

A fart or other foul smell

Fillock

A young girl

Fire-drake

A dragon

Fizgig

A flighty or thoughtless woman

Fleer

a) To laugh mockingly or sneer
b) to smile flatteringly or fawningly

Flick

A side of bacon

Flingande

Flinging out the legs

Float

In on float = flowing, full.

Floats

Drops or gushes of liquid flowing from something

Flocket

A loose garment with long sleeves

Floorth

Floor

Fluke

A flatfish

Flyte

Scold, insult

Fode

(V) To deceive with false kindness or flattery, to encourage a foolish delusion
(N) One who beguiles with fair words

Foin

To thrust

Foison

Abundance

Foisty

Musty, mouldy-smelling

Folability

Folly

Fon

A fool

Fong

To get, take hold of

Fonny

Foolish

For and

And also

Force

To be of importance e.g. What force ye = what does it matter to you? No force, it forceth not = it does not matter

Fordread

To fear greatly

Forel

A case or covering in which a book or manuscript is kept, or into which it is sewn (OED)

Foretop

Top of the head

Forfend

To protect from

Forgate

Forgot

Former

First, highest

Forsed

Regarded

Foy

Faith

Frain

Ask, inquire

Fraunch

A bout of gluttony

Freke

A fellow

Fresh

Elegant, comely

Fret

a) Richly adorned
b) Freighted, loaded with

Frig

To rub, often sexually

Frithy

Bushy

Fro

From

Frounce

a) A disease of hawks
b) To wrinkle; to frown or scowl

Frownsed

Folded or wrinkled

Frumple

To rumple

Fuck-sail

Literally, the foresail of a ship; here, a fine head-dress

Fustian

A kind of coarse cloth

Gad

a) a goad or cattle prod
b) A surveying rod

Gae

Go (Scots)

Gage

A quart pot

Gaist

Spirit, ghost

Gall

A sore or sensitive place

Gambades

Pranks, gambollings

Gamboldes

Gambols, acrobatic tricks

Gan

Began

Gane

Yawn, open the mouth wide

Gant

1. A gannet (Sula bassana)
2. A gander

Gar

To make or cause something to happen

Garded

Having an ornamental border

Gardeviance

Originally a food cupboard or meat-safe; also, a chest or locker for valuables.

Gase

A goose

Gaudery

Trickery

Gaudy

Full of trickery

Gaure

To gaze upon, stare

Gaynour

Guinevere

Geason

Scarce, rare

Gery

Giddy, capricious

Geson

Rare

Geste

Story

Ghostly

Spiritual

Gif

If

Giggish

Wanton, flighty

Gill, Gilly

A girl

Gin

1. Trick, contrivance
2. The rack or other instrument of torture

Girn

To snarl and show one's teeth at someone

Girth

A leather strap used to hold a saddle or pack on a horse

Gite

A kind of gown

Glair

Egg white, or any similar slimy substance

Glede

a) A glowing coal
b) A kite (the bird, Milvus sp.)

Glee

To squint, look sideways

Gleimy

Slimy

Glent

(N1) A slip or fall
(N2) Glance
(A1) Glowing
(A2) Slippery

Glint

Slippery

Glose, Gloze

Glose, Gloze

(a) Gloss, in the sense "explanation"
(b) To explain; or, explain away dishonestly

Glum

A scowl or sullen look

Glumming

Looking gloomy

Gnar

To snarl

Gong

A privy

Goodlihead

Excellence or beauty

Gorbellied

Big-bellied

Gore

The opening at the breast of a gown

Gorge

The crop or gizzard of a bird

Gothiance

The Gothic realm and people

Goundy

(of eyes) Bleared with rheum

Goyll

The hollow of the throat, just above the breastbone

Grail

The gradual, a psalm recited during Mass

Grame

1. To be angry
2. To grieve

Grammatol

A person with only a superficial knowledge of a subject

Grange

A barn

Gree

In take it in gree = take it in good part, with resignation

Greeth

Agreeth

Gressop

A grasshopper

Grey

A badger

Grill

Dreadful, horrible, fearsome

Gripes

Vultures, gryphons

Groat

A fourpenny coin

Groigning

Rooting up with the snout

Guerdon

Reward, just deserts

Guise

Fashion

Gun

Begun

Gun-stone

A bullet

Gup

Get up! – said to a horse

Haberdash

Small articles of little value (not confined to its modern meaning of dressmakers' sundries)

Habergeon

A sleeveless jerkin of chain mail

Haft

To cheat, trick

Hafter

A trickster

Hafting

Deceit, trickery, dishonest dealing

Haggard

A female peregrine falcon taken from the wild as an adult.

Hail

Health

Hale

To drag

Hallow

A saint

Halse

To embrace round the neck

Hame

Home (Scots)

Han

Have

Hap

(V) To cover
(N) An event

Hardly

Firmly, assuredly

Harness

Armour

Harre

A hinge; In out of harre = out of order

Harrow

Or Haro, a cry of despair.

Haskard

A man of low degree, a base or vulgar fellow

Hastive

Hasty

Haut, Haute, Haught

Haut, Haute, Haught

High, Haughty, proud

Havel

A low fellow

Haw

The barely edible fruit of the whitethorn bush – used as the type of something almost worthless.

Hay

"A country dance having a winding or serpentine movement, or being of the nature of a reel"– OED

Haynard

A low wretch

Hayne

A low wretch

Heal

Health

Hearter

One who encourages or abets someone to an action

Heck

A door

Heckle

A tool for preparing flax for spinning

Helas

Alas!

Hem

Them

Hent

To seize, seized

Her

Their

Hermoniac

A heretic

Hew

To knock the feet together when walking

Hight

A) To be called
B) I hight you = I assure you

Hinder

To harm, injure

Hippocras

Wine sweetened and flavoured with spices

Hir

Their

Historiar

An historian

Hobby

A kind of hawk (Falco subbuteo)

Hoddypeak

A fool

Hoddypole

A fool

Hofte

Head

Hoin

To whine or murmur

Holp

Helped

Homager

A vassal, one who owes homage.

Hook

A dishonest person

Hornkeck

A garfish (Belone belone)

Huck

To haggle

Huckles

Hips

Huff

A hectoring bully

Huke

A hooded cloak

Humanity

Humaniores literae i.e. polite literature

Hure

A cap

Hypostasis

Of Christ: his essential substance

Ich

I

Iconomicar

A writer about agriculture, husbandry, etc.

Ilka

Each, every

Ilke

The same

Ill-apayed

Ill rewarded, dissatisfied

Illudent

Deceptive, mocking

Imbibe

Draw up ink

In mine eame's peason

Literally, "In my uncle's pea-field"; metaphorically, not knowing what is going on. See English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases by W.C. Hazlitt, no. 6369

Inbring

To introduce

Incontinent

Immediately

Inconveniently

Unsuitably, unbecomingly

Indite

Declare, utter

Induce

To lead forth, give as an example

Inhate

To hate intensely

Inpurtured

Portrayed

Intoxicate

To poison

Intruser

Intruder

Inwit

a) Conscience
b) in inwit dealing = deceit, deceitful

Ioforth

An exclamation used in driving horses, "Go on!"

Irous

Angry irascible

Isagogical

Introductory

Jacounce

The jacinth or hyacinth-stone

Jag

To indulge one's desires or emotions

Jaist

To a horse –stand still!

Javel

A scoundrel, worthless person

Jennet

A small horse

Jet

V) To prance or swagger
N) Fashion, a fashionable thing

Jetter

A swaggerer

Jetty

The overhanging upper storey of a building

Jo

A dear friend, beloved one

Just

A large earthenware pot with handles

Ka me, ka thee

You do it to me, and I'll do it to you

Keep

Heed, care

Ken

To teach

Kibe

A sore on the foot

Kithed

Made known shown

Knack

A trifle or frippery

Knacking earnest

Downright earnest

Knappish

Rude, presumptuous

Knuckleboneyard

A clown

Kus

Kiss

Kyns

In no kyns = no kind of

Lack

Reproach, blame

Lacrymable

Provoking tears

Laid

Argued his case

Lain

To conceal

Lakin

By our Lakin = By Our Lady. Lakin is a contraction of ladykin–little lady

Lap

To wrap up

Large

Range

Laurer

A laurel tree

Lay fee

The laity

Lazar

A diseased beggar

Leanen

Bow down

Leech

A doctor, healer

Leer

Complexion

Legatus a latere.

Papal legate

Leman

A lover

Lene

Lend

Lenze

Linen

Lere

Learn, learnt

Lese

Lose

Lesings

Falsehoods

Let

Hinder, prevent

Lewd

Ignorant, contemptible

Lewdness

Vileness, ignorance

Libany

Lebanon

Lidderon

A rascal or blackguard

Liefer

Rather

Lime-finger

Someone with sticky fingers, i.e. a thief.

Limiter

A friar licensed to beg in a specified place

Lind

The linden or lime tree

Links

Strings of sausages

List

a) To want, desire to do something
b) A strip of cloth

Lith

To pay attention

Lithe

Gentle or humble

Lither

Spiteful, evil

Litherness

a) Spite, wickedness
b) Slothy, laziness

Little Ease

A prison cell in the Tower of London which was too small to sit, lie or stand in.

Lode-star

The Pole star

Long

Belong

Lore

In take him to thy lore = teach him a lesson

Lorel

A good-for-nothing rogue

Losel

A scoundrel, worthless person

Loselry

Villainy

Lot

To count or rely on

Lour

To look sullen or unhappy

Lout

To bow down, make obeisance before someone

Lucerne

A lamp

Lug

An ear

Luge

Lodge, abode

Luggard

A heavy fellow, sluggard,

Lurdan, lurdain

Lurdan, lurdain

An idle ruffian or vagabond

Lusk

A lazy fellow

Lust

Powerful desire – not necessarily sexual

Lusty

Gaily dressed, attractive

Lyerd

Learned

Main

An army

Make

Mate; husband or wife

Make, to

To compose music or poetry

Maker

A poet or composer

Malapert

Adj: Impertinent, Noun: an impertinent person

Male

a) A bag, pouch or pocket
b) In the phrase to wring the male (or to wry the male) = to cause trouble

Maleured

Ill-fortuned (fr. Fr. Malheur)

Mammock

A scrap

Manchet

Fine white bread

Manticore

A fabulous monster having a lion's body, a man's head, porcupine's quills, and the tail of a scorpion

Mare

A witch

Marees

Marsh

Mark

A unit of weight (8 ozs.) or of money (13s. 4d. i.e. the value of 8 ozs of silver)

Marmoll

A sore or varicose ulcer on the leg

Marmoset

A monkey of any kind, or a grotesque painting or statue resembling one.

Maro

Virgil

Marrow

A companion

Masterfast

Bound to a master

Mastery

a) A great feat or achievement
b) A cunning trick or sleight
c) Disturbance, strife

Matriculate

Enrolled in a university

Maugre

Despite

Maument

A false god or idol

Mavis

A song-thrush (Turdus musicus)

Mawment

A doll or puppet

Meddle

To mingle

Meed

a) Reward, just deserts
b) money acquired corruptly

Meet

Appropriate, suitable

Meiny

A troop of servants or followers

Mell

1. To meddle
2. To fight

Melotte

A monk's tunic made of sheepskin or badger fur

Mends

Compensation or reward

Meritory

Meritorious

Meseem

It seems to me

Messan-tyke

A lapdog

Mew

(N) A cage
(V) To hide

Meward

Towards me

Mews

The opening in a fence or thicket, through which a hare, or other beast of sport, is accustomed to pass

Mickle

Great, greatly, a great quantity,

Miting

a) A term of endearment for a woman
b) A trifle, thing of little worth

Mo

More

Monochord

A musical instrument with only one string

Moot

To argue or dispute

Morel

A dark coloured horse

Morrion

Moor

Morrow

Morning

Mote

May as subjunctive adverb – e.g. So mote it be = may it be so

Mought

Should, could

Mountenance

Total quantity

Mow

(N) A grimace
(V) to grimace

Moyle

A mule

Mulling

A term of endearment for a woman

Mumming

Murmuring

Mundane

Physical, of this world

Munpyns

Teeth. See also note 24 to The Doughty Duke of Albany

Murr

Catarrh or sore throat causing hoarseness

Musket

A sparrow-hawk (Note: the word was not used for a gun until well after Skelton's time)

Muss

Mouth

Mute

a) To mew like a cat
b) To shit

Nale

An ale-house

Nall

A cobbler's awl

Nappy

Heady, strong

Nard

Sweet balsam

Navern

Navarre

Naverne

Some far-off place – Navarre? Auvergne?

Nay

(V) To deny

Ne

Not, nor

Neb

Snout

Neese

To sneeze

Nept

Catmint (Nepeta)

Neven

To name

Nice

Foolish

Nifle

A thing of no value, a trifle

Nis

Is not

Noble

A gold coin, worth 6s 8d. It had a depiction of a ship on one side.

Noddypoll

A fool

Noll

1) a head
2) a stupid or drunken person

Nones

The occasion

Nought

Ought not

Noy

To vex, annoy

Nysot

A lazy, wanton girl

Obumbilate

Obscured

Occupied

Used (see note 8 to The Death of King Edward IV)

Occupy

To engage in trade or business

Odiferant

Sweet-smelling

Omnigatherene

A mixture of various miscellaneous things.

Or

Ere, before

Orbicular

Circular (i.e. its orbit)

Orgulous

Haughty, arrogant

Ornacy

Ornateness

Ouch

A brooch

Outray

To vanquish, overcome

Overthwart

(A) Unfriendly, opposed to
(V) To oppose

Pack

A cheat or worthless person

Packing

In False packing -- false dealing (packing is--iniquitous combination, collusion, for evil purposes, for deceiving, &c.).

Pageant

A part in a play

Pall

Rich or fine cloth

Pallet

Head

Palliard

A beggar or vagabond

Paltock

A kind of jacket

Papingo

A parrot

Parbrake

To vomit

Pardie

By God (fr. Par Dieu)

Paregal

Fully equal

Parfitness

Perfection

Parker

A park-keeper or gamekeeper

Partlet, patlet

A collar, scarf or neckerchief

Pastance

Pastime, recreation

Paten

A dish on which the communion bread is placed

Pautener

(a) A rascal
(b) A small bag or purse

Paves

A shield

Pavis

A kind of shield, big enough to cover the whole body

Pax

A small bas-relief of the crucifixion on a handle, kissed by the officiating priest and then the congregation at Mass

Paytral

A armoured breastplate for a horse

Peak

A fool, simpleton

Peakish

Foolish, contemptible

Peasecod

A pea pod

Peason

Peas

Pece

A wine-cup

Pecunious

Money-loving

Pendugum

A penguin

Peradvertance

Thorough carefulness or attention

Percase

Perhaps, by chance

Perce

Persia

Perdurable

Everlasting

Perfite

Perfect

Perihermenial

Relating to interpretation

Perse

Persia

Pet

A Fart

Phrenesis

Frenzy

Phronesis

Practical intelligence

Phthisic

Tuberculosis or other serious disease of the lungs

Pick

To steal

Pie

A magpie (Pica pica)

Pigsney

Darling

Pike

To go away

Pilch

A coarse cloak or rug

Pill

a) To rob
b) to skin or peel

Pilled

Bald or skinned

Pillion

A kind of hat or head-dress worn by a Doctor of Divinity

Pipling

Piping

Pippling

Whistling softly

Pirl

To twist or spin thread. Pirled gold = lace of gold thread

Pistle

= epistle, a letter

Plate

Articles made of (solid) silver or gold

Playfere

A playmate

Pleasaunce

Pleasure

Plenarly

a) (Of the moon), full.
b) Fully, perfectly

Plete

To plead

Pluck

An attempt, a go in its slang sense, as in have a pluck = have a go

Plump

A crowd or tightly packed company of people

Pocky

Suffering from the pox, i.e. syphilis

Pode

A toad

Point

To stab

Point-device

Perfectly correct

Pointed

Appointed

Points

Laces for fastening clothes

Pole hatchet

Literally, a pole-axe; also "an opprobrious appellation" (OED)

Poll

To rob

Poll by poll

One by one

Pollers and Pillers

Robbers and extortionists

Pomped

Pampered

Pope-holy

Pretending to be very pious

Porishly

Squintingly, crookedly.

Port

The way in which one shows oneself, carriage, mien

Portas

A small portable breviary i.e. a book holding the prayers and readings appropriate for each day of the year

Portingale

Portugal

Port-sale

Sale by auction

Pose

A cold in the head, a running of the nose etc.

Postic

Something false or counterfeit

Postil

A short note or commentary on scripture

Posty

Power, strength

Potestate

A powerful person

Potestolate

A humorous diminutive of potestate i.e. a little person with a little power

Pothecary

Apothecary, pharmacist

Pottle

A half-gallon

Pounced

Of a garment, decorated with holes or slashes

Poyle

Apulia, in Italy

Praemunire

The crime of bringing a case in an ecclesiastical court instead of under the law of England, or otherwise supporting the authority of the Pope in opposition to the King.

Prank

To swagger

Predial

Relating to land or farming

Predicamentes

The ten categories of Aristotle

Prendergest

"A word (probably the origin of the surname Prendergast) which I am unable to explain." (Dyce). It is not in the OED and no-one seems to know what Skelton meant by it

Prepense

Planned in advanced

Prepositor

A school prefect

Prest

1) Prepared, in order
2) Alert, sprightly
3) A gift or loan of money

Pretence

Claim

Pretend

Attempt

Pretory

Originally, the HQ of the Praetorian Guard in Imperial Rome; by extension, any court building or palace

Preve

An alternative spelling of prove

Prevented

Forestalled, anticipated

Prick

To spur on a horse

Pricked

Sticking up

Prick-me-dainty

One who is affectedly nice, fussy or finicky.

Private

Deprived, devoid

Probate

Proof

Process

Story, account

Prohemy

A preface or introduction

Promotive

Promoting

Prong

A prank

Proper

Pretty

Protonotary

The Chief clerk of a court

Provoked

Incited, caused

Psaltery

A musical instrument resembling a zither

Puant

Stinking

Pudding-prick

A skewer used to fasten a pudding-bag

Puissant

Powerful

Pump

The bilge of a ship

Punyete

Sharp

Pursuivant

A herald

Pyrdewy

A nonsense refrain (see note 8 to Against a Comely Custron)

Qd.

i.e. quod = quoth, said.

Quaire

A short book

Quean

A slut or whore

Queed

Evil

Quest

Of hounds = to bay while following a scent

Quhilk

Which

Quhilkis

Which

Quhill

While

Quick

Alive

Quission

A cushion

Quit

To avenge

Quite

To requite, revenge

Quod

Said. Quod-a = he said (sarcastically)

Quoke

Quaked, shook

Quorum

A religious community

Race

To cut or slash

Radevore

A kind of cloth

Rage

To toy wantonly

Rail

A neckerchief

Ramage

Of a hawk, not fully trained

Rank

To behave haughtily, as if one was of superior rank

Ratch

A hound

Rate

To abuse

Raught

Reached

Ravener

A robber

Ray

a) To deal with
b) A kind of dance
c) Array

Ream

Realm, kingdom

Reboke

To vomit or belch

Recheat

To blow a blast on a huntsman's horn to call together or encourage the dogs, or to show that the hunt is over (depending on the notes used)

Recidivation

Relapse into crime or heresy

Reck

a) To take care cf. modern reckless
b) To reckon, (at a high value)

Reclaim

To tame

Recognizance

Acknowledgement

Recrayed

Heretical, apostate

Recreant

False, treacherous

Recueil

A literary compilation

Recule

To turn back, withdraw

Rede

(V) To advise
(N) Advice

Redeless

Usually means "badly advised" but often in Skelton seemingly "helpless, unavailing"

Reeve

A steward of bailiff

Reflair

Odour

Reflairing

Pleasant smelling

Refrain

To hold back, delay or detain

Registrary

An official keeper of records

Regratiatory

Thanks

Rehete

To persecute

Rejagged

Repeatedly torn, very ragged

Relucent

Shining

Remord

V) To shame or rebuke
N) A feeling of shame or remorse

Remorder

Someone who condemns or abuses.

Renably

Fluently

Renaying

Renouncing, abjuring

Reny

Refuse, deny

Repeat

Recitation

Report

To refer

Repugnance

In to make repugnance = to express disagreement

Resset

A place of safety or refuge

Retrogradant

Of a planet, in that part of its orbit where it appears to be moving backward in relation to the fixed stars.

Reverture

Return, reversion

Revoled

Turned, revolved

Ribibe

An old hag

Ribible

A kind of three stringed fiddle

Ribskin

A leather apron worn by women preparing flax for spinning

Rock

A distaff

Rocket

An outer garment like a smock-frock

Roil

a) An inferior horse
b) A large clumsy woman

Rood

A crucifix

Rood-loft

A loft or gallery above the rood-screen of a church

Rood-screen

A screen, usually of richly carved wood or stone and surmounted by a crucifix, crossing the nave of a church above the front of the altar enclosure

Root

To uproot

Rosabel

A beautiful rose

Rosary

A rose bush

Rosers

Rose bushes

Roufled up

Gathered up roughly

Rounce

A riding horse

Rouncevale

Roncevalles, in the Pyrenees

Round

To whisper, mutter low

Rout

To snore, mutter

Rowne

To whisper

Rowth

Rough

Royal

A gold coin, worth, in Skelton's time 11s 3d.

Rudd

Complexion

Ruely

Ruefully

Rurate

Rural

Rusty

Uncivil

Ruth

Sorrow

Rutter

A gallant

Ruttingly

Dashingly, making a splendid show

Sacre

To celebrate Mass, or specifically the Eucharistic elements thereof

Sad

Serious, hence Sadly = Seriously, Sadness = Gravity, seriousness

Sank

Blood

Satirray

Satirical or satirist

Saute

A sudden assault

Saw

A branch of learning

Sayne

a) A saint
b) To say

Scald

Contemptible (literally, afflicted with a skin disease)

Scath

Harm

Scintillously

So to emit sparks

Scot

A reckoning, money owed for food, drink, accommodation, etc.

Scowdered

Scorched, burnt

Scrat

Scratch

Scrive

To write

Scut

A hare

Scute, Scutus

A kind of gold coin.

Seamew

A seagull (Larus spp.)

Seised

Put in possession of property

Sekernes

Certainty

Semblably

Similarly

Semblant

Pretence

Sennight

A week (seven-night)

Sentence

Meaning

Sere

Withered

Serpentine

A kind of cannon

Shail

1. To stumble or walk awkwardly
2. To make a mistake

Shear

To reap

Shent

Lost, ruined

Shide

A beam of timber

Shidered

Shattered

Shill

To remove nuts, peas etc. from the shell or pod

Shipboard

The side of a ship, gunwale

Shoon

Shoes

Shrew

To curse

Shrewdly

Badly

Shrive

Speak confidentially

Shule

A Shovel

Shurvy

Scaly, scurfy

Sic

Such

Sicker

Certain, hence sickerness = certainty, sickerly = certainly

Side

Long or full

Significance

To make significance = to tell or make known

Silly

Innocent, simple

Simonia

Simony, the sale of church offices or other sacred things.

Simoniac

A venal or corrupt churchman

Simper-the-cocket

An affected, coquettish woman

Sink

A cesspool, or a pit for refuse or ordure

Sith, sithen

Since

Sitting

Proper, becoming

Skelp

To strike

Skewed

Skewbald i.e. with coloured with patches of brown and white

Skill

To matter, be of importance

Skit

Skittish, impulsive, over-hasty

Skommer

A spit for roasting meat

Skyrgaliard

A wild or dissipated fellow