1. Sæva indignatio. "Savage indignation"–taken from Swift's epitaph.

2. chiaro, oscuro: "Brightness, darkness."

3. Finis coronat opus: "The ending crowns the work"

4. 30 millia passuum: 30 Roman miles, or about 28.5 English miles or 46 Km.

5. sub sinistra: "On the left"

6. Ipsæ res verba rapiunt: "The words hurry on the subject" (Cicero, De Finibus, 3.19)

7. dalle 20, alle 24 ore: From 20 to 24 hours.

8. Monebant &c.: "They warned him not to allow the growing custom of expelling kings to go unpunished. Liberty was sweet enough in itself. Unless the energy with which nations sought to obtain it were matched by the efforts which kings put forth to defend their power, the highest would be reduced to the level of the lowest; there would be nothing lofty, nothing that stood out above the rest of the state; there was the end of monarchy, the noblest institution known to gods or men." [Perseus Digital Library]

9. Nisus: attempt, endeavour.

10. L'Homme au Masque de Fer: "The Man in the Iron Mask."

11. Je suis a vos ordres: "I am at your command."

12. Io non giudico etc.: "I neither do, nor ever shall judge it a fault, to support opinion by arguments, where it is not sought to impose them by violence or authority" [N. H. Thomson]

13. Me tabula sacer etc.: "As for me the votive tablet that hangs on the temple wall reveals, suspended, my dripping clothes, for the god, who holds power over the sea." []

14. Cuius in verbis etc: "He inspired men's minds to enthusiasm, when speaking, but when writing, he lost all force, and the effect of his oratory was extinguished like a flame." (Cicero, Brutus, 24.93)

15. Artis est, celare artem: "The art is, to conceal art."

16. Si Pergama &c.: "If Pergama [Troy] could be defended by a right hand, indeed it would have been defended by this one." (Virgil, Aeneid bk. II l. 290-1)

17.Illi, quos tibi dempserit adponit annos: "It [Time] will add to her the years it takes from you." (Horace Odes Bk. II Ode 5. l. 14-15)

18. Dum dubitat Natura &c.: "While Nature hesitated whether to make a boy or a girl, She made you, boy, as beautiful as a girl." (Pseudo-Ausonius, A Pretty Boy)

19. Swift's Burlesque: Its full title is –An argument to prove that the abolishing of Christianity in England may, as things now stand, be attended with some inconveniences, and perhaps not produce those many good effects proposed thereby.

20. Proeliis audax: "daring in battle" (Horace, Odes, Bk I Ode 12 l. 21.)

21. Phasis: Aspect or appearance.

22. Si figit &c. "If dire necessity seizes your rooftop with its claws of adamant" (Horace, Odes, Bk III Ode 24 l. 5-8.) Substituting "sic" for "si," would change If dire necessity . . . to Thus dire necessity . . .

23. Simul calentis &c.: "Once the shameless god had warmed me violently, With the wine that discovered where my secrets were hidden." [A. S. Kline]

24. Quis non &c.:"What does drunkenness not accomplish? It discloses secrets"

25. Ah! une grande perte: voila un orateur de mains!: "Ah! A great loss: he was an orator with his hands!"

26. Partridge's critique upon Garrick: From Tom Jones by Henry Fielding. Tom has taken Partridge to see Garrick play Hamlet.–

Little more worth remembering occurred during the play, at the end of which Jones asked him, “Which of the players he had liked best?” To this he answered, with some appearance of indignation at the question, “The king, without doubt.” “Indeed, Mr Partridge,” says Mrs Miller, “you are not of the same opinion with the town; for they are all agreed, that Hamlet is acted by the best player who ever was on the stage.” “He the best player!” cries Partridge, with a contemptuous sneer, “why, I could act as well as he myself. I am sure, if I had seen a ghost, I should have looked in the very same manner, and done just as he did. And then, to be sure, in that scene, as you called it, between him and his mother, where you told me he acted so fine, why, Lord help me, any man, that is, any good man, that had such a mother, would have done exactly the same. I know you are only joking with me; but indeed, madam, though I was never at a play in London, yet I have seen acting before in the country; and the king for my money; he speaks all his words distinctly, half as loud again as the other.--Anybody may see he is an actor.”

27. Illuc, unde abii, redeo: "I return to the point I first made" [A. S. Kline]

28. Et mihi res, non me rebus, submittere conor: "To try to change things to suit me, and not change myself to suit things as they are."

29. Epistle to the Pisos: Another name for Horace's Ars Poetica (or De Arte Poetica, as Green calls it).

30. Imo est &c: "I quite believe that if you set about it, you will be making two marriages for me out of one." [H. T. Riley]

31. Hinc illæ lachrymæ: "Hence these tears."

32. Buffon: Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste. He published thirty-six quarto volumes of his Histoire Naturelle during his lifetime; with additional volumes based on his notes and further research being published in the two decades following his death. His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier. [Wikipedia]

33. Verum illis, quidem, gratulemur, sine labore, sine ratione, sine disciplina, disertis: "Let us congratulate these people for becoming so competent without effort, method, or training"

34. Gratulemur illis, quidem, sine litteris, et sine disciplina, disertis: "Let us congratulate these people for becoming so competent without books or training"

35. Ducem naturam: "The lead of Nature"

36. Vox et preterea nihil: "Sound and nothing more"

37. Cito scribendo non fit, ut bene scribatur; bene scribendo fit, ut cito: "Write quickly and you will never write well; write well, and you will soon write quickly"

38. Vix enim bona fidei viro convenit, auxilium in publicum polliceri, quod in prasentissimis quibusque periculis desit: "For it is scarcely decent for an honourable man to promise assistance to the public at large which he may be unable to provide in the most serious emergencies."

39. Qui stultis videri eruditi volunt, stulti eruditis videntur: "He who wishes to seem wise to fools, will seem a fool to the wise."

40. Ille se profecisse sciat, cui Cicero valde placebit: "He knows he has progressed (in oratory) when Cicero greatly pleases him."

41. In litteris ipsi se sciant plurimum profecisse, quibus Burkius valde placuerit: "They will know they have greatly progressed in literature, when Burke greatly pleases them."

42. Melius de hoc nomine sentiant, credantque, Attice dicere, esse optime dicere.: "It would be better for these people to think and believe, that the Attic style of speech is the best."

43. Sed melius de hoc nomine sentiant * * * *: Burkium si quis imitetur, eum credant et Attice dicturum et optime.: " It would be better for these people to think, * * * that whoever strives to imitate Burke, must believe that Attic style of speech is the best."

44. Qui nihil potest tranquille &c.: "He who can say nothing calmly, nothing gently, nothing clearly or definitely, will seem a madman amongst the sane or a drunkard among the sober"

45. Qui nihil solet leniter &c.: "He who is accustomed to say nothing gently, nothing clearly, nothing definitely, will be seen to speak from his stomach rather than his brain, and (his hearers) will stay away from this insane oratory."

46. Qu'est-ce qu'une pensée neuve &c.: "What is a new, brilliant, extraordinary thought? It is not, as the ignorant believe, a thought that no one has ever had before: it is, on the contrary, a thought that must have come to everyone, and that one person is the first to express. A good word is a good word only when it says something that everyone thought, and who says it in a lively, fine and new way."

47. Lycophron: 3rd Century BC Greek poet, whose only surviving full work, a poem called Alexandra or Cassandra, is notorious for the difficulty of its style, full of obsolete words, references to obscure myths, and neologisms of his own invention.

48. Garth's Dispensary: The link is to an edition published in Germany. The preface and notes are in German, but the poem is in English.

49. Voulant former de l'homme &c.: "In order to educate the natural man, it is not a question of making him a savage, and of relegating him  to the depths of the woods; but that, surrounded by the whirlpool of society, it is enough not to be dragged into it, either by the passions or the opinions of men; so that he sees through his eyes, feels through his heart, that no authority rules him except his own reason."

50. This passage from I John 5:7-8 which reads "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one," is regarded by many commentators as a spurious insertion. See Wikipedia.

51. Emollit mores, nec sinet esse feros: "makes the spirit gentle, and reduces its harshness" Ovid, Letters from the Black Sea, II. 9.47.

52. Il Barbiere di Seviglia: The Barber of Seville. Originally a play by Beaumarchais. The opera Greene saw was not the well-known version by Rossini, which was first performed in 1816. It would have been one of the two previous versions, by Nicolas Isouard (1796) or Giovanni Paisiello (1782).

53. There was a rebellion in Ireland in the summer of 1798. See Wikipedia.

54. Yarmouth: On the Isle of Wight, not Great Yarmouth in East Anglia.

55. Curule chair: An ornate chair inlaid with ivory, used as an official seat by the most important Roman officials.

56. Purpureum lumen: "Ruddy brightness."

57. Magna componere parvis: "To compare the great with the small"

58. Horresco referens: "I shudder to say it"

59. Duke of G—: Augustus Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton. The book is apparently not available online.

60. Proh pudor!: For shame!

61. The link is to an English translation. Green probably was reading the Greek version

62. Comme dans un etat libre &c.: As in a free country every man who is supposed to have a free soul must be governed by himself, it is necessary that all the people have the legislative power."

63. Η Δημοχρατιχ &c.: "Democracy is government for the lower orders."

64. Un peu herissé de merveilles: "a little overstuffed with miracles."

65. Que le bien particulier doit ceder au bien public: "That the good of the individual must give way to the good of the public."

66. Siècle de Louis le 14me: The Age of Louis XIV. The link is to an English translation. The original French, which is what Greene was reading, can be found at

67. D'approfondir des doses, en paraissant les effleurer: "To go deeply into matters, while seeming only to touch on them"

68. l'esprit republicain &c.: "The republican spirit is at bottom just as ambitious as the monarchic, and there are undoubtedly just as many virtues in a monarchy as in a republic. There is less enthusiasm in a monarchy, but more of what is called honour."

69. Judicium veri et finem bonum: "True justice and the greatest good"

70. "Extremum et ultimum bonorum, quo omnia referantur: "The final and ultimate good to which all things are referred."

71. Neque tamen istas quaestiones: "And not only these questions."

72. Jamais les principes &c.: "Never are the principles and actions of men more different than when the principles are opposed to the natural sentiments of humanity: the heart corrects errors of the mind."

73. Que les deux Lettres &c.: "that the two Letters on paternal love and jealousy are those of a profound philosopher; he develops a chain of instinctive beliefs linked to our being, necessary to our happiness, and intended by the Supreme Being to stand in the place of a reason too elevated for the common man, and which would never have had been strong enough to make us act."

74. Il voyoit bien &c.: "He saw how far the consequences of his principles could be taken, but he did not wish to describe this."

75. Quid sit finis &c.: "What is the end, the object, the standard to which all the ideas of living well and acting rightly are to be referred?

76. Omne animal &c.:"Every animal the moment that it is born seeks for pleasure, and rejoices in it as the chief good; and rejects pain as the chief evil, and wards it off from itself as far as it can; and that it acts in this manner, without having been corrupted by anything, under the promptings of nature herself, who forms this uncorrupt and upright judgment" [C.D.Yonge]

77. Natura ducente: "Guided by nature."

78. Voluptas: Pleasure.

79. Honestum: Virtue

80. Summum bonum – Greatest good; Honestum – Virtue; Summum malum – Greatest evil; Turpe – shameful behaviour.

81. Bona et mala: "Good and bad"

82 Secundum naturam: "According to nature."

83. Utilitas: Utility.

84. Essai sur l'Etude de la Littérature: "An essay on the study of literature." The link is to an English translation. The original French, which is what Greene was reading, can be found at

85. L'art de juger &c: "The art of judging writings and writers; what they said, whether it is well said, and whether it is historically true."

86. L'esprit philosophique: "The philosophical spirit."

87. À pouvoir &c.: "To be able to rise from simple ideas, and to take and combine the first principles."

88. Que la beauté &c.: "That beauty is perhaps founded only on use. The human form is beautiful only because it is so well suited to the uses for which it is destined."

89. Atque haud scio &c.:" I do not even know, if we cast off piety towards the Gods, but that faith, and all the associations of human life, and that most excellent of all virtues, justice, may perish with it." [C.D.Yonge]

90. A deméler: To disentangle

91. Bon naturel: Naturally good disposition

92. Speen: A village near Newbury in Berkshire

93. πορφυρεος Θανατος.[porphyreos Thanatos]: "Dark-hued Death."

94. Facies hippocratica: "Hippocratic face"—the gaunt and pale face of a person very near death.

95. Con amore: "With love."

96. Laudari a laudato viro: "To be praised by a praiseworthy man."

97. Utile: "Advantage."

98. Communis utilitas: "Common good."

99. Ne cui noceatur—at communi utilitati serviatur.: "That no-one should be harmed, and the common good should be served."

100. Solum: "only;" summum bonum: "greatest good."

101. Utilitas vicit honestatem: "Advantageousness overcomes virtue": honestas utilitatem sequitur: "Virtue follows from advantageousness".

102. Est istuc quidem honestum, verum hoc expedit: "That this is the virtuous thing to do, but this (other) is the advantageous one."

103. Turpe: "Shamefulness".

104. Viris equisque: "With infantry and cavalry".

105. Est nihil utile, quod idem non honestum: "Nothing which is not virtuous, is advantageous"

106. Quod valde utile sit, id fieri honestum: "that which is truly advantageous, therefore becomes virtuous"

107. Nec quia utile, honestum est; sed quia honestum, utile: "A thing is not virtuous because it is advantageous; rather, it is advantageous because it is virtuous."

108. Ut enim tutela, &c.: "The administration of the state, like the guardianship of a minor, is to be carried out for the benefit of the whole people, and not for the rulers."

109. Non verbis sunt &c. "They should be dealt with by chains and dungeons, not words and the chop-logic of philosophers."

110. Quanquam utilitates &c.:"Although many and great advantages did ensue from our friendship, still the beginnings of our love did not spring from the hope of gain" [W.A.Falconer]

111. Non igitue &c.: "It is not the case, therefore, that friendship attends upon advantage, but, on the contrary, that advantage attends upon friendship." [W.A.Falconer]

112. Contenant le vrai tableau &c.: "Containing the true picture of my character, and the true motives of all my conduct."

113. Ceteris paribus: "Other things being equal"

114. Pro tumulo ponas orbem, pro tegmine coelum: "You have made the world your tomb, and the sky your canopy."

115. Sidera pro facibus, pro lachrymis maria: "The stars are your torches, and the seas are tears for you"

116. The cause: Parsloe v. Sykes (Note in the original)

117. Nul ne peut faire &c.: "No one can do any good deed except when he expects to get some advantage from other people; so that consequently, those who believe in virtue are only fools, and those who practice it, dupes.

118. Experimentum crucis: The Critical Experiment i.e. that which definitively proves or disproves the proposition. See Wikipedia

119. Comment pourrois-je &c: "How can I not be touched by kindnesses done to me, I who must take in good part all the harm which men do to me."

120. Je ne vois plus &c.: "I see nothing in virtue but an attractive name for foolishness"; Ce'st un son &c.: "It is a noise in the ear, and nothing more."

121. A mon avis, le sang d'un seul homme, est d'un plus grand prix que la liberté de tout le genre-humain.: "In my opinion, the blood of a single man is worth more than the freedom of all mankind".

122. Petitio principii: Using a circular argument, which implicitly assumes a proposition in order to prove it.

123.  She never told her love, &c.: Twelfth Night. Act 2, Scene 4

124. Membra disjecta: "Scattered fragments"

125. Deliquium: A swoon or melting sensation.

126. Furor uterinus: Literally, "Frenzy of the womb." An imaginary malady held to affect women, and described as follows:

This disease comes on with melancholy, lascivious casting about of the eyes, and frequent sighing; and, as it increases, the face becomes red and flushed, and the woman makes use of libidinous gestures and speeches, and shows an immoderate desire for coition.
It frequently arises either from inflammation of the pudenda, or from an acrimony in the fluids of the parts. In most instances it ought, says Dr. Thomas, to be considered as a high degree of hysteria.
—"Smith's Family Physician", by William Henry Smith, 1873

127. D. L.: Warburton's Divine Legation.

128. Impleratque uterum generoso germine: "Filled her womb with noble fruit"; ingentique implet Achille. "Filled with the great Achilles"

129. Pleno se proluit auro: "He washed himself with the brimming-over gold." Aeneid Bk. I. l. 739.

130. Nate, meae vires, mea magna potential: "O son, my strength, my mighty power."

131. Id metuens: "Dreading this"

132. Callida junctura: "Skilful workmanship."

133. Dant animos plagae: "The give their souls to the lash."

134. Nourjahad: The History of Nourjahad, by Frances Sheridan.

135. Αίγιάλώ [Aigialo] &c.: "The waves roar on the long beach." Homer, Iliad, Bk. II, l. 210

136. Reductio ad absurdum: A proof of a proposition by assuming the contrary and showing that it leads to an impossibility.

137. Περί συνθέσεως ὀνομάτων [Peri syntheseos onomaton]: "On the art of Composition."

138. Non satis est pulchra esse poemata, dulcia sunto: "It is not enough for poems to be beautiful; they must be sweet" Horace, Art of Poetry, l. 99.

139. Obscurum per obscurius: "(to explain) obscurity by obscurity."

140. Cicero De Inventione: "On Invention."

141. Probabilia in opinione: "Commony believed to be probable".

142. Impiis apud inferos poenas esse praeparatus: Eos, qui philosophiae dent operam, non arbitrari deos esse: "The wicked await the punishment of Hell: philosophers are atheists."

143. Jus naturae: "Natural law"; Quod nobis, non opinio, sed quidem innata vis afferat: "Which comes to us, not from opinion, but from our inner nature."

144. Res expetendae: "Desirable things"; honestum: "virtuous"; Sua vi nos alliciat, et propter se est petendum: "it attracts us by its own worth, and is desired because of that"; utile: "useful"; non propter suam vim et naturam, sed propter fructum, petendum est: "Which is desired, not for its innate worth, but because of the advantage which can be got from it".

145. Fidentiae contrarium &c.: "Diffidence is the opposite of confidence, and is therefore a vice; temerity is not opposite to courage, but borders on it, and is akin to it, and yet is a vice." [H. M. Hubbell]

146. Painshill, Piercefield: Landscaped estates; Painshill, near Cobham in Surrey, is still extant and open to the public. Piercefield is near Chepstow in Monmouth. The house is in ruins; the landscaped estate survives, but is closed to the public. Brown: Lancelot "Capability" Brown (1716-1783), landscape architect.

147. Summum jus: "The greatest force of the law"

148. Credo, quia impossibile: "I believe it, because it is impossible."

149: Valeat quantum valere potest: "It has as much force as is possible"

150. Wander through eternity: Paradise Lst Bk . II, l. 148

151. Juncosi ad littora Cami: "On the rushy shores of the Cam." i.e at Cambridge University.

152. Curiosa felicitas: Happiness of expression which comes from taking pains. The source is Petronius (Satyricon c. 118), speaking of Virgil and Horace.

153. Pol, me occidistis amici &c.:"'By Pollux, my friend,' said he, 'you have slain me, not helped me, by taking away my pleasure, and forcibly removing a most sweet delusion.'" Horace, Letters Bk II, Letter 2, to Julius Florus, ll. 138-140.




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