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            On the Friday following, being the twentieth of July, and St. Margaret's day, the prince of Spain landed at Southampton. The prince himself was the first that landed; who, immediately as he set foot upon the land, drew out his sword, and carried it naked in his hand a good pretty way.

            Then met him, a little without the town, the mayor of Southampton with certain commoners, who delivered the keys of the town unto the prince, who removed his sword (naked as it was) out of his right into his left hand, and so received the keys of the mayor without any word speaking, or countenance of thankfulness; and after a while delivered the keys to the mayor again. At the town-gate met him the earl of Arundel and the Lord Williams, and so he was brought to his lodging.

            On the Wednesday following, being St. James's day, and the twenty-fifth of July, Philip prince of Spain, and Mary queen of England, were married together solemnly in the cathedral church at Winchester, by the bishop of Winchester, in the presence of a great number of noblemen of both the realms. At the time of this marriage, the emperor's ambassador, being present, openly pronounced, that in consideration of that marriage the emperor had granted and given unto his son the kingdom of Naples, &c.

            Whereupon, the first day of August following, there was a proclamation, that from that time forth the style of all manner of writings should be altered, and this following should be used:

            "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God, king and queen of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland; defenders of the faith; princes of Spain and Sicily; archdukes of Austria; dukes of Milan, Burgundy, and Brabant; counts of Hapsburg, Flanders, and Tyrol."

            Of this marriage as the papists chiefly seemed to be very glad, so divers of them, after divers studies, to show forth their inward affections, made interludes and pageants: some drew forth genealogies, deriving his pedigree from Edward the Third, and John of Gaunt; some made verses.

            After the consummation of which marriage, they both removed from Winchester to sundry other places, and by easy journeys came to Windsor castle, where he was installed in the order of the garter, on Sunday the twelfth of August. At which time a herald took down the arms of England at Windsor, and in the place of them would have set up the arms of Spain, but he was commanded to set them up again by certain lords. From thence they both removed to Richmond, and from thence by water came to London, and landed at the bishop of Winchester's house, through which they passed, both, into Southwark park, and so to Southwark House, called Suffolk Place, where they lay that night, being the seventeenth of August.

            And the next day, being Saturday, and the eighteenth of August, the king and queen's Majesties rode from Suffolk Place (accompanied with a great number, as well of noblemen as gentlemen) through the city of London to Whitehall; and at London bridge, as he entered at the draw-bridge, was a vain great spectacle set up, two images representing two giants, the one named Chorinæus, and the other, Gogmagog, holding between them certain Latin verses, which for the vain ostentation of flattery I overpass.

            And as they passed over the bridge, there were a number of ordnance shot off at the Tower, such as by old men's report the like hath not been heard or seen these one hundred years.

            From London bridge they passed the conduit in Gracious Street, which was finely painted; and among other things, the nine worthies, whereof King Henry the Eighth was one. He was painted in harness, having in one hand a sword, and in the other hand a book, whereupon was written Verbum Dei; delivering the same book (as it were) to his son King Edward, who was painted in a corner by him.

            But hereupon was no small matter made: for the bishop of Winchester, lord chancellor, sent for the painter, and not only called him knave, for painting a book in King Henry's hand, and specially for writing thereupon Verbum Dei, but also rank traitor and villain; saying to him that he should rather have put the book into the queen's hand, (who was also painted there,) for that she had reformed the church and religion, with other things, according to the pure and sincere word of God indeed.

            The painter answered and said, that if he had known that had been the matter wherefore his Lordship sent for him, he could have remedied it, and not have troubled his Lordship.

            The bishop answered and said, that it was the queen's Majesty's will and commandment, that he should send for him: and so, commanding him to wipe out the book and Verbum Dei too, he sent him home. So the painter departed; but, fearing lest he should leave some other part either of the book, or of Verbum Dei, in King Henry's hand, he wiped away a piece of his fingers withal!

            Here I pass over and cut off other gaudes and pageants of pastime showed to him in passing through London, with the flattering verses set up in Latin; wherein were blazed out in one place the five Philips, as the five worthies of the world: Philip of Macedonia, Philip the emperor, Philip the bold, Philip the good, Philip prince of Spain and king of England.

            In another poetry King Philip was resembled by an image representing Orpheus, and all English people resembled to brute and savage beasts following after Orpheus's harp, and dancing after King Philip's pipe -- not that I reprehend the art of the Latin verses, which was fine and cunning, but that I pass over the matter, having other graver things in hand: and therefore pass over, also, the sight at Paul's church-side, of him that came down upon a rope tied to the battlements with his head before, neither staying himself with his hand nor foot; which shortly after cost him his life.

            But one thing by the way I cannot let pass, touching the young flourishing rood, newly set up against this present time to welcome King Philip into Paul's church. The setting up of which rood was this, and may make as good a pageant as the best: In the second year of Mary, Bonner in his royalty, and all his prebendaries about him in Paul's choir, the rood laid along upon the pavements, and also, the doors of Paul's being shut -- the bishop with others said and sung divers prayers by the rood. That being done, they anointed the rood with oil in divers places; and, after the anointing, crept unto it, and kissed it.

            After that, they took the said rood, and weighed him up, and set him in his old accustomed place; and all the while they were doing thereof, the whole choir sang Te Deum; and when that was ended, they rang the bells, not only for joy, but also for the notable and great fact they had done therein.

            Not long after this, a merry fellow came into Paul's, and spied the rood with Mary and John new set up; whereto, among a great sort of people, he made a low courtesy, and said: "Sir, your Mastership is welcome to town. I had thought to have talked further with your Mastership, but that ye be here clothed in the queen's colours. I hope that ye be but a summer's bird, in that ye be dressed in white and green."

            The prince thus being in the church of Paul's, after Dr. Harpsfield had finished his oration in Latin, set forward through Fleet Street, and so came to Whitehall, where he with the queen remained four days after; and from thence removed unto Richmond.

            After this, all the lords had leave to depart into their countries, with strait commandment to bring all their harness and artillery into the Tower of London with all speed. Now remained there no English lord at the court but the bishop of Winchester. From Richmond they removed to Hampton Court, where the hall door within the court was continually shut, so that no man might enter, unless his errand were first known; which seemed strange to Englishmen that had not been used thereto.

            About the eighth of September Bishop Bonner began his visitation, who charged six men in every parish to inquire, (according their oaths,) and to present before him the day after St. Matthew's day, being the twenty-second of September, all such persons as either had or should offend in any of his articles, which he had set forth to the number of thirty-seven; of the which visitation of Bonner I have somewhat more largely to entreat, after that first I shall overpass a few other things following in course of this present story.

            The seventeenth of September was a proclamation in London, that all vagabonds and masterless men, as well strangers as Englishmen, should depart the city within five days; and straitly charging all innholders, victuallers, taverners, and alehouse-keepers, with all others that sell victuals, that they (after the said five days) should not sell any meat, drink, or any kind of victual to any servingman whatsoever, unless he brought a testimonial from his master to declare whose servant he was, and were in continual household with his said master; upon pain to run in danger of the law, if they offended herein.

            On the Sunday following, being the thirtieth of September, the bishop of Winchester, lord chancellor of England, preached at Paul's Cross, at whose sermon were present all the council that were at the court: namely, the marquis of Winchester, the earl of Arundel, Lord North, Sir Anthony Brown, Master Rochester, Master Walgrave, Master Englefield, Lord Fitzwater, and Secretary Peter; and the bishops of London, Durham, and Ely; which three sat under the bishop's arms. The gospel whereof he made his sermon, is written in Matt. xxii., where the Pharisees came unto Christ; and amongst them, one asked Christ which was the greatest commandment. Christ answered, Thou shalt love thy Lord God with all thy heart, &c., and thy neighbour as thyself; in these two are comprehended the law and the prophets.

            After his long declaration of these words, speaking very much of love and charity, at last he had occasion, upon St. James's words, to speak of the true teachers, and of the false teachers; saying, that all the preachers almost in King Edward's time, preached nothing but voluptuousness, and filthy and blasphemous lies; affirming their doctrine to be that false doctrine whereof St. James speaketh; saying, that it was full of perverse zeal, earthly, full of discord and dissension, that the preachers aforenamed would report nothing truly, and that they taught, that it was lawful for a man to put away his wife for adultery, and marry another; and that if a man vowed to-day, he might break it to-morrow at his pleasure; with many other things which I omit. And when he spake of the sacrament, he said, that all the church from the beginning have confessed Christ's natural body to be in heaven, and here to be in the sacrament; and so concluded that matter. And then willed all men to say with Joseph's brethren, "We have all sinned against our brother:" -- "and so," said he, "have I too." Then he declared what a noble king and queen we have, saying, that if he should go about to show that the king came hither for no necessity or need, and what he had brought with him, it should be superfluous, seeing it is evidently known, that he hath ten times as much as we are in hope and possession of; affirming him to be as wise, sober, gentle, and temperate a prince, as ever was in England; and if it were not so proved, then to take him for a false liar for his so saying: exhorting all men to make much of him, and to win him whilst we had him; and so should we also win all such as he hath brought with him. And so made an end.

            On the Tuesday following, being the second of October, twenty carts came from Westminster, laden (as it was noised) with gold and silver, and certain of the guard with them through the city to the Tower, and there it was received in by a Spaniard, who was the king's treasurer, and had custody of it within the Tower. It was matted about with mats, and mailed in little bundles about two feet long, and almost half a foot thick; and in every cart were six of those bundles. What it was indeed, God knoweth; for it is to us uncertain.

            About the same time, or a little before, upon Corpus Christi day, the procession being made in Smithfield, where, after the manner, the priest with his box went under the canopy, by chance there came by the way a certain simple man, named John Street, a joiner of Coleman Street, who, having some haste in his business, and finding no other way to pass through, by chance went under the canopy by the priest. The priest, seeing the man so to presume to come under the canopy, being belike afraid, and worse feared than hurt, for fear let his pix fall down. The poor man, being straightways apprehended, was had to the Compter, the priest accusing him unto the council as though he had conic to slay him; whereas the poor man (as himself hath since declared unto us) had no such thought ever in his mind. Then from the Compter he was had unto Newgate, where he was cast into the dungeon, there chained to a post; where he was cruelly and miserably handled, andso extremely dealt withal, that being but simple before, he was now feared out of his wits altogether, and so upon the same had to Bedlam. Whereupon the brief chronicle of London in this point is not to be credited, which untruly reported that he feigned himself in Newgate to be mad; which thing we, in writing of this history, by due inquisition of the party, have found to be contrary.

            About the fifth of October, and within a fortnight following, were divers, as well householders as servants and apprentices, apprehended and taken, and committed to sundry prisons, for the having and selling of certain books which were sent into England by the preachers that fled into Germany and other countries; which books nipped a great number so near, that within one fortnight there were little less than threescore imprisoned for this matter: among whom was Master Brown a goldsmith, Master Spark a draper, Randal Tirer a stationer, Master Beston a merchant, with many others. On the Sunday, the fourteenth of October, the old bishop of Durham preached in the Shrouds.

            On St. Luke's day following, being the eighteenth of October, the king's Majesty came from Westminster to Paul's church along the streets, accompanied with a great number of noblemen; and there he was received under a canopy at the west door, and so came in to the chancel, where he heard mass, which a Spanish bishop and his own chaplain sung: and that done, he returned to Westminster to dinner again.

            On Friday, the twenty-sixth of October, certain men, whereof I spake before, who were of Master Throgmorton's quest, being in number eight (for the other four were delivered out of prison, for that they submitted themselves, and said they had offended -- like weaklings, not considering truth to be truth; but of force for fear said so): these eight men, I say, whereof Master Emanuel Lucas and Master Whetstone were chief, were called before the council of the Star-chamber; where they all affirmed, that they had done all things in that matter according to their knowledge, and with good consciences; even as they should answer before God at the day of judgment. Where Master Lucas said openly before all the lords, that they had done in the matter like honest men, and true and faithful subjects; and therefore they humbly besought the lord chancellor, and the other lords, to be means to the king and queens Majesties that they might be discharged and set at liberty: and said, that they were all contented humbly to submit themselves to their Majesties, saving and reserving their truth, consciences, and honesty.-- Some of the lords said, that they were worthy to pay a thousand pounds apiece; and others said, that Master Lucas and Master Whetstone were worthy to pay a thousand marks apiece, and the rest five hundred pounds apiece. In conclusion, sentence was given by the lord chancellor, that they should pay a thousand marks apiece; and that they should go to prison again, and there remain, till further order were taken for their punishment.

            On Tuesday, being the thirtieth of October, the Lord John Gray was delivered out of the Tower, and set at liberty.

Illustration -- Priests doing penance for having taken wives

            On Sunday, the fourth of November, five priests did penance at Paul's Cross, who were content to put away their wives, and take upon them again to minister. Every of them had a taper in his hand, and a rod, wherewith the preacher did disple them.

            On Wednesday, the seventh of November, the Lord Paget, and Sir Edward Hastings, master of the horse, were sent as ambassadors, I know not whither; but, as it was adjudged, to Cardinal Pole, who lay all that summer before at Brussels: and it was thought they were sent to accompany and conduct him into England, whereas at that time he was nominated and appointed bishop of Canterbury.

            On the Friday following, being the ninth of November, Master Barlow, late bishop of Bath, and Master Cardmaker, were brought before the council in the Star-chamber, where, after communication, they were commanded to the Fleet.

            On the Saturday, the tenth of November, the sheriffs of London had commandment to take an inventory of every one of their goods who were of Master Throgmorton's quest, and to seal up their doors; which was done the same day. Master Whetstone, Master Lucas, and Master Kytely, were judged to pay a thousand pounds apiece, and the rest a thousand marks apiece, to be paid within a fortnight after. From this payment were exempted those four who confessed a fault, and submitted themselves; whose names are these, Master Loe, Master Poynter, Master Beswike, and Master Carter. Mention was made a little before, of the visitation of Edmund Bonner bishop of London, which began (as is said) about the month of September: for the better preparation whereof were set forth certain articles to the number of thirty-seven. These articles, partly for the tediousness of them, partly for that Master Bale in a certain treatise hath sufficiently painted out the same in their colours, partly also because I will not infect this book with them, I slip over, proceeding in the progress of this bishop in his visitation in the county of Essex; who, passing through the said county of Essex, being attended with divers worshipful of the shire, (for so they were commanded,) arrived at Stortford in Hertfordshire, where he rested certain days; solacing himself after that painful peregrination with no small feasting and banqueting with his attendants aforesaid, at the house of one Parsons his nephew, whose wife he commonly called his fair niece (and fair she was indeed). He took there great pleasure to hear her play upon the virginals, wherein she excelled; insomuch that every dinner (sitting by his sweet side) she arose and played three several times at his request, of his good and spiritual devotion towards her. These certain days thus passed in this bishoplike fashion, he proceeded in his popish visitation towards Hadham, his own house and parish, not past two miles from Stortford, being there most solemnly rung out, as in all other places where he passed. At length drawing near unto Hadham, when he heard no bells stirring there in honour of his holiness, he grew into some choler; and the nearer he approached, the hotter was his fit; and the quieter the bells were, the unquieter was his mood. Thus he rode on, chafing and fuming with himself. "What meaneth," saith he, "that knave the clerk, that he ringeth not? and the parson, that he meeteth me not?" with sundry other furious words of fiery element. There this patient prelate, coming to the town, alighted, calling for the key of the church, which was then all unready, for that (as they then pretended) he had prevented his time by two hours; whereupon he grew from choler to plain melancholy, so as no man willingly would deal with him to qualify the raging humour so far incorporated in his breast. At last, the church door being opened, the bishop entered, and finding no sacrament hanged up, nor rood-loft decked after the popish precept, (which had commanded about the same time a well-favoured rood, and of tall stature, universally in all churches to be set up,) curtailed his small devotions, and fell from all choler and melancholy to flat madness in the uttermost degree, swearing and raging with a hunting oath or two, and by no beggars, that in his own church, where he hoped to have seen best order, he found most disorder, to his Honour's most heavy discomfort, as he said; calling the parson (whose name was Dr. Bricket) knave, and heretic. Who there humbled himself, and yielded, as it were, to his fault, saying: He was sorry his Lordship was come before that he and his parish looked for him; and therefore could not do their duties to receive him accordingly. And as for those things lacking, he trusted in short time hereafter he should compass that, which hitherto he could not bring about. Therefore if it pleased his Lordship to come to his poor house, (where his dinner was prepared,) he would satisfy him in those things which his Lordship thought amiss. Yet this so reasonable an answer nothing could satisfy or assuage his passion unreasonable: for the catholic prelate utterly defied him and his cheer, commanding him out of his sight; saying, as his by-word was, "Before God, thou art a knave: avaunt, heretic!" and therewithal, whether thrusting or striking at him, so it was, that with his hand he gave Sir Thomas Jocelyn, knight, (who was then amongst the rest, and stood next the bishop,) a good flewet upon the upper part of the neck -- even under his ear, as some say which stood by; but, as he himself said, he hit him full upon the ear: whereat he was somewhat astonied at the suddenness of the quarrel for that time. At last he spake and said, "What meaneth your Lordship? have you been trained in Will Sommers's school, to strike him that standeth next you?" The bishop still in rage either heard not, or would not hear.

            Then Master Fecknam, dean of Paul's, seeing the bishop still in this bitter rage, said, "O Master Jocelyn! you must bear with my Lord; for truly his long imprisonment in the Marshalsea, and the misusing of him there, hath altered him, that in these passions he is not ruler of himself, nor it booteth any man to give him counsel until his heat be past; and then, assure yourself, Master Jocelyn, my Lord will be sorry for those abuses that now he cannot see in himself." Whereunto he merrily replied and said, "So it seems, Master Fecknam; for now that he is come forth of the Marshalsea, he is ready to go to Bedlam." At which merry conceit some laughed, and more smiled; because the nail was so truly hit upon the head. The bishop, nothing abashed at his own folly, gave a deaf ear; as no marvel it was that he shamed little to strike a stranger, who spared not the burning of so many good men.

            After this worthy combat thus finished and achieved, this martial prelate presently taketh him to his horse again, notwithstanding he was minded to tarry at Hadham three or four days, and so had made provision in his own house; and, leaving his dinner, rode that night with a small company of his household to Ware, where he was not looked for till three days after, to the great wonder of all the country, why he so prevented his day aforestalled.

            At this hasty posting-away of this bishop, his whole train of attendants there left him. Also his doctors and chaplains (a few excepted) tarried behind and dined at Dr. Bricket's as merrily, as he rode towards Ware all chafingly which dinner was prepared for the bishop himself. Now, whether the bishop were offended at those solemnities which he wanted, and was accustomed to be saluted withal in other places where he journeyed; joining to that, that his "great god "was not exalted aboveground over the altar, nor his "block almighty" set seemly in the rood-loft to entertain strangers, and thereupon took occasion to quarrel with Dr. Bricket, (whose religion perchance he somewhat suspected,) I have not perfectly to say: but so it was supposed of divers the cause thereof to rise, which drave the bishop so hastily from such a dinner.


A story of a rood set up in Lancashire.

N this visitation of Bishop Bonner above mentioned, ye see how the bishop took on for not setting up the rood, and ringing the hells at Hadham. Ye heard also of the precept, which commanded in every parish a rood to be erected, both well favoured and of a tall stature. By the occasion whereof it cometh in mind (and not out of place) to story, likewise, what happened in a certain town in Lancashire near to Lancaster, called Cockram, where the parishioners and churchwardens, having the same time a like charge for the erecting of a rood in their parish church, had made their bargain, and were at a price with one that could cunningly carve and paint such idols, for the framing of their rood: who, according to his promise, made them one, and set it up in their church. This done, he demanded his money: but they, misliking his workmanship, refused to pay him; whereupon he arrested them, and the matter was brought before the mayor of Lancaster, who was a very meet man for such a purpose, and an old favourer of the gospel; which is rare in that country. Then the carver began to declare how they covenanted with him for the making of a rood with the appurtenances, ready carved and set up in their church, which he, according to his promise, had done; and now, demanding his money, they refused to pay him. "Is this true?" quoth the mayor to the wardens. "Yea, sir," said they. "And why do you not pay the poor man his due?" quoth he. "And it please you, Master Mayor," quoth they, "because the rood we had before was a well-favoured man; and he promised to make us such another: but this that he hath set us up now, is the worst-favoured thing that ever you set your eyes on; gaping and grinning in such sort, that none of our children dare once look him in the face, or come near him!" The mayor, thinking that it was good enough for that purpose if it had been worse --"My masters," quoth he, "howsoever the rood like you, the poor man's labour hath been never the less; and it is pity that he should have any hinderance or loss thereby: therefore I will tell you what you shall do. Pay him the money ye promised him, and go your ways home and look on it, and if it will not serve for a god, make no more ado, but clap a pair of horns on his head, and so he will make an excellent devil." This the parishioners took well in worth; the poor man had his money; and divers laughed well thereat -- but so did not the Babylonish priests.

            This mayor above-mentioned continued a protestant almost fifty years, and was the only reliever of Marsh the martyr (whose story followeth hereafter) with meat, drink, and lodging, while he lay in Lancaster castle, the space of three quarters of a year, before he was had to Chester to be burned.

            About this time, or the month next before, which was October, there came a precept or mandate from Bonner, bishop of London, to all parsons and curates within his diocese, for the abolishing of such Scriptures and writings as had been painted upon church walls before, in King Edward's days. The copy of which precept or mandate here we thought good to express in their own style and words, that the world might see the wicked proceedings of their impious zeal, or rather their malicious rage against the Lord and his word, and against the edifying of Christian people: whereby it might appear, by this blotting out of Scriptures, not only how blasphemously they spake against the Holy Scriptures of God, but also how studiously they sought, by all manner of means, to keep the people still in ignorance.


A mandate of Bonner, bishop of London, to abolish the Scriptures and writings painted upon the church walls.

            "Edmund, by God's permission bishop of London -- to all and every parsons, vicars, clerks, and lettered, within the parish of Hadham, or within the precinct of our diocese of London, wheresoever being -- sendeth greeting, grace, and benediction.

            "Because some children of iniquity, given up to carnal desires and novelties, have by many ways enterprised to banish the ancient manner and order of the church, and to bring in and establish sects and heresies; taking from thence the picture of Christ, and many things besides instituted and observed of ancient time laudably in the same; placing in the room thereof such things, as in such a place it behoved them not to do; and also have procured, as a stay to their heresies, (as they thought,) certain Scriptures wrongly applied to be painted upon the church walls; all which persons tend chiefly to this end -- that they might uphold the liberty of the flesh, and marriage of priests, and destroy, as much as lay in them, the reverent sacrament of the altar, and might extinguish and enervate holy-days, fasting days, and other laudable discipline of the catholic church; opening a window to all vices, and utterly closing up the way unto virtue: Wherefore we, being moved with a Christian zeal, judging that the premises are not to be longer suffered, do, for discharge of our duty, commit unto you jointly and severally, and by the tenor hereof do straitly charge and command you, that at the receipt hereof, with all speed convenient, you do warn, or cause to be warned, first, second, and third time, and peremptorily, all and singular churchwardens and parishioners whosoever, within our aforesaid diocese of London, (wheresoever any such Scriptures or paintings have been attempted,) that they abolish and extinguish such manner of Scriptures, so that by no means they be either read or seen; and therein to proceed, moreover, as they shall see good and laudable in this behalf. And if, after the said monition, the said churchwardens and parishioners shall be found remiss and negligent, or culpable, then you, jointly and severally, shall see the foresaid Scriptures to be rased, abolished, and extinguished forthwith; citing all and singular those churchwardens and parishioners, (whom we, also, for the same do cite here, by the tenor hereof,) that all and singular the churchwardens and parishioners, being slack and negligent, or culpable therein, shall appear before us, our vicar-general and principal official, or our commissary special, in our cathedral church of St. Paul at London, in the consistory there, at the hour appointed for the same, the sixth day next after their citation, if it be a court day, or else at the next court day after ensuing, where either we or our official or commissary shall sit: there to say and allege for themselves some reason. able cause, if they have or can tell of any, why they ought not to be excommunicated, or otherwise punished, for their such negligence, slackness, and fault; to say and to allege, and further to do and receive, as the law and reason requireth. And what you have done in the premises, do you certify us, or our vicar, principal official, and such our commissary, diligently and duly in all things, and through all things; or let him among you thus certify us, which hath taken upon him to execute this mandate: In witness whereof we have set our seals to these presents.

            Dated in the bishop's palace at London, the twenty-fifth day of the month of October, in the year of our Lord 1554, and of our translation the sixteenth."

            About this time the lord chancellor sent Master Christopherson unto the university of Cambridge,with these three articles, which he enjoined them to observe.

            The first, that every scholar should wear his apparel according to his degree in the schools.

            The second was touching the pronunciation of the Greek tongue.

            The third, that every preacher there should declare the whole style of the king and queen in their sermons.

            In this university of Cambridge, and also of Oxford, by reason of the bringing of these things, and especially for the alteration of religion, many good wits and learned men departed the universities: of whom, some of their own accord gave over, some were thrust out of their fellowships, some were miserably handled: insomuch that in Cambridge, in the college of St. John, there were four-and-twenty places void together, in whose rooms were taken in four-and-twenty others, who, neither in virtue nor in religion, seemed to answer to them before. And no less miserable was the state of Oxford, by reason of the time, and the strait dealing of the visitors, that, for setting forward their papistical proceedings, had no regard or respect to the forwardness of good wits, and the maintenance of good letters, beginning then more and more to flourish in that university.

            And forasmuch as we have entered into the mention of Oxford, we may not pass over in silence the famous exhortation of Dr. Tresham, who, supplying the room of the sub-dean in Christ-church, after he had called all the students of the college together, with great eloquence and art persuasory, began to commend the dignity of the mass unto them; declaring, that there was stuff enough in the Scripture to prove the mass good. Then, to allure them to the catholic service of the church, he used these reasons -- declaring that there were a company of goodly copes, that were appointed to Windsor; but he had found the queen so gracious unto him, that they should come to Christ-church. Now if they, like honest men, would come to church, they should wear them on holy-days. And besides all this, he would get them the lady bells of Hampton, and that should make the sweetest ring in all England. And as for a holy-water-sprinkle, he had already the fairest that was within the realm. Wherefore he thought that no man would be so mad, to forego these commodities, &c.

            These things I rehearse, that it may appear what want of discretion is in the fathers of popery, and into what idle follies such men do fall; whom, I beseech the Lord, if it be his pleasure, to reduce to a better truth, and to open their eyes to see their own blindness.

            To proceed now further in the course and race of our story where we left, being before in the month of November, it followeth more, that on the twelfth day of the same month of November, being Monday, began the parliament holden at Westminster, to the beginning whereof both the king and queen rode in their parliament robes, having two swords borne before them. The earl of Pembroke bare his sword, and the earl of Westmoreland bare the queen's. They had two caps of maintenance borne before them, whereof the earl of Arundel bare one, and the earl of Shrewsbury the other.

            Cardinal Pole landed at Dover on Wednesday, the twenty-first of November; on which day one act passed in the parliament for his restitution in blood, utterly repealing as false and most slanderous, that act made against him in King Henry the Eighth's time; and on the next day, being Thursday, and the twenty-second of November, the king and the queen came both to the parliament house, to give their royal assent, and to establish this act against his coming.

            On Saturday, being the twenty-fourth of November, the said cardinal came by water to London, and so to Lambeth House, which was ready prepared against his coming.

            On the Wednesday following, being the twenty-eighth of November, there was a general procession in Paul's, for joy that the queen was conceived and quick with child, as it was declared in a letter sent from the council to the bishop of London.

            The same day were present at this procession ten bishops, with all the prebendaries of Paul's, and also the lord mayor with the aldermen, and a great number of commons of the city in their best array. The copy of the council's letter here followeth:--

            "After our hearty commendations unto your good Lordship: whereas it hath pleased Almighty God, amongst other his infinite benefits of late most graciously poured upon us and this whole realm, to extend his benediction upon the queen's Majesty in such sort as she is conceived and quick of child: whereby (her Majesty being our natural liege lady, queen, and undoubted inheritor of this imperial crown) good hope of certain succession in the crown is given unto us, and consequently the great calamities, which, for want of such succession, might otherwise have fallen upon us and our posterity, shall, by God's grace, be well avoided, if we thankfully acknowledge this benefit of Almighty God, endeavouring ourselves with earnest repentance to thank, honour, and serve him, as we be most bounden: these be not only to advertise you of these good news, to be by you published in allplaces within your diocese, but also to pray and require you, that both yourself do give God thanks with us for this his especial grace, and also give order that thanks may be openly given by singing of Te Deum in all the churches within your said diocese; and that likewise all priests and other ecclesiastical ministers, in their masses, and other Divine services, may continually pray to Almighty God, so to extend his holy hand over her Majesty, the king's Highness, and this whole realm, as that this thing, being by his omnipotent power graciously thus begun, may by the same be well continued and brought to good effect, to the glory of his name. Whereunto, albeit we doubt not ye would of yourself have had special regard without these our letters, yet, for the earnest desire we have to have this thing done out of hand, and diligently continued, we have also written these our letters, to put you in remembrance; and so bid your Lordship most heartily well to fare.

            "From Westminster the twenty-seventh of November, 1554.

            "Your assured loving friends,
Stephen Winton. Cancel.
John Bathon.
R. Riche.
F. Shrewsbury.
Thomas Wharton.
Edward Darby.
John Huddilstone.
Henry Sussex.
R. Southwell."

            Also the same day in the afternoon, Cardinal Pole came to the parliament house, which, at that present, was kept in the great chamber of the court at Whitehall, for that the queen was then sick, and could not go abroad; where the king and queen's Majesties, sitting under the cloth of state, and the cardinal sitting on the right hand, with all the other estates of the parliament being present, the bishop of Winchester, being lord chancellor, began in this manner:

            "My Lords of the upper house, and you my Masters of the nether house, here is present the right reverend father in God my Lord Cardinal Pole, come from the apostolic see of Rome, as ambassador to the king and queen's Majesties, upon one of the weightiest causes that ever happened in this realm, and which pertaineth to the glory of God, and your universal benefit. The which ambassage, it is their Majesties' pleasure, that it be signified unto you all by his own mouth; trusting that you will receive and accept it in as benevolent and thankful wise, as their Highnesses have done, and that you will give an attent and inclinable ear unto him."

            When the lord chancellor had thus ended his talk, the cardinal. taking the time then offered, began his oration, wherein he declared the causes of his coming, and what were his desires and requests. In the mean time the court gate was kept shut until he had made an end of his oration.


The tenor of Cardinal Pole's oration, made in the parliament house.

            My Lords all, and you that are the commons of this present parliament assembled, (which, in effect, is nothing else but the state and body of the whole realm,) as the cause of my repair hither hath been most wisely and gravely declared by my Lord Chancellor, so, before that I enter to the particularities of my commission, I have somewhat touching myself, and to give most humble and hearty thanks to the king and queen's Majesties, and after them to you all, which of a man exiled and banished from this commonwealth, have restored me to be a member of the same, and of a man having no place either here, or elsewhere within this realm, have admitted me in a place, where to speak and to be heard. This I protest unto you all, that though I was exiled my native country without just cause, as God knoweth, yet the ingratitude could not pull from me the affection and desire that I had to profit and do you good. If the offer of my service might have been received, it was never to seek, and where that could not be taken, you never failed of my prayer, nor ever shall.

            "But leaving the rehearsal thereof, and coming more near to the matter of my commission, I signify unto you all, that my principal travail is, for the restitution of this noble realm to the ancient nobility, and to declare unto you, that the see apostolic, from whence I come, hath a special respect to this realm above all others; and not without cause, seeing that God himself, as it were by providence, hath given this realm prerogative of nobility above all others; which to make more plain unto you, it is to be considered that this island, first of all islands, received the light of Christ's religion. For as stories testify, it was prima provinciarum quæ amplexa est fidem Christi.

            "For the Britons, being first inhabitants of this realm, (notwithstanding the subjection of the emperors and heathen princes,) did receive Christ's faith from the apostolic see universally: and not in parts, as other countries; nor by one and one, as clocks increase their hours by distinction of times; but altogether at once, as it were in a moment. But after that their ill merits, or forgetfulness of God, had deserved expulsion, and that strangers, being infidels, had possessed this land, yet God of his goodness, not leaving where he once loved, so illuminated the hearts of the Saxons, being heathen men, that they forsook the darkness of heathen errors, and embraced the light of Christ's religion: so that within a small space idolatry and heathen superstition were utterly abandoned in this island.

            "This was a great prerogative of nobility; the benefit whereof, though it be to be ascribed to God, yet the mean occasion of the same came from the Church of Rome, in the faith of which church we have ever since continued and consented with the rest of the world in unity of religion. And to show further the fervent devotion of the inhabitants of this island towards the Church of Rome, we read that divers princes in the Saxons' time, with great travail and expenses went personally to Rome, as Offa and Adulphus, who thought it not enough to show themselves obedient to the said see, unless that in their own persons they had gone to that same place from whence they had received so great a grace and benefit.

            "In the time of Charlemagne, who first founded the university of Paris, he sent into England for Alcuinus, a great learned man, which first brought learning to that university; whereby it seemeth that the greatest part of the world fetched the light of religion from England.

            "Adrian the Fourth, being an Englishman, converted Norway from infidelity; which Adrian afterwards, upon great affection and love that he bare to this realm, being his native country, gave to Henry the Second, king of England, the right and seigniory of the dominion of Ireland, which pertained to the see of Rome.

            "I will not rehearse the manifold benefit that this realm hath received from the apostolic see, nor how ready the same hath been to relieve us in all our necessities. Nor will I rehearse the manifold miseries and calamities that this realm hath suffered by swerving from that unity. And even as in this realm, so also in all other countries which, refusing the unity of the catholic faith, have followed fantastical doctrine, the like plagues have happened. Let Asia and the empire of Greece be a spectacle unto the world, which, by swerving from the unity of the Church of Rome, are brought into captivity and subjection of the Turk. All stories be full of like examples. And to come unto the later time, look upon our neighbours in Germany, who, by swerving from this unity, are miserably afflicted with diversity of sects, and divided into factions.

            "What shall I rehearse unto you the tumults and effusion of blood that hath happened there of late days; or trouble you with the rehearsal of those plagues that have happened since this innovation of religion, whereof you have felt the bitterness, and I have heard the report? of all which matters I can say no more but -- such was the misery of the time. And see how far forth this fury went. For those that live under the Turk, may freely live after their conscience; and so was it not lawful here.

            "If men examine well upon what grounds these innovations began, they shall well find that the root of this, as of many other mischiefs, was avarice; and that the lust and carnal affection of one man confounded all laws, both Divine and human. And notwithstanding all these devices and policies practised within this realm against the Church of Rome, they needed not to have lost you, but that they thought rather as friends to reconcile you, than as enemies to infest you: for they wanted not great offers of the most mighty potentates in all Europe to have aided the church in that quarrel. Then mark the sequel: there seemed by these changes to rise a great face of riches and gain, which, in proof, came to great misery and lack. See how God then can confound the wisdom of the wise, and turn unjust policy to mere folly; and that thing which seemed to be done for relief, was cause of plain ruin and decay. Yet see that goodness of God, which at no time failed us, but most benignly offered his grace, when it was of our parts least sought and worse deserved.

            "And when all light of true religion seemed utterly extinct, the churches defaced, the altars overthrown, the ministers corrupted -- even like as in a lamp, the light being covered, yet it is not quenched -- even so, in a few remained the confession of Christ's faith; namely, in the breast of the queen's Excellency, of whom, to speak without adulation; the saying of the prophet may be verified, Ecce quasi derelicta!

            "And see how miraculously God of his goodness preserved her Highness, contrary to the expectation of man, that when numbers conspired against her, and policies were devised to disinherit her, and armed power prepared to destroy her; yet she, being a virgin helpless, naked, and unarmed, prevailed, and had the victory of tyrants; which is not to be ascribed to any policy of man, but to the almighty great goodness and providence of God, to whom the honour is to be given: and therefore it may be said, Da gloriam Deo. For in man's judgment, on her Grace's part was nothing in appearance but despair.

            "And yet for all these practices and devices of ill men, here you see her Grace established in her estate, being your lawful queen and governess, born among you; whom God hath appointed to reign over you for the restitution of true religion, and extirpation of all errors and sects. And to confirm her Grace the more strongly in this enterprise, lo! how the providence of God hath joined her in marriage with a prince of like religion, who, being a king of great might, armour, and force, yet useth towards you neither armour nor force, but seeketh you by the way of love and amity: in which respect great cause you have to give thanks to Almighty God, that hath sent you such a catholic sovereign. It shall he, therefore, your part again to love, obey, and serve them.

            "And as it was a singular favour of God to conjoin them in marriage, so it is not to be doubted but that he shall send them issue, for the comfort and surety of this commonwealth.

            "Of all princes in Europe, the emperor hath travailed most in the cause of religion, as it appeareth by his acts in Germany; yet haply, by some secret judgment of God, he hath not achieved the end: with whom in my journey hitherwards, I had conference touching my legation; whereof when we had understanding, he showed a great appearance of most earnest joy and gladness, saying, that it rejoiced him no less of the reconcilement of this realm unto Christian unity, than that his son was placed by marriage in the kingdom,-- and most glad he was of all, that the occasion thereof should come by me, being an Englishman born, which is (as it were) to call home ourselves. I can well compare him to David, which, though he were a man elect of God, yet, for that he was contaminate with blood and war, he could not build the temple of Jerusalem, but left the finishing thereof to Solomon, who was rex pacificus. So may it be thought, that the appeasing of controversies of religion in Christianity, is not appointed to this emperor, but rather to his son, who shall perform the building that his father had begun. Which church cannot he perfectly builded, unless universally in all realms we adhere to one head, and do acknowledge him to be the vicar of God, and to have power from above: for all power is of God, according to the saying, Non est potestas, nisi a Deo. And therefore I consider that all power being in God, yet, for the conservation of quiet and godly life in the world, he hath derived that power from above into two parts here in earth; which is into the powers imperial and ecclesiastical. And these two powers, as they be several and distinct, so have they two several effects and operations: for secular princes, to whom the temporal sword is committed, be ministers of God to execute vengeance upon transgressors and evil livers, and to preserve the well-doers and innocents from injury and violence. Which power is represented in these two most excellent persons, the king and queen's Majesties here present, who have this power committed unto them immediately from God, without any superior in that behalf.

            "The other power is of ministration, which is the power of the keys, and order in the ecclesiastical state, which is, by the authority of God's word, and examples of the apostles, and of all old holy fathers from Christ hitherto, attributed and given to the apostolic see of Rome by special prerogative: from which see, I am here deputed legate and ambassador. having full and ample commission from thence, and have the keys committed to my hands. I confess to you that I have the keys, not as mine own keys, but as the keys of him that sent me, and yet cannot open: not for want of power in me to give, but for certain impediments in you to receive, which must be taken away before my commission can take effect. This I protest before you, my commission is not of prejudice to any person. I come not to destroy, but to build: I come to reconcile, not to condemn: I am not come to compel, but to call again: I am not come to call any thing in question already done, but my commission is of grace and clemency, to such as will receive it. For touching all matters that be past, they shall be as things cast into the sea of forgetfulness.

            "But the mean whereby you shall receive this benefit, is to revoke and repeal those laws and statutes, which be impediments, blocks, and bars, to the execution of my commission. For, like as I myself had neither place nor voice to speak here among you, but was in all respects a banished man, till such time as ye had repealed those laws that lay in my way; even so cannot you receive the benefit and grace offered from the apostolic see, until the abrogation of such laws, whereby you have disjoined and dissevered yourselves from the unity of Christ's church.

            "It remaineth therefore that you, like true Christians and provident men, for the weal of your souls and bodies, ponder what is to be done in this so weighty a cause; and so to frame your acts and proceedings, as they may first tend to the glory of God, and next to the conservation of your commonwealth, surety, and quietness."

            The next day after, the three estates assembled again in the great chamber of the court at Westminster; where the king and the queen's Majesties and the cardinal being present, they did exhibit (all kneeling on their knees) a supplication to their Highnesses, the tenor whereof ensueth.

            "We, the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons of this present parliament assembled -- representing the whole body of the realm of England and dominions of the same, in our own names particularly, and also of the said body universally, in this supplication directed to your Majesties with most humble suit, that it may, by your gracious intercession and means, be exhibited to the most reverend father in God, the Lord Cardinal Pole, legate, sent especially hither from our most holy father Pope Julius the Third, and the see apostolic of Rome -- do declare ourselves very sorry and repentant for the schism and disobedience committed in this realm and dominions of the same, against the said see apostolic, either by making, agreeing, or executing any laws, ordinances, or commandments, against the supremacy of the said see, or otherwise doing or speaking what might impugn the same: offering ourselves, and promising by this our supplication, that for a token and knowledge of our said repentance, we be, and shall be alway, ready, under and with the authority of your Majesties, to the uttermost of our power, to do that which shall be in us for the abrogation and repealing of the said laws and ordinances in this present parliament; as well for ourselves, as for the whole body whom we represent.

            "Whereupon we most humbly beseech your Majesties, as persons undefiled in the offence of this body towards the said see, which nevertheless God, by his providence, hath made subject unto your Majesties, so to set forth this our most humble suit, that we may obtain from the see apostolic, by the said most reverend father, as well particularly as universally, absolution, release, and discharge from all danger of such censures and sentences, as by the laws of the church we be fallen in; and that we may, as children repentant, be received into the bosom and unity of Christ's church, so as this noble realm, with all the members thereof, may, in unity and perfect obedience to the see apostolic, and pope for the time being, serve God and your Majesties, to the furtherance and advancement of his honour and glory. Amen."

            The supplication being read, the king and queen delivered the same unto the cardinal, who (perceiving the effects thereof to answer his expectation) did receive the same most gladly from their Majesties: and after he had in few words given thanks to God, and declared what great cause he had to rejoice above all others, that his corning from Rome into England had taken most happy success; he, by the pope's authority, did give them this absolution following.

            "Our Lord Jesus Christ, which with his most precious blood hath redeemed and washed us from all our sins and iniquities, that he might purchase unto himself a glorious spouse without spot or wrinkle, and whom the Father hath appointed Head over all his church, he by his mercy absolve you! And we, by apostolic authority, (given unto us by the most holy lord Pope Julius the Third, his vicegerent in earth,) do absolve and deliver you, and every of you, with the whole realm and dominions thereof, from all heresy and schism, and from all and every judgment, censure, and pain, for that cause incurred; and also we do restore you again unto the unity of our mother the holy church, (as in our letters more plainly it shall appear,) in the name of the Father, of the Son. and of the Holy Ghost."

            When all this was done, they went into the chapel, and there, singing Te Deum, with great solemnity declared the joy and gladness that for this reconciliation was pretended.

            The report of this was with great speed sent unto Rome; as well by the king and cardinal's letters, which hereafter follow, as also otherwise; whereupon the pope caused there at Rome processions to be made, and thanks to be given to God with great joy, for the conversion of England to his church; and therefore, (praising the cardinal's diligence, and the devotion of the king and queen,) on Christmas even, by his bulls he set forth a general pardon to all such as did truly rejoice for the same.


A copy of King Philip's letter, written with his own hand to Pope Julius, touching the restoring of the realm of England: translated out of Spanish into English.

            "Most holy father, I wrote yesterday unto Don John Maurique, that he should declare by word of mouth, or else write to your Holiness, in what good state the matter of religion stood in this realm, and of the submission to your Holiness, as to the chief. As this day, which is the feast of St. Andrew, late in the evening, we have done God that service, (to whose only goodness we must impute it, and to your Holiness, who have taken so great pain to gain these souls,) that this realm, with full and general consent of all them that represent the state, being very penitent for that was past, and well bent to what they come to do, submitted themselves to your Holiness, and to that holy see; whom, at the request of the queen and me, your legate did absolve. And forasmuch as the said Don John shall signify unto your Holiness all that passed in this matter, I will write no more thereof; but only that the queen and I, as most faithful and devout children of your Holiness, have received the greatest joy and comfort thereof that may be expressed with tongue: considering that, besides the service done to God hereby, it hath chanced, in the time of your Holiness, to place as it were in the lap of the holy and catholic church such a kingdom as this is. And therefore I think I cannot be thankful enough for that is done this day. And I trust in him, that your Holinessshall alway understand, that the holy see hath not had a more obedient son than I, nor more desirous to preserve and increase the authority of the same. God guide and prosper the most holy personage of your Holiness, as I desire.

            "From London, the thirtieth of November, 1554.
"Your Holiness's most humble son, the king," &c.


Here followeth, likewise, the cardinal's letter to the said pope concerning the same matter.

            "Those things which I wrote unto your Holiness of late, of that hope which I trusted would come to pass, that in short space this realm would be reduced to the unity of the church, and obedience of the apostolic see; though I did write then not without great cause, yet, nevertheless, I could not be void of all fear, not only for that difficulty which the minds of our countrymen did show, being so long alienated from the see apostolic, and for the old hatred which they had borne so many years to that name; but much more I feared, lest the first entry into the cause itself, should be put off by some other by-matter or convention coming betwixt. For the avoiding whereof, I made great means to the king and queen, which little needed; for their own godly forwardness, and earnest desire to bring the thing to pass, far surmounted my great and earnest expectation.

            "This day in the evening, being St. Andrew's day, (who first brought his brother Peter to Christ,) it is come to pass by the providence of God, that this realm is reclaimed to give due obedience unto Peter's seat and your Holiness, by whose means it may be conjoined to Christ the Head, and to his body which is the church. The thing was done and concluded in parliament (the king and queen being present) with such full consent and great rejoicing, that incontinently after I had made my oration, and given the benediction, with a great joy and shout there was divers times said, "Amen, Amen." Which doth evidently declare, that that holy seed, although it hath been long oppressed, yet was not utterly quenched in them; which chiefly was declared in the nobility.

            "Returning home to my house, these things I wrote unto your Holiness upon the sudden, rejoicing that I had so luckily brought to pass so weighty a matter by the Divine Providence, thinking to have sent my letters by the king's post, who (as it was said) should have departed shortly: but afterwards, changing my purpose, when I had determined to send one of my own men, I thought good to add thus much to my letters, for the ample gratulation and rejoicing at that good chance. Which thing, as it was right great gladness to me, through the event of the same (being itself very great, and so holy, so profitable to the whole church, so healthful to this my country which brought me forth, so honourable to the same which received me): so likewise I took no less rejoicing of the princes themselves, through whose virtue and godliness the matter did take success and perfection.

            "Of how many and how great things may the church (which is the spouse of Christ, and our mother) make her account through those her children! O notable zeal of godliness! O ancient faith! which undoubtedly doth so manifestly appear in them both, that whoso seeth them, must needs (whether he will or no) say the same which the prophet spake of the first children of the church: 'These are the seed which the Lord hath blessed. This is the Lord's planting to glory in.' How holily did your Holiness with all your authority and earnest affection favour this marriage! which truly seemeth to express a great similitude of the highest King, which, being heir of the world, was sent down by his Father from the regal seat to be spouse and son of the Virgin, and by this means to comfort all mankind. For even so this king himself, the greatest heir of all men which are in the earth, leaving his father's kingdoms that are most great, is come into this little kingdom, and is become both the spouse and son of this virgin, (for he so behaveth himself as though he were a son, whereas indeed he is a husband,) that he might, as he hath in effect already performed, show himself an aider and helper to reconcile this people to Christ, and to his body, which is the church. Which things, seeing they are so, what may not our mother the church herself look for at his hands, that hath brought this to pass, to convert the hearts of the fathers towards their sons, and the unbelievers to the wisdom of the righteous? which virtue, truly, doth wonderfully shine in him. But the queen, which at that time, when your Holiness sent me legate unto her, did rise up as a rod of incense springing out of the trees of myrrh, and as frankincense out of the desert -- she, I say, which a little before was forsaken of all men, how wonderfully doth she now shine! What a savour of myrrh and frankincense doth she give forth unto her people, who (as the prophet saith of the mother of Christ) brought forth, before she laboured; before she was delivered, brought forth a man-child! Whoever heard of such a thing, and who hath seen the like of this? Shall the earth bring forth in one day, or shall a whole nation be brought forth together? But she now hath brought forth a whole nation before the time of that delivery, whereof we are in most great hope.

            "How great cause is given to us to rejoice! How great cause have we to give thanks to God's mercy, your Holiness, and the emperor's Majesty, which have been causers of so happy and so godly a marriage, by which we, being reconciled, are joined to God the Father, to Christ, and to the church! of the which although I cannot comprehend in words the joy that I have taken, yet I cannot keep silence of it. And to this my rejoicing, this was also joined, (which when I had perceived by the letters of the reverend archbishop of Cocenza, your Holiness's nuncio with the emperor's Majesty, brought me marvellous great gladness,) that your said Holiness began to restore to the ancient beauty those things, which, in the Church of Rome, through the corruption of times, were deformed; which truly, when it shall be finished, then indeed may we well cry out with the prophet, and speak unto your Holiness with these words 'Put off the stole of sorrow and vexation; and put on comeliness, which thou hast of God in everlasting glory. For thy name shall be named of God everlasting, peace of righteousness, and honour of godliness; and then it shall be said, Look about and see thy sons gathered together from the sun-rising to the going down of the same, rejoicing in the holy word.' There is nothing truly (to speak of thy children gathered together in the west, which prepare themselves to meet their mother) which they had rather see, than her apparelled (that I may use the words of the prophet) in that garment of righteousness, wherewith God adorned her in times past. This one thing remaineth: that your Holiness's joy, and the joy of all the universal church, may be perfected; which, together with us her unworthy children, ceaseth not to pray to God for it. The Almighty God preserve your Holiness long to continue in health, for the profit of his church!

            "From London, the last of November, 1554,
"Your most humble servant,
REGINALD POLE, cardinal."

            On the Sunday, the second of December, the bishop of Winchester, lord chancellor of England, preached at Paul's Cross, at which sermon was present the king and Cardinal Pole. He took for his theme this part of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans, This also we know, the season, brethren, that we should now awake out of sleep; for now is our salvation nearer, than when we believed, &c. Some notes thereof, as they came to my hands, faithfully gathered, (as it appeareth by sundry copies,) I have here thought good to set forth.

            First, he showed how the saying of St. Paul was verified upon the Gentiles, who had a long time slept in dark ignorance, not knowing God: "Therefore St. Paul," quoth he, "to stir up their heavy dulness, willed them to awake out of their long sleep, because their salvation was nearer, than when they believed."

            In amplifying this matter, and comparing our times with theirs, he took occasion to declare what difference the Jewish sacraments had from those of the Christians, wherein he used these words:

            "Even as the sacrament of the Jews did declare Christ to come, so do our sacraments declare Christ to be already come: but Christ to come, and Christ to be come, is not all one. For now that he is come, the Jews' sacraments be done away, and ours only remain, which declare that he is already come, and is nearer us, than he was to the fathers of the old law: for they had him but in signs, but we have him in the sacrament of the altar, even his very body. Wherefore now, also, it is time that we awake out of our sleep, who have slept, or rather dreamed, these twenty years past; as shall more easily appear by declaring at large some of the properties and effects of a sleep or a dream. And first, as men intending to sleep do separate themselves from company, and desire to be alone; even so have we separated ourselves from the see apostolic of Rome; and have been alone, no realm in Christendom like us.

            "Secondly, as in sleep men dream sometimes of killing, sometimes of maiming, sometimes of drowning or burning, sometimes of such beastliness as I dare not name, but will spare your ears: so we have in this our sleep not only dreamed of beastliness, but we have done it indeed. For in this our sleep hath not one brother destroyed another? hath not half our money been wiped away at one time? -- And again, those that would defend their conscience, were slain, and others also otherwise troubled; besides infinite other things, which you all know as well as I, whereof I report me to your own consciences. Further, in a man's sleep all his senses are stopped, so that he can neither see, smell, nor hear: even so, whereas the ceremonies of the church were instituted to move and stir up our senses, they being taken away, were not our senses (as ye would say) stopped, and we fast asleep? Moreover, when a man would gladly sleep, he will put out the candle, lest peradventure it may let his sleep, and awake him: so of late all such writers as did hold any thing with the apostolic see, were condemned, and forbidden to be read; and images (which were laymen's books) were cast down and broken.

            "This sleep hath continued with us these twenty years, and we all that while without a head: for when King Henry did first take upon him to be head of the church, it was then no church at all. After whose death, King Edward (having over him governors and protectors which ruled as them listed) could not be head of the church, but was only a shadow or sign of a head: and, at length, it came to pass that we had no head at all; no, not so much as our two archbishops. For on the one side, the queen, being a woman, could not be head of the church; and on the other side, they both were convicted of one crime, and so deposed. Thus, while we desired to have a supreme head among us, it came to pass that we had no head at all. When the tumult was in the north, in the time of King Henry the Eighth, I am sure the king was determined to have given over the supremacy again to the pope: but the hour was not then come, and therefore it went not forward, lest some would have said, that he did it for fear.

            "After this, Master Knevet and I were sent ambassadors unto the emperor, to desire him that he would be a mean between the pope's Holiness and the king, to bring the king to the obedience of the see of Rome: but the time was not yet come; for it might have been said, that it had been done for a civil policy. Again, in the beginning of King Edward's reign the matter was moved, but the time was not yet; for it would have been said, that the king (being but a child) had been bought and sold. Neither in the beginning of the queen's reign was the hour come; for it would have been said, that it was done in a time of weakness. Likewise when the king first came, if it had been done, they might have said it had been by force and violence. But now, even now, hora est, the hour is come, when nothing can be objected, but that it is the mere mercy and providence of God. Now hath the pope's Holiness, Pope Julius the Third, sent unto us this most reverend father, Cardinal Pole, an ambassador from his side. What to do? Not to revenge the injuries done by us against his Holiness, sed benedicere maledicentibus, to give his benediction to those that defamed and persecuted him.

            "And that we may be the more meet to receive the said benediction, I shall desire you that we may alway acknowledge ourselves offenders against his Holiness -- I do not exclude myself forth of the number. I will weep with them that weep, and rejoice with them that rejoice. And I shall desire you that we may defer the matter no longer; for now, the hour is come. The king and queen's Majesties have already restored our holy father the pope to his supremacy, and the three estates assembled in the parliament, representing the whole body of the realm, have also submitted themselves to his Holiness, and his successors for ever; wherefore let us not any longer stay. And even as St. Paul said to the Corinthians, that he was their father, so may the pope say, that he is our father: for we received our doctrine first from Rome -- therefore he may challenge us as his own. We have all cause to rejoice, for his Holiness hath sent hither and prevented us, before we sought him: such care hath he for us. Therefore let us say, Hæc est dies quam fecit Dominus, emultemus et lætemur in ea: Rejoice in this day, which is of the Lord's working, that such a nobleman of birth is come, yea, such a holy father, (I mean, my Lord Cardinal Pole,) which can speak unto us as unto brethren, and not as unto strangers; who hath a long time been absent. And let us now awake, which so long have slept, and in our sleep have done so much naughtiness against the sacraments of Christ, denying the blessed sacrament of the altar, and pulled down the altar, which thing Luther himself would not do, but rather reproved them that did, examining them of their belief in Christ."

            This was the sum of his sermon before his prayers, wherein he prayed first for the pope, Pope Julius the Third, with all his college of cardinals; the bishop of London, with the rest of that order. Then for the king and queen, and the nobility of this realm; and last, for the commons of the same, with the souls departed, lying in the pains of purgatory. This ended, the time being late, they began in Paul's to ring for their evening song, whereby the preacher could not be well heard, which caused him to make a short end of his clerkly sermon.

            About this very time a post or messenger was sent from the whole parliament to the pope, to desire him to confirm and establish the sale of abbey-lands and chantry-lands; for the lords and the parliament would grant nothing in the pope's behalf, before their purchases were fully confirmed.

            On the Thursday following, being the sixth of December, and St. Nicholas's day, all the whole convocation, both bishops and others, were sent for to Lambeth to the cardinal, who the same day forgave them all their perjurations, schisms, and heresies, and they all there kneeled down and received his absolution; and after an exhortation and gratulation for their conversion to the catholic church made by the cardinal, they departed.

            On Wednesday, the twelfth of December, five of the eight men which lay in the Fleet, that were of Master Throgmorton's quest, were discharged, and set at liberty upon their fine paid, which was two hundred and twenty pounds apiece; and the other three put up a supplication, therein declaring, that their goods did not amount to the sum that they were appointed to pay; and so, upon that declaration paying forty pounds apiece, they were delivered out of prison upon St. Thomas's day before Christmas, being the twenty-first of December.

            On the Saturday following, being the twenty-second of December, all the whole parliament had strict commandment, that none of them should depart into their country this Christmas, nor before the parliament were ended: which commandment was wonderful contrary to their expectations; for as well many of the lords, as also many of the inferior sort, had sent for their horses, and had them brought hither.

            On the Friday following, being the twenty-eighth of December, and Childermas-day, the prince of Piedmont came to the court at Westminster.

            On new-year's day the act of supremacy passed in the parliament. Also the same day at night was a great tumult between Spaniards and Englishmen at Westminster, whereof was like to have ensued great mischief through a Spanish friar, which got into the church and rung alarum. The occasion was about two loose women which were in the cloister of Westminster, with a sort of Spaniards, whereof, whilst some played the knaves with them, others did keep the entry of the cloister with dags, in harness. In the mean time certain of the dean's men came into the cloister, and the Spaniards discharged their dags at them, and hurt some of them. By and by the noise of this doing came into the streets, so that the whole town was up almost; but never a stroke was stricken. Notwithstanding, the noise of this doing with the dean's men, and also the ringing of the alarum, made much ado; and a great number also to be sore afraid.


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