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Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 286. THOMAS HAUKES.



The history and martyrdom of the worthy servant of Christ, Thomas Haukes, gentleman; with his examinations and answers had with Bishop Bonner, recorded and penned with his own hand.

            Immediately after the story of Doctor Taylor, mention before was made of six men brought and convented before Bishop Bonner upon the eighth day of February; the names of which martyrs were, Stephen Knight, William Pygot, Thomas Tomkins, John Laurence, William Hunter. In which number was also Thomas Haukes, and condemned likewise with them the ninth day of the foresaid month of February. But because his execution did not so shortly follow with theirs, but was prolonged to this present tenth day of the month of June, wherewith we are now in hand, it followeth therefore now consequently to enter tractation thereof; first, beginning briefly with his godly conversation and institution of life, then showing of his troubles, also of his examinations and conflicts with the bishop and other adversaries, according as the order of his story doth require.

            As touching therefore his education and order of life, first, he was of the country of Essex, born of an honest stock, in calling and profession a courtier, brought up daintily from his childhood, and like a gentleman. Besides that, he was of such comeliness and stature, so well endued with excellent qualities, that he might seem on every side a man (as it were) made for the purpose. But his gentle behaviour toward others, and especially his fervent study and singular love unto true religion and godliness, did surmount all the rest. Wherein as God did singularly adorn him, even so he, being such a valiant martyr of God, may seem to nobilitate the whole company of other holy martyrs, and as a bright star to make the church of God and his truth, of themselves bright and clear, more gloriously to shine by his example.

            For if the conquests of martyrs are the triumphs of Christ, (as St. Ambrose doth notably and truly write,) undoubtedly Christ in few men hath either conquered more notably, or triumphed more gloriously, than in this young man: he stood so wisely in his cause, so godly in his life, and so constantly in his death.

            But to the declaration of the matter: first, this Haukes, following the guise of the court, as he grew in years, entered service with the lord of Oxford, where he remained a good space, being there right well esteemed and loved of all the household, so long as Edward the Sixth lived. But he dying, all things began to go backward, religion to decay, godliness not only to wax cold, but also to be in danger every where, and chiefly in the houses of great men. Haukes, misliking the state of things, and especially in such men's houses, rather than he would change the profession of true godliness which he had tasted, thought to change the place; and so, forsaking the nobleman's house, departed thence to his own home, where more freely he might give himself to God, and use his own conscience.

            But what paradise in this world shall a man find so secret for himself, whither that old wicked serpent cannot creep, whereby he may have some matter to overthrow the quietness of the godly? Now in the mean season (as it happened) Haukes, keeping his house at home, had born unto him a young son, whose baptism was deferred to the third week, for that he would not suffer him to be baptized after the papistical manner; which thing the adversaries not able to suffer, laying hands upon him, did bring him to the earl of Oxford, there to be reasoned with, as not sound in religion, in that he seemed to contemn the sacraments of the church.

he earl, either intending not to trouble himself in such matters, or else seeing himself not able to weigh with him in such cases of religion, sent him up to London with a messenger, and letters; and so, willing to clear his own hands, put him in the hands of Bonner, bishop of London; the contents of which his letter sent to Bonner, be these.

            "Most reverend father in God, he it known unto you, that I have sent you one Thomas Haukes, dwelling in the county of Essex, who hath a child that hath remained unchristened more than three weeks; who, being upon the same examined, hath denied to have it baptized as it is now used in the church; whereupon I have sent him to your good Lordship, to use as ye think best, by your good discretion."

            When the bishop had perused this letter, and afterward read it to Master Haukes, he, hearing the same, thought with himself that he should not be very well used, seeing he was put to his discretion. Then wrote the bishop a letter again to him that sent the prisoner, with many great thanks for his diligence in setting forth the queen's proceedings. Then began the bishop to enter communication with Master Haukes, first asking, what should move him to leave his child unchristened so long? To whom Master Haukes answered thus again as followeth:


Private talk or conference between Haukes and Bonner.

            Haukes.--"Because we be bound to do nothing contrary to the word of God."

            Bonner.--"Why! baptism is commanded by the word of God."

            Haukes.--"His institution therein I do not deny."

            Bonner.--"What deny ye then?"

            Haukes.--"I deny all things invented and devised by man."

            Bonner.--"What things be those that be devised by man, that ye be so offended withal?"

            Haukes.--"Your oil, cream, salt, spittle, candle, and conjuring of water, &c."

            Bonner.--"Will ye deny that, which all the whole world, and your father, hath been contented withal?"

            Haukes.--"What my father and all the whole world have done, I have nothing to do withal: but what God hath commanded me to do, to that stand I."

            Bonner.--"The catholic church hath taught it."

            Haukes.--"What is the catholic church?

            "Bonner.--"It is the faithful congregation, wheresoever it he dispersed throughout the whole world."

            Haukes.--"Who is the head thereof?

            "Bonner.--"Christ is the head thereof."

            Haukes.--"Are we taught in Christ, or in the church now?"

            Bonner.--"Have ye not read in John viii. where he said, he would send his Comforter, which should teach you all things?"

            Haukes.--"I grant you it is so, that he would send his Comforter -- but to what end? Forsooth to this end, that he should lead you into all truth and verity; and that is not to teach a new doctrine."

            Bonner.--"Ah, sir? ye are a right Scripture man; for ye will have nothing but the Scripture. There is a great number of your countrymen of your opinion. Do you know one Knight and Pygot?"

            Haukes.--"Knight I know, but Pygot I do not know."

            Bonner.--"I thought ye were acquainted with him: it seemeth so by your judgment. What preachers do ye know in Essex?"

            Haukes.--"I know none."

            Banner.--"Do ye not know one Baget there?"

            Haukes.--"Yes forsooth, I know him."

            Bonner.--"What manner of man is he?

            "Haukes.--"An honest man so far as I know."

            Bonner.--"Do you know him if ye see him?"

            Haukes.--"Yea, that I do."

            Then said he to one of his servants, "Go call me Baget hither." And then he said to me, "Ye seem to be a very proud man, and a stubborn."-- He that brought me up stood all this while by.

            Haukes.--"What should move your Lordship so to say?"

            Bonner.--"Because I see in a man that came with you, much humility and lowliness."

            Haukes.--"It seemeth your Lordship speaketh that to me, because I make no courtesy to you:"-- and with that came Baget. Then the bishop said to Baget "How say ye, sir? know ye this man?"

            Baget.--"Yea forsooth, my Lord:"-- with that Baget and I shook hands. Then said the bishop to Baget, "Sir, this man hath a child which hath lain three weeks unchristened (as I have letters to show); who refuseth to have it baptized, as it is now used in the church:-- how say you thereto?"

            Baget.--"Forsooth, my Lord, I say nothing thereto." [with low courtesy to the hard ground.]

            Bonner.--"Say you nothing thereto? I will make you tell me whether it be laudable, and to be frequented and used in the church or not."

            Baget.--"I beseech your Lordship to pardon me: he is old enough; let him answer for himself."

            Bonner.--"Ah, sir knave! are ye at that point with me?" "Go call me the porter," said he, to one of his men "Thou shalt sit in the stocks, and have nothing but bread and water. I perceive I have kept you too well. Have I made thus much of you, and have I you at this point?"

            Then came the bishop's man, and said, "The porter is gone to London:" then said the bishop to Baget, "Come with me;" and he went away with him, and commanded me away, and bade one of his gentlemen to talk with me, (who was one of his own teaching,) who desired, amongst other things, to know of me, with whom I was acquainted in Essex, and what men they were, that were my teachers.

            Haukes. "When I see your commission I will make you answer."-- And then immediately came the bishop again: but ere he came, his man and I had much talk. Then the bishop sat down under a vine in his orchard, and called Baget to him, whom he carried away, and brought again; and called me also, and said to Baget "How say ye now, sir, unto baptism? Say, whether it be to be frequented and used in the church, as it is now, or no?"

            Baget.--"Forsooth, my Lord, I say it is good."

            Bonner.--"I befool your heart; could ye not have said so before? Ye have wounded this man's conscience." Then the bishop turned to me and said, "How say ye now, sir? This man is turned and converted."

            Haukes.--"I build my faith neither upon this man, neither upon you, but only upon Christ Jesus; who (as Paul saith) is the founder and author of all men's faith."

            Bonner.--"I perceive ye are a stubborn fellow. I must be glad to work another way with you, to win you."

            Haukes.--"Whatsoever ye do, I am ready to suffer it: for I am in your hands to abide it."

            Bonner.--"Well, ye are so; come on your ways; ye shall go in, and I will use you Christian-like: you shall have meat and drink, such as I have in my house: but in any wise talk not."

            Haukes.--"I purpose to talk nothing but the word of God and truth."

            Bonner.--"I will have no heresy talked on in my house."

            Haukes.--"Why, is the truth become heresy? God hath commanded that we should have none other talk in our houses, in our beds, at our meat, and by the way, but all truth."

            Bonner.--"If ye will have my favour, be ruled by my counsel."

            Haukes.--"Then I trust you will grant me my request."

            Bonner.--"What is that?"

            Haukes.--"That your doctors and servants give me none occasion: for if they do, I will surely utter my conscience."

            Then commanded he his men to take in Baget, and let not Haukes and him talk together. And so thus we departed, and went to dinner; and I dined at the steward's table. After dinner, his chaplains and his men began to talk with me. But amongst all others, there was one Darbishire, principal of Broadgates in Oxford, and the bishop's kinsman, who said to me, that I was too curious; "for ye will have," said he, "nothing but your little pretty God's book."

            Haukes.--"And is it not sufficient for my salvation?" "Yes," said Darbishire, "it is sufficient for our salvation, but not for our instruction."

            Haukes.--"God send me the salvation, and you the instruction."

            And as we thus reasoned, came the bishop, who said unto me, "I gave you a commandment, that you should not talk."

            Haukes.--"And I desired you, that your doctors and servants should give me none occasion."-- Then went we into his orchard again, he and his doctors and I.

            Bonner.--"Would not ye be contented to have that your child should be christened after the book that was set out by King Edward?"

            Haukes.--"Yes, with a good will: it is a thing that I desire."

            Bonner.--"I thought so: ye would have the same thing. The principal is in the name of the Father, the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and, in necessity, it may serve."

            Haukes.--"Christ did use it without any such necessity: and yet we lack the chiefest point."

            Bonner.--"What is that?"

            Haukes.--"Go teach all nations, baptizing them, &c."

            Bonner.--"Thou speakest that, because I am no preacher."

            Haukes.--"I speak the text: I do not mean you." Then spake all the doctors and his men that were with him "He speaketh it of you, my Lord" [with a great noise that they made].

            Bonnet.--"Will ye be content to tarry here, and your child shall be baptized, and you shall not know of it, so that you will agree to it?"

            Haukes.--"If I would so have done, I needed not to have come to you: for I had the same counsel given before."

            Bonner.--"You seem to be a lusty young man; you will not give your head for the washing; you will stand in the defence of it for the honour of your country. Do ye think that the queen and I cannot command it to he done, in spite of your teeth?"

            Haukes.--"What the queen and you can do, I will not stand in it: but ye get my consent never the sooner."

            Bonner.--"Well, you are a stubborn young man: I perceive I must work another way with you."

            Haukes.--"Ye are in the hands of God: and so am I."

            Bonner.--"Whatsoever you think, I will not have you speak such words unto me."-- And so we departed until evensong time; and ere evensong was begun, my Lord called for me to come to him into the chapel, and said; "Haukes! thou art a proper young man, and God hath done his part unto thee; I would be glad to do thee good. Thou knowest that I am thy pastor, and one that should answer for thee. If I would not teach thee well, I should answer for thy soul."

            Haukes.--"That I have said, I will stand to it, God willing: there is no way to remove it."

            Bonner.--"Nay, nay, Haukes, thou shalt not be so wilful. Remember Christ bade two go into his vineyard: the one said he would, and went not; the other said he would not, and went."

            Haukes.--"The last went."

            Bonner.--"Do thou likewise, and I will talk friendly with thee; how sayest thou? It is in the sixth of St. John, I am the bread of life; and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world: and whosoever eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life. My flesh is very meat indeed, and my blood is very drink indeed. And he that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him. Do ye believe this?"

            Haukes.--"Yea, I must needs believe the Scriptures."

            Bonner.--"Why! then I trust that you be sound in the blessed sacrament."

            Haukes.--"I beseech your Lordship to feel my conscience no further than in that that I was accused in unto you."

            Bonner.--"Well, well! let us go unto evensong."-- With that I turned my back to go out of the chapel.

            Bonner.--"Why, will you not tarry evensong?"

            Haukes.--"No, forsooth."

            Bonner.--"And why?"

            Haukes.--"For I will not."

            Bonner.--"And why will ye not?

            "Haukes.--"For because I have no edifying thereby, for I understand no Latin."

            Bonner.--"Why? you may pray by yourself. What books have ye?"

            Haukes.--"I have the New Testament, the books of Solomon, and the Psalter."

            Bonner.--"Why, I pray you, tarry here, and pray you on your Psalter."

            Haukes.--"I will not pray in this place, nor in any such."

            Then said one of his chaplains, "Let him go, my Lord; and he shall be no partaker with us in our prayers."

            Haukes.--"I think myself best at ease when I am furthest from you."-- And so the bishop went to evensong, and I came down and walked between the hall and the chapel in the court, and tarried there till evensong was done. And within an hour after that evensong was done, the bishop sent for me into his chamber where he lay himself; and when I came, there was he, and three of his chaplains.

            Bonner.--"Ye know of the talk that was between you and me, as concerning the sacrament. You would not have your conscience sought any further, than in that ye were accused of."

            Haukes.--"I thought you would not be both mine accuser and judge."

            Bonner.--"Well, ye shall answer me to the sacrament of baptism, the sacrament of penance, and the sacrament of matrimony."

            Haukes.--"There are none of these, but I dare speak my conscience in them."

            Bonner.--"The sacrament of the altar ye seem to be sound in."

            Haukes.--"In the sacrament of the altar?-- why, sir, I do not know it."

            Bonner.--"Well, we will make you to know it, and believe in it too, ere ever we have done with you."

            Haukes.--"No, that shall ye never do."

            Bonner.--"Yes, a faggot will make you do it."

            Haukes.--"No, no, a point for your faggot! What God thinketh meet to be done, that shall ye do; and more ye shall not do."

            Bonner.--"Do ye not believe that there remaineth in the blessed sacrament of the altar, after the words of consecration be spoken, no more bread, but the very body and blood of Christ?"--and at that word he put off his cap.

            Haukes.--"I do believe as Christ hath taught me."

            Bonner.--"Why, did not Christ say, Take, eat, this is my body?"

            Haukes.--"Christ said so: but therefore it followeth not, that the sacrament of the altar is so as you teach; neither did Christ ever teach it so to be."

            Bonner.--"Why? the catholic church taught it so; and they were of Christ's church."

            Haukes.--"How prove you it? The apostles never taught it so. Read Acts ii. and xx. Neither Peter nor Paul ever taught it, neither instituted it so."

            Bonner.--"Ah, sir! ye will have no more than the Scripture teacheth, but even as Christ hath left it bare."

            Haukes.--He that teacheth me any otherwise, I will not believe him."

            Bonner.--"Why? then ye must eat a lamb, if ye will have but Christ's institution only."

            Haukes.--"Nay, that is not so; before that Christ did institute the sacrament, that ceremony ceased, and then began the sacrament."

            Bonner.--"Alas, you know not how it began, neither of the institution thereof."

            Haukes.--"Then I would be glad to learn."

            Bonner.--"Marry, we will teach you: but you are so stubborn that ye will not learn."

            Haukes.--"Except ye learn me by the word of God, I will never credit you, nor believe you:" and thus we concluded. Then the bishop and his chaplains laughed and said, "Jesu, Jesu! what a stubbornness and arrogantness is this! "And this was in his chamber where he lay. Then said the bishop to me, "Go ye down, and drink; for it is fasting day: it is Midsummer Even, but I think ye love neither fasting nor praying."

            Haukes.--"I will never deny fasting, neither praying; so that it be done as it ought to be done, and without hypocrisy or vain-glory."

            Bonner.--"I like you the better for that:" and so we left for that night.

            The next day the bishop went to London: for Fecknam was made dean that day, and I tarried still at Fulham. Then did the bishop's men desire me to come to mass, but I did utterly refuse it, answering them as I did their master. That night the bishop came home to Fulham again.


Talk between Harpsfield and Thomas Haukes.

            Then upon the Monday morning, very early, the bishop did call for me. There was with him Harpsfield, archdeacon of London, to whom the bishop said, "This is the man which I told you of, who would not have his child christened, nor will have any ceremonies."

            Harpsfield.--"Christ used ceremonies. Did he not take clay from the ground, and took spittle, and made the blind man to see?"

            Haukes.--"I wot well that; but Christ did never use it in baptism. If ye will needs have it, put it to the use that Christ put it unto."

            Harpsfield.--"Admit your child die unchristened: what a heavy case stand you in!"

            Haukes.--"I admit that, if it do: what then?"

            Harpsfield.--"Marry, then are ye damned, and your child both."

            Haukes.--"Judge you no further than ye may by the Scriptures."

            Harpsfield.--"Do ye not know that your child is born in original sin?"

            Haukes.--"Yes, that I do."

            Harpsfield.--"How is original sin washed away?"

            Haukes.--"By true faith and belief of Christ Jesus."

            Harpsfield.--"How can your child, being an infant, believe?"

            Haukes.--"The deliverance of it from sin, standeth in the faith of his parents."

            Harpsfield.--"How prove you that?"

            Haukes.--"By St. Paul, in 1 Cor. vii.: The unbelieving man is sanctified by the believing woman; and the unbelieving woman is sanctified by the believing man; or else were your children unclean."

            Harpsfield.--"I will prove that they whom thou puttest thy trust in, will be against thee in this opinion."

            Haukes.--"Who be those?"

            Harpsfield.--"Your great learned men in Oxford."

            Haukes.--"If they do it by the Scriptures, I will believe them."

            Bonner.--"Recant, recant. Do you not know that Christ said, Except ye be baptized, ye cannot be saved:"

            Haukes.--"Doth Christianity stand in outward ceremonies, or no?"

            Bonner.--"Partly it doth: what say you to that?"

            Haukes.--"I say as St. Peter saith, Not the washing of water purgeth the filthiness of the flesh, but a good conscience consenting unto God."

            Harpsfield.--"Beware of pride, brother, beware of pride!"

            Haukes.--"It is written, Pride serveth not for men, nor yet for the sons of men."

            Bonner.--"Let us make an end here.-- How say you to the mass, sirrah?"

            Haukes.--"I say, it is detestable, abominable, and profitable for nothing."

            Bonner.--"What! nothing profitable in it What say you to the Epistle and Gospel?"

            Haukes.--"It is good, if it be used as Christ left it to be used."

            Bonner.--"Well, I am glad that ye somewhat recant: recant all, recant all."

            Haukes.--"I have recanted nothing; nor will do."

            Bonner.--"How say you to Confiteor?"

            Haukes.--"I say it is abominable and detestable, yea, and a blasphemy against God and his Son Christ, to call upon any, to trust to any, or to pray to any, save only to Christ Jesus."

            Bonner.--"To trust to any, we bid you not: but to call upon them, and to pray to them, we bid you. Do ye not know, when ye come into the court, ye cannot speak with the king and the queen, unless ye call to some of the privy-chamber that are next to the king and queen?"

            Haukes.--"They that list, receive your doctrine. You teach me that I should not believe nor trust in any, but to call on them: and St. Paul saith, How should I call upon him, on whom I believe not?"

            Bonner.--"Will you have nobody to pray for you, when you be dead?"

            Haukes.--"No, surely; except you can prove it by the Scriptures."

            Then the bishop pointed unto Harpsfield, and said unto me, "Is it not well done to desire this man to pray for me?"

            Haukes.--"Yes, surely; so long as we live, prayer is available of the righteous man: but this man's prayer, you being dead, profiteth nothing at all."

            Bonner.--"Will ye grant the prayer of the righteous man to prevail?"

            Haukes.--"I grant it doth for the living, but not for the dead."

            Bonner.--"Not for the dead!"

            Haukes.--"No, forsooth; for David saith, No man can deliver his brother from death, nor make agreement unto God for him: for it cost more to redeem their souls, so that ye must let that alone for ever. Also Ezekiel saith, Though Noah, Daniel, or Job dwelt among them, yet can they in their righteousness exceed no further than themselves."

            Then the bishop said to Harpsfield, "Sir, ye see this man hath no need of our Lady, neither of any of the blessed saints. Well! I will trouble you no longer. I did call you, hoping that you should do some good on him; but it will not be."-- And he said to me, "Sir, it is time to begin with you. We will rid you away, and then we shall have one heretic less."

            Harpsfield.--"What books have you?"

            Haukes.--"The New Testament, Solomon's books, and the Psalter."

            Harpsfield.--"Will you read any other books:"

            Haukes.--"Yea, if you will give me such books as I will require."

            Harpsfield.--"What books will you require?

            "Haukes.--"Latimer's books, my Lord of Canterbury's book, Bradford's sermons, Ridley's books."

            Bonner.--"Away, away! He will have no books but such as maintain his heresies:"-- and so they departed, for Harpsfield was booted to ride unto Oxford; and I went to the porter's lodge again.


The next day's talk.

            The next day came thither an old bishop, who had a pearl in his eye; and he brought with him to my Lord a dish of apples, and a bottle of wine. For he had lost his living, because he had a wife. Then the bishop called me again into the orchard, and said to the old bishop "This young man hath a child, and will not have it christened."

            Haukes.--"I deny not baptism."

            Bonner.--"Thou art a fool; thou canst not tell what thou wouldest have;"--and that he spake with much anger.

            Haukes.--"A bishop must be blameless or faultless, sober, discreet, no chider, nor given to anger."

            Bonner.--"Thou judgest me to be angry: no, by my faith, am I not: "-- and stroke himself upon the breast.

            Then said the old bishop, "Alas, good young man! you must be taught by the church, and by your ancients; and do as your forefathers have done before you."

            Bonner.--"No, no! he will have nothing but the Scriptures, and God wot, he doth not understand them. He will have no ceremonies in the church, no not one. What say you to holy water?"

            Haukes.--"I say to it, as to the rest, and to all that be of his making that made them."

            Bonner.--"Why, the Scriptures do allow it."

            Haukes.--"Where prove you that?"

            Bonner.--"In the Book of Kings, where Elizeus threw salt into the water."

            Haukes.--"Ye say truth; that is written 2 Kings ii. 'The children of the prophets came to Elizeus, saying, The dwelling of the city is pleasant, but the waters be corrupted. This was the cause that Elizeus threw salt into the water, and it became sweet and good: and so when our waters be corrupted, if ye can by putting in of salt make them sweet, clear, and wholesome, we will the better believe your ceremonies."

            Bonner.--"How say you to holy bread?"

            Haukes.--"Even as I said to the other. What Scripture have you to defend it?"

            Bonner.--"Have ye not read where Christ fed five thousand men with five loaves and three fishes?"

            Haukes.--"Will ye make that holy bread? There Christ dealt fish with his holy bread."

            Bonner.--"Look, I pray you, how captious this man is!"

            Haukes.--"Christ did not this miracle, or other, because we should do the like miracle; but because we should believe and credit his doctrine thereby."

            Bonner.--"Ye believe no doctrine, but that which is wrought by miracles."

            Haukes.--"No, forsooth; for Christ saith, These tokens shall follow them that believe in me: they shall speak with new tongues, they shall cast out devils, and if they drink any deadly poison, it shall not hurt them."

            Bonner.--"With what new tongues do ye speak?"

            Haukes.--"Forsooth, whereas, before that I came to the knowledge of God's word, I was a foul blasphemer and filthy talker, since I came to the knowledge thereof, I have lauded God, praised God, and given thanks unto God, even with the same tongue: and is not this a new tongue?"

            Bonner.--"How do you cast out devils?"

            Haukes.--"Christ did cast them out by his word; and he hath left the same word, that whosoever doth credit and believe it, shall cast out devils."

            Bonner.--"Did you ever drink any deadly poison?"

            Haukes.--"Yea, forsooth, that I have; for I have drunken of the pestilent traditions and ceremonies of the bishop of Rome."

            Bonner.--"Now you show yourself to be a right heretic."

            Haukes.--"I pray you, what is heresy?"

            Bonner.--"All things that are contrary to God's word."

            Haukes.--"If I stand in any thing contrary thereto, then am I worthy to be so called."

            Bonner.--"Thou art one; and thou shalt be burned, if thou stand and continue in this opinion. Ye think we are afraid to put one of you to death: yes, yes, there is a brotherhood of you, but I will break it, I warrant you."

            Haukes.--"Where prove you that Christ or any of his apostles did kill any man for his faith?"

            Bonner.--"Did not Paul excommunicate?"

            Haukes.--"Yes, my Lord; but there is a great difference between excommunicating and burning."

            Bonner.--"Have ye not read of the man and the woman in the Acts of the Apostles, whom Peter destroyed?"

            Haukes.--"Yes, forsooth; I have read of one Ananias, and Sapphira .his wife, which were destroyed for lying against the Holy Ghost, which serveth nothing to your purpose."

            Bonner.--"Well, you will grant one yet."

            Haukes.--"Well, if you will have us to grant you be of God, then show mercy; for that God requireth."

            Bonner.--"We will show such mercy unto you, as ye showed unto us: for my benefice or bishopric was taken away from me, so that I had not one penny to live upon."

            Haukes.--"I pray ye, my Lord, what do you give him now that was in the bishopric or benefice before that ye came again to it?" -- Whereunto he answered me never a word; for he turned his back unto me, and talked with other men, saying, that he was very sorry for me, but he trusted that I would turn with St. Paul, because I was so earnest: and so he departed, and went to dinner, and I to the porter's lodge again. After dinner I was called into the hall again, and the bishop desired the old bishop to take me into his chamber "for I would be glad," said he, "if ye could convert him." So he took me into his chamber, and sat him down in a chair, and said to me, "I would to God I could do you some good. Ye are a young man, and I would not wish you to go too far, but learn of your elders to bear somewhat."

            Haukes.--"I will bear with nothing that is contrary to the word of God." And I looked that the old bishop should have made me an answer, and he was fast asleep.-- Then I departed out of the chamber alone, and went to the porter's lodge again, and there saw I the old bishop last: I suppose he is not yet awake.


Talk between Fecknam and Haukes.

            The next day came Fecknam unto me and said, "Are ye he, that will have no ceremonies?"

            Haukes.--"What mean you by that?"

            Fecknam.--"Ye will not have your child christened but in English; and you will have no ceremonies."

            Haukes.--"Whatsoever the Scripture commandeth to be done, I refuse not."

            Fecknam.--"Ceremonies are to be used by the Scriptures."

            Haukes.--"Which be those?"

            Fecknam.--"How say you by Paul's breeches?"

            Haukes.--"I have read no such thing."

            Fecknam.--"Have ye not read in the Acts of the Apostles how things went from Paul's body, and they received health thereby?"

            Haukes.--"I have read in Acts xix, how there went partlets and napkins from Paul's body: is it that you mean?"

            Fecknam.--"Yea, the same is it: what say you to those ceremonies?"

            Haukes.--"I say nothing to the ceremonies; for the text saith, that God did so work by the hands of Paul, that there went partlets and napkins from him, &c. So that it seemed by the text, that it was God that wrought, and not the ceremonies."

            Fecknam.--"How say ye to the woman that came behind Christ, and touched the hem of his vesture?-- Did not her disease depart from her by that ceremony?"

            Haukes.--"No, forsooth; for Christ turned back, and said to Peter, Who is it that toucheth me? And Peter said, Thou seest the people thrust thee, and askest thou, Who touched me? Somebody hath touched me, saith Christ; for virtue hath gone out of me.-- I pray you, whether was it the virtue that healed this woman, or his vesture?"


            Haukes.--"Then is not Christ true; for he said, Go thy way, thy faith hath made thee whole."

            Bonner.--"Away, away to the sacrament; for these are but mere trifles to that."

            Fecknam.--"How say ye, sirrah? Christ took bread, and brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body."

            Haukes.--"I grant Christ said so."

            Fecknam.--"And is it not so? '

            Haukes.--"No, forsooth; I do not understand it so."

            Fecknam.--"Why, then is Christ a liar?"

            Haukes.--"I think ye will so prove him."

            Fecknam.--"Will I?-- why I have spoken the words that Christ spake."

            Haukes.--"Is every word to be understood as Christ spake it? Christ said, I am a door, a vine; I am a king, a way, &c."

            Fecknam.--"Christ spake these words in parables."

            Haukes.--"And why speaketh he this in parables, when he said, I am a door, a vine, a king, a way, &c., more than this, when he said, This is my body?-- for after the same phrase of speech, as he saith, This is my body; so saith he, I am a door, a vine, a king, a way; he saith not, I am like a door, like a vine, &c."

            Then Fecknam stood up, and said, "I had such a one before me this other day. Alas! these places serve nothing for your purposes. But I perceive ye hang and build on them that be at Oxford."

            Haukes.--"What mean you by that?"

            Fecknam.--"I mean Latimer, Cranmer, and Ridley."

            Haukes.--"I know nothing else by them, but that they be both godly and learned."

            Fecknam.--"Wilt thou trust to such dolts? One of them hath written a book, wherein he affirmeth a real presence in the sacrament."

            Haukes.--"What he hath done, I know not; but what he doth, I know."

            Fecknam.--"Ridley hath preached at Paul's Cross openly, that the devil believeth better than you: for he believeth that Christ is able of stones to make bread; and ye will not believe Christ's body in the sacrament: and yet thou buildest thy faith upon them."

            Haukes.--"I build my faith upon no man, and that shall ye well know: for if those men, and as many more as they be, should recant, and deny that they have said or done, yet will I stand to it; and by this shall ye know that I build my faith upon no man."

            Bonner.--"If any of those recant, what will ye say to it?"

            Haukes.--"When they recant, I will make you an answer."

            Bonner.--"Then thou wilt say as thou dost now, for all that."

            Haukes.--"Yea, indeed, will I, and that, trust to it, by God's grace."

            Bonner.--"I dare say Cranmer would recant, so that he might have his living." And so the bishop and Fecknam departed from me with great laughing, and I went again to the porter's lodge.


Talk between Haukes and Chedsey.

            The next day came Dr. Chedsey to the bishop; and then was I called into the garden to the bishop and him. The bishop declared unto him, that I had stood stubbornly in the defence against the christening of my child, and against the ceremonies of the church, and that I would not have it christened but in English.

            Then said Dr. Chedsey, "Then he denieth the order of the catholic church."

            Bonner.--"Yea, he thinketh that there is no church but in England and in Germany."

            Haukes.--"And ye think that there is no church but the church of Rome.".

            Chedsey.--"What say ye to the church of Rome?"

            Haukes.--"I say it is a church of a sort of vicious cardinals, priests, monks, and friars, which I will never credit nor believe."

            Chedsey.--"How say ye to the bishop of Rome?"

            Haukes.--"From him and all his detestable enormities, good Lord, deliver us."

            Chedsey.--"Marry, so may we say, from King Henry the Eighth, and all his detestable enormities, good Lord, deliver us."

            Haukes.--"Where were ye whiles that he lived, that ye would not say so?"

            Chedsey.--"I was not far."

            Haukes.--"Where were ye in his son's days?"

            Chedsey.--"In prison."

            Haukes.--"It was not for your well doing."

            Bonner.--"He will by no means come within my chapel, nor hear mass: for neither the mass, neither the sacrament of the altar, can he abide, neither will he have any service but in English."

            Chedsey.--"Christ never spake in English."

            Haukes.--"Neither spake he ever any Latin; but always in such a tongue as the people might be edified thereby. And Paul saith, That tongues profit us nothing. He maketh a similitude between the pipe and the harp, and except it be understood what the trumpet meaneth, who can prepare himself to the battle: so if I hear the tongue which I do not understand, what profit have I thereby? no more than he hath by the trumpet, that knoweth not what it meaneth."

            Chedsey.--"If he understand Paul's saying, he speaketh it under a prophecy, If one prophesy to you in tongues, &c."

            Haukes.--"Forsooth Paul speaketh plainly of tongues; for tongues serve not for them that believe."

            Chedsey.--"I tell you Paul speaketh altogether upon prophecy."

            Haukes.--"Paul maketh a distinction between prophesying and tongues, saying, That if any man speak with tongues, let it be by two or three at the most, and let another interpret it. But if there be no interpreter, let them keep silence in the congregation, and let himself pray unto God: and then let the prophets speak two or three, and that by course; and let the other judge. And if any revelation be made to him that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace: so that it seemeth that Paul maketh a distinction between tongues and prophesying."

            Bonner.--"The order was taken in the catholic church that the Latin tongue should serve through the whole world, because that they should pray all generally together in one tongue; and that to avoid all contention and strife, and to have one universal order through the whole world."

            Haukes.--"This did your councils of Rome conclude."

            Bonner.--"Understand ye what the general councils of Rome meant?"

            Haukes.--"Indeed all your general councils of Rome be in Latin, and I am an Englishman: therefore I have nothing to do with them."

            Chedsey.--"Ye are to blame, being an unlearned man, to reprove all the councils throughout all the whole world."

            Haukes.--"I reprove them not, but Paul rebuketh them, saying, If any man preach any other doctrine than that which I have taught, do you hold him accursed."

            Chedsey.--"Hath any man preached any other doctrine unto you?"

            Haukes.--"Yea, I have been taught another gospel since I came into this house."

            Chedsey.--"What gospel have ye been taught?"

            Haukes.--"Praying to saints and to our Lady, and trust in the mass, holy bread, holy water, and in idols."

            Chedsey.--"He that teaches you so, teacheth not amiss."

            Haukes.--"Cursed be he that teacheth me so; for I will not trust him nor believe him!

            "Bonner.--"You speak of idols, and you know not what they mean."

            Haukes.--"God hath taught us what they be: for whatsoever is made, graven, or devised by man's hand, contrary to God's word, the same is an idol. What say you to that?"

            Chedsey.--"What be those that ye are so offended withal?"

            Haukes.--"The cross of wood, silver, copper, or gold, &c."

            Bonner.--"What say ye to that?"

            Haukes.--"I say it is an idol. What say you to it?"

            Bonner.--"I say every idol is an image, but every image is not an idol."

            Haukes.--"I say, what difference is there between an idol and image?"

            Bonner.--"If it be a false god, and an image made of him, that is an idol: but if an image be made of God himself, it is no idol, but an image, because he is a true God."

            Haukes.--"Lay your image of your true God and of your false god together, and ye shall see the difference. Have not your images feet and go not, eyes and see not, ears and hear not, hands and feel not, mouths and speak not?-- and even so have your idols."

            Chedsey.--"God forbid, saith St. Paul, that I should rejoice in any thing else, but the cross of Christ Jesus."

            Haukes.--"Do ye understand Paul so? Do ye understand Paul?"-- unto the which he answered me never a word.

            Bonner.--"Where can we have a godlier remembrance when we ride by the way, than to see the cross?"

            Haukes.--"If the cross were such a profit unto us, why did not Christ's disciples take it up, and set it on a pole, and carry it in procession, with Salve, festa dies?"

            Chedsey.--"It was taken up."

            Haukes.--"Who took it up? Helene, as ye say; for she sent a piece of it to a place of religion, where I was with the visitors when that house was suppressed, and the piece of the holy cross (which the religious had in such estimation, and had robbed many a soul, committing idolatry to it) was called for; and when it was proved, and all come to all, it was but a piece of a lath, covered over with copper, double gilded as it had been clean gold!"

            Bonner.--"Fie, fie! I dare say thou slanderest it."

            Haukes.--"I know it to be true, and do not believe the contrary."-- And thus did the bishop and the doctor depart in a great fume; and Chedsey said unto me, as he was about to depart, "It is pity that thou shouldest live, or any such as thou art." I answered, "In this case I desire not to live, but rather to die."

            Chedsey.--"Ye die boldly, because ye would glory in your death, as Joan Butcher did."

            Haukes.--"What Joan Butcher did, I have nothing to do withal: but I would my part might be to-morrow."--"God make you in a better mind," said they both; and so they departed, and I went to the porter's lodge with my keeper.

            The next day Dr. Chedsey preached in the bishop's chapel, and did not begin his sermon until all the service was done: and then came the porter for me, and said, "My Lord would have you come to the sermon."-- And so I went to the chapel-door, and stood without the door.

            Bonner.--"Is not this fellow come?"

            Haukes.--"Yes, I am here."

            Bonner.--"Come in, man."

            Haukes.--"No, that I will not." He called again, and I answered, "I will come no nearer;" and so I stood at the door. Then said the bishop, "Go to your sermon."

            Then Dr. Chedsey put the stole about his neck, and carried the holy water-sprinkle unto the bishop, who blessed him and gave him holy water, and so he went to his sermon.

            The text that he treated on was in Matthew xvi.: Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? Peter said, Some say that thou art Elias, some say that thou art John Baptist, some say thou art one of the prophets. But whom say ye that I am? Then said Peter, Thou art Christ the Son of the ever-living God. Then left he the text there, and said, Whose sins soever ye bind, are bound "which authority," said he, "is left to the heads of the church, as my Lord here is one, and so unto all the rest that be underneath him. But the church hath been much kicked at sith the beginning; yet kick the heretics, spurn the heretics never so much, the church doth stand and flourish."-- And then he went straightway to the sacrament, and said his mind on it, exalting it above the heaven (as the most of them do); and so returned to his place again, saying, Whose sins ye do remit, are remitted and forgiven: and so he applied it to the bishops and the priests to forgive sins, and said, "All that be of the church will come and receive the same." And this he proved by St. John, (chap. xi.,) saying, that Christ Caine to raise Lazarus, who, when he was risen, was bound in bands: then said Christ to them that were in authority, (who were his disciples,) Go ye and loose him; loose him you. And this was the effect of his sermon, applying all to them, that they have the same authority that Christ spake of to his apostles: and so ended his sermon, and they went to dinner.


Another communication between Thomas Haukes and the bishop.

            And, after dinner, I was called into the chapel, where were certain of the queen's servants, and other strangers whom I did not know.

            Bonner.--"Haukes! how like you the sermon?"

            Haukes.--"As I like all the rest of his doctrine."

            Bonner.--"What! are ye not edified thereby?"

            Haukes.--"No, surely."

            Bonner.--"It was made only because of you."

            Haukes.--"Why? then am I sorry that ye had no more heretics here, as ye call them: I am sorry that ye have bestowed so much labour on one, and so little regarded."

            Bonner.--"Well, I will leave you here, for I have business: I pray you talk with him, for if ye could do him good," said he, "I would be glad."

            This the bishop spake to the queen's men, who said unto me, "Alas! what mean you to trouble yourself about such matters against the queen's proceedings?"

            Haukes.--"Those matters have I answered before them that be in authority: and unless I see you have a further commission, I will answer you nothing at all." Then said the bishop's men, (which were many,) "My Lord hath commanded you to talk with them."

            Haukes.--"If my Lord will talk with me himself, I will answer him." They cried, "Faggots! burn him, hang him, to prison with him: it is pity that he liveth! Lay irons upon him!" and with a great noise they spake these words. Then in the midst of all their rage I departed from them, and went to the porter's lodge again.


The next day's talk.

            The next day the bishop called me into his chamber and said, "Ye have been with me a great while, and ye are never the better, but worse and worse: and therefore I will delay the time no longer, but send you to Newgate."

            Haukes.--"My Lord, you can do me no better pleasure."

            Bonner.--"Why, would you so fain go to prison?"

            Haukes.--"Truly I did look for none other, when I came to your hands."

            Bonner.--"Come on your ways; ye shall see what I have written."-- Then did he show me certain articles, and these are the contents of them:

            "Whether the catholic church do teach and believe, that Christ's real presence doth remain in the sacrament or no, after the words of consecration, according to the words of St. Paul, which are these: Is not the bread which we break the partaking of the body of Christ, and the cup which we bless, the partaking of the blood of Christ? which if it were not so, Paul would never have said it."

            Haukes.--"What your church doth, I cannot tell: but I am sure that the holy catholic church doth neither so take it, nor believe it."

            Bonner.--"Whether doth the catholic church teach and believe the baptism that now is used in the church, or no?"

            Haukes.--"I answered to it, as I did to the other question before." Then did the bishop with much flattery counsel me to be persuaded, and to keep me out of prison, which I utterly refused, and so we departed. And I supposed that the next day I should have gone to prison; and so I had, save for the archdeacon of Canterbury, whose name is Harpsfield, whom the bishop had desired to talk with me, and [who] began to persuade me concerning the sacrament, and the ceremonies: and after much talk he said, "that the sacrament of the altar was the same body that was born of the Virgin Mary, which did hang upon the cross."

            Haukes.--"He was upon the cross both alive and dead: which of them was the sacrament? The archdeacon answered, "Alive."

            Haukes.--"How prove you that?"

            Harpsfield.--"You must believe. Doth not St. John say, He is already condemned that believeth not?"

            Haukes.--"St. John saith, He that believeth not in the Son of God is already condemned, but he saith not, He that believeth not in the sacrament is already condemned."

            Harpsfield.--"There is no talk with you; for ye are both without faith and learning; and therefore I will talk no more with you in Scripture." Then two that stood by bade me [Haukes] enter further in talk with him; and then said I unto him, "Why is the rood-loft set betwixt the body of the church and the chancel?"

            Harpsfield.--"I cannot tell; for ye have asked a question which you cannot assoil yourself."

            Haukes.--"Yes, that I can: for this saith one of your own doctors: 'that the body of the church doth represent the church militant, and the chancel the church triumphant: and so, because we cannot go from the church militant to the church triumphant, but that we must bear the cross of Christ; this is the cause of the rood-loft being between the body of the church and the chancel.'"

            Harpsfield.--"This is well and clerkly concluded."

            Haukes.--"As all the rest of your doctrine is:"-- and so, with many persuasions on his part, we ended, and so departed: and I, to the porter's lodge again.


Another day's talk.

            The next day in the morning, which was the first day of July, the bishop did call me himself from the porter's lodge, commanding me to make me ready to go to prison, and to take such things with  me, as I had of mine own. And I said, "I do neither intend to bribe, neither to steal, God willing." Then he did write my warrant to the keeper of the Gatehouse at Westminster, and delivered it to Harpsfield, who, with his own man and one of the bishop's men, brought me to prison, and delivered the warrant and me both to the keeper: and this was contained in the warrant:

            "I will and command you, that you receive him who cometh named in this warrant, and that he be kept as a safe prisoner, and that no man speak with him, and that ye deliver him to no man, except it be the council, or to a justice: for he is a sacramentary, and one that speaketh against baptism; a seditious man, a perilous man to be abroad in these perilous days."

            And thus was I received, and they departed. And there I remained thirteen days, and then the bishop sent two of his men unto me, saying, "My Lord would be glad to know how ye do." I answered them, "I do like a poor prisoner." They said, "My Lord would know, whether ye be the same man that ye were when ye departed." I said, "I am no changeling." They said, "My Lord would be glad that ye should do well." I said, "If my Lord will me any good, I pray you desire him to suffer my friends to come to me." So they said they would speak for me, but I heard no more of them.

            This is the first examination of me Thomas Haukes, being examined by Edmund Bonner, then bishop of London, and by his chaplains and doctors, at Fulham, four miles from London, where I lay, till I came to prison to Westminster: and after his two men had been with me, I heard no more of him till the third day of September.

            Here followeth the second time of mine examination, the which was the third day of September: for the bishop did send his men for me to come to his palace of London; and so my keeper and his men brought me to his palace the same day.

            The bishop of Winchester, then being chancellor, preached that day at Paul's Cross, and the bishop of London said to my keeper, "I think your man will not go to the sermon to-day."

            Haukes.--"Yes, my Lord, I pray you let me go: and that which is good I will receive, and the rest I will leave behind me;" and so I went. And when the sermon was done, I and my keeper came to the bishop's house, and there we remained till dinner was done: and after dinner the bishop called for me, and asked me, if I were the same man that I was before.

            Haukes.--"I am no changeling, nor none will be."

            Bonner.--"Ye shall find me no changeling neither."-- And so he returned into his chamber, and there he did write the side of a sheet of paper, and all that while I stood in the great chamber, and as many with me as might well stand in the chamber. And as I stood there, Dr. Smith came unto me, (who once recanted, as it appeared in print,) saying, that he would be glad to talk brotherly with me. I asked him what he was. Then said they that stood by, "He is Dr. Smith." Then said I, "Are you he that did recant?" And he said, "it was no recantation, but a declaration."

            Haukes.--"You were best to term it well, for your own honesty."

            Dr. Smith.--"Shall I term it as it pleaseth you?"

            Haukes.--"To be short with you, I will know whether ye will recant any more or no, before that I talk with you, credit you, or believe you:"-- and so I departed from him to the other side of the chamber. Then said the bishop's men and his chaplains, that my Lord commanded me to talk with him. Then they that stood by cried with a great noise, "Hang him, burn him! it is pity that he liveth, that disobeyeth my Lord's commandment."

            Then said one Miles Huggard, "Where prove you that infants were baptized?"

            Haukes.--"Go teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Sir, here is none excepted."

            Master Haggard.--"What, shall we go to teach children?"

            Haukes.--"That word doth trouble you; it might be left out full well: it is too much for you to teach. Is not your name Miles Huggard?"

            Huggard.--"So am I called."

            Haukes.--"Be you not a hosier, and dwell in Pudding Lane?"

            Huggard.--"Yes, that I am, and there I do dwell."

            Haukes.--"It would seem so, for ye can better skill to eat a pudding, and make a hose, than in Scripture either to answer or oppose." With that he was in great rage, and did chafe up and down. Then I desired that some man would take the pain to walk the gentleman, he did fret so for anger. Then one that stood by me (who was parson of Hornchurch and Romford in Essex) said, "Alas, what do you mean: a young man to be so stubborn? There seemeth too much pride in you."

            Haukes.--"Are not ye the parson of Hornchurch?"

            Parson.--"Yes, that I am."

            Haukes.--"Did you not set such a priest in your benefice?"

            Parson.--"Yes, for a shift."

            Haukes.--"Like will to like; such master, such man; for I know that priest to be a very vile man, as any could be."

            I asked the parson, what kin he was to the weathercock of Paul's? and he fell in a great laughter with the rest of his companions. He said, that I did rail. Then said another that stood by unto me, "What book have you here?" I answered, "The New Testament." "May I look in it?" said he. "Yea, that ye may." said I. And so he looked in my book, and said it was corrupt. I answered him, "If the things contained in it be true, then are ye all false prophets." He said that he would oppose me in the first word of the Testament, saying, "Here is a generation of Christ "and Esay saith, "No man can tell his generation."

            Haukes.--"What meaneth Esay by that?" "I would learn of you." said he.

            Haukes.-"Ye would be angry, if the scholar should teach the master: but if ye will have me to teach you, I will tell you Esay's meaning."

            Then said he, "No man can tell the generation between the father and the son: but you (I dare say) did know it before."

            Haukes.--"Why then Esay denieth not the generation."

            Then said he, "Why is Christ called Christ?"

            Haukes.--"Because he is a Messias."

            Then said he, "Why is he called a Messias?"

            Haukes.--"Because he was so prophesied by the prophets."

            Then said he, "Why is your book called a book?"

            Haukes.--"These words do breed more strife than godly edifying."

            "Beware," said he, "that ye do not decline from the church; for if you do, you will prove yourself a heretic."

            Haukes.--"Even as ye do call us heretics, that do incline to Christ's church from your church; so are ye all false prophets that do decline from Christ's church to your own church. And by this shall all men know you to be false prophets, if ye say, 'This saith the church: 'and will not say, This saith our Lord.'"-- And so he went his way, as though he had a flea in his ear.

            Then came another and said unto me, he would talk with me; for he perceived (as he said) that I was angry, and out of patience.

            Haukes.--"I will see your commission, or ever I talk with you, or with any man more."-- For I wist not how to be rid of them, they came so thick about me; for I said, that I came to talk with my Lord, and not with any of them.

            With that came the bishop, bringing a letter in his hand, the which he had written in my name, and read it unto me after this manner. "I, Thomas Haukes, do here confess and declare before my said ordinary Edmund, bishop of London, that the mass is abominable and detestable, and full of all superstition; and also as concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, (commonly called the sacrament of the altar,) that Christ is in no part thereof, but only in heaven: this I have believed, and this I do believe," &c.

            Haukes.--"Stop there, my Lord: what I have believed, what have you to do withal? But what I do believe, to that stand I, and will."-- Then he took his pen, and said that he would scrape it out for my pleasure, and so he did to my thinking.

            Then he went further with his writing, and said, "I, Thomas Haukes, have talked with my said ordinary, and with certain good, godly, and learned men. Notwithstanding I stand still in mine opinion."

            Haukes.--"Shall I grant you to be good, godly, and learned men, and yet grant myself to stand in a contrary opinion? No, I will not grant you to be good, godly, and learned men."

            Bonner.--"Ye will grant that ye have talked with us: the other I will put out for your pleasure." Then said all his doctors, "If your Lordship be ruled by him, he will cause you to put out all together." And then he read more to me "Here unto this bill have I set my hand;" and then he offered me the bill and his pen, and bade me set my hand to it.

            Haukes.--"Ye get not my hand to any thing of your making or devising."

            Bonner.--"Wilt not thou set to thy hand? It shall be to thy shame for the denying of it."

            And then he called all his doctors, and said, he would have every man's hand to it that was in the chamber; and so he had all their hands to it and said, "He that will not set his hand to it, I would he were hanged;" and so said all his chaplains and doctors with a great noise.

            Then the bishop thrust me on the breast with great anger; and said he would be even with me, and with all such proud knaves in Essex.

            Haukes.--"Ye shall do no more than God shall give you leave."

            Bonner.--"This gear shall not be unpunished -- trust to it."

            Haukes.--"As for your cursings, railings, and blasphemings, I care not for them: for I know the moths and worms shall eat you, as they eat cloth or wool."

            Bonner.--"I will be even with you when time shall come."

            Haukes.--"You may in your malice destroy a man: but, when ye have done, ye cannot do so much as make a finger; and ye be meetly even with some of us already."

            Bonner.--"If I do thee any wrong, take the law of me."

            Haukes.--"Solomon saith, Go not to law with a judge; for he will judge according to his own honour."

            Bonner.--"Solomon saith, Give not a fool an answer."

            Haukes.--"What! do you count me a fool?"

            Bonner.--"Yea, by my troth do I; and so dost thou me too: but God forgive thee, and so do I."

            Haukes.--"Thought is free, my Lord." Then took Bonner the bill, and read it again; and when he saw that he could not have my hand to it, then he would have had me to take it into my hand, and to give it to him again.

            Haukes.--"What needeth that ceremony? Neither shall it come into my hand, heart, or mind." Then he wrapt it up, and put it in his bosom, and in a great anger went his way, and called for his horse and went to horse-back; for the same day he rode in visitation into Essex. And so went I to prison, from whence I came with my keeper. And this was the second time of my examination.

            Written by me Thomas Haukes, who desire all faithful men and brethren to pray unto God, to strengthen me in his truth unto the end.-- Pray, pray, pray, gentle brethren, pray!


The public examination of Thomas Haukes at the bishop's consistory.

            After all these private conferences, persuasions, and long debatings, had with Thomas Haukes in the bishop's house, as hitherto hath been declared, the bishop, seeing no hope to win him to his wicked ways, was fully set to proceed openly against him after the ordinary course of his popish law. Whereupon Thomas Haukes, shortly after, was cited with the rest of his other fellows above specified, to wit, Thomas Tomkins, Stephen Knight, William Pygot, John Laurence, and William Hunter, to appear in the bishop's consistory, the eighth day of February, this present year, viz. 1555. Upon which appearance, was laid against him in like order as to the other, first the bill of his confession, written with Bonner's hand, to the which bill ye heard before how this blessed servant of God denied to subscribe.

            After which bill of confession being read, and he constantly standing to the said confession, the bishop then assigned him with the other five the next day following, which was the ninth of February, to appear before him again, to give a resolute answer what they would stick unto. Which day being come, and these foresaid six prisoners being severally called before the bishop, at the coming of Thomas Haukes, the bishop willed him to remember what was said to him yesterday, and now, while he had time and space, to advise with himself what he would answer, for he stood upon life and death. "Well," quoth Master Haukes again, "I will willingly receive whatsoever shall be put upon me." Then were certain other interrogatories or articles commenced against him by the said bishop (in like manner as to the other) to the number of four, with another bill also, which Bonner brought out of his bosom, containing private matters against the said Thomas Haukes, which the bishop called heresies and errors, but we may better call them Christian verities. To the which matter being read, the said Haukes answered openly again, saying that it was true, and that he was glad it was so true as it was; with more words to the like effect. And this was in the forenoon, the ninth day of February. In the afternoon again the said Haukes appearing and hearing the foresaid bill of his confession, with the articles and interrogatories read unto him, with like constancy in answering again to the bishop, "My Lord," said he, "as you, being my great friend, have caused these my sayings to be written; so do you cause them to he read: and yet I will never go from them." And then, being exhorted by the bishop, with many fair words, to return again to the bosom of the mother church. "No, my Lord," said he, "that will I not: for if I had a hundred bodies, I would suffer them all to be torn in pieces, rather than I will abjure or recant." And so continuing still in the same song, notwithstanding that the doctors and lawyers were ever calling upon him to come again to the unity of the church, he ever kept them off with this answer, that he would never go from the belief he was in, so long as he believed. Whereupon Bonner, at the last, read the sentence of death upon him; and so was he condemned the same day with the residue of his fellows, which was the ninth of February. Nevertheless his execution was prolonged, and he remained in prison till the tenth day of June. Then was he committed to the hands and the charge of the Lord Riche, who, being assisted with power sufficient of the worshipful of the shire, had the foresaid Thomas Haukes down into Essex, with six other fellow prisoners whose stories hereafter follow, there to suffer martyrdom, Haukes at Coggeshall, the others severally in other several places.

            Thomas Haukes by the way used much exhortation to his friends; and whensoever opportunity served to talk with them, he would familiarly admonish them.

            A little before his death, certain there were of his familiar acquaintance and friends, who frequented his company more familiarly, who seemed not a little to be confirmed both by the example of his constancy, and by his talk; yet notwithstanding, the same again, being feared with the sharpness of the punishment which he was going to, privily desired that in the midst of the flame he would show them some token, if he could, whereby they might be the more certain, whether the pain of such burning were so great that a man might not therein keep his mind quiet and patient. Which thing he promised them to do; and so, secretly between them, it was agreed, that if the rage of the pain were tolerable and might be suffered, then he should lift up his hands above his head towards heaven, before he gave up the ghost. Not long after, when the hour was come, Thomas Haukes was led away to the place appointed for the slaughter, by the Lord Riche and his assistants, who, being now come unto the stake, there mildly and patiently addressed himself to the fire, having a strait chain cast about his middle, with no small multitude of people on every side compassing him about: unto whom after he had spoken many things, especially unto the Lord Riche, reasoning with him of the innocent blood of the saints; at length, after his fervent prayers first made and poured out unto God, the fire was set unto him. In the which when he continued long, and when his speech was taken away by violence of the flame, his skin also drawn together, and his fingers consumed with the fire, so that now all men thought certainly he had been gone, suddenly, and contrary to all expectation, the blessed servant of God, being mindful of his promise afore made, reached up his hands burning on a light fire, which was marvellous to behold, over his head to the living God, and with great rejoicing, as it seemed, struck or clapped them three times together. At the sight whereof there followed such applause and outcry of the people, and especially of them which understood the matter, that the like hath not commonly been heard. And so the blessed  martyr of Christ, straightway sinking down into the fire, gave up his spirit, A. D. 1555, June 10. And thus have you plainly and expressly described unto you the whole story, as well of the life as of the death of Thomas Haukes, a most constant and faithful witness of Christ's holy gospel.




An epistle to the congregation, by Thomas Haukes.

            "Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, be alway with you all, (my dear brethren and sisters in the Lord Jesus Christ for ever,) and his Holy Spirit conduct and lead you all, in all your doings, that you may always direct your deeds according to his holy word; that when he shall appear to reward every man according to their works, ye may, as obedient children, be found watching, ready to enter into his everlasting kingdom, with your lamps burning; and, when the Bridegroom shall show himself, ye need not to be ashamed of this life which God hath lent you, which is but transitory, vain, and like unto a vapour that for a season appeareth and vanisheth away: so soon passeth away all our terrestrial honour, glory, and felicity. For all flesh, saith the prophet, is grass, and all his glory as the flower of the field, which for a season showeth her beauty, and as soon as the Lord bloweth upon it, it withereth away, and departeth. For in this transitory and dangerous wilderness, we are as pilgrims and strangers following the footsteps of Moses, among many unspeakable dangers, beholding nothing with our outward man, but all vain vanities and vexation of mind; subject to hunger, cold, nakedness, bonds, sickness, loss, labours, banishment; in danger of that dreadful dragon, and his sinful seed, to be devoured, tempted, and tormented, who ceaseth not behind every bush to lay a bait, when we walk awry to have his pleasure upon us; casting abroad his apples in all places, times, and seasons, to see if Adam will be allured and enticed to leave the living God and his most holy commandments, whereby he is assured of everlasting life; promising the world at will, to all that will fall down in all ages, and for a mess of pottage sell and set at nought the everlasting kingdom of heaven. So frail is flesh and blood; and, in especial, Israel is most ready to walk awry, when he is filled with all manner of riches, as saith the prophet.

            "Therefore I am bold in bonds (as entirely desiring your everlasting health and felicity) to warn you, and most heartily desire you, to watch and pray; for our estate is dangerous, and requireth continual prayer. For on the high mountains doth not grow most plenty of grass, neither are the highest trees farthest from danger, but seldom sure, and always shaken of every wind that bloweth. Such a deceitful thing (saith our Saviour) is honour and riches, that without grace it choketh up the good seed sown on his creatures, and blindeth so their seeing, that they go groping at noonday in darkness: it maketh a man think himself somewhat, that is nothing at all. For though for our honour we esteem ourselves and stand in our own light, yet when we shall stand before the living God, there shall be no respect of persons: for riches help not in the day of vengeance; neither can we make the Lord partial, for money. But as ye have ministered unto the saints, so shall ye receive the reward, which I am fully persuaded and assured shall be plenteously poured upon you all, for the great goodness showed unto the servants of the living God. And I most heartily beseech Almighty God to pour forth a plenteous reward upon you for the same, and that he will assist you with his Holy Spirit in all your doings, that ye may grow, as ye have begun, unto such a perfection as may be to God's honour, your own salvation, and the strengthening of the weak members of Christ. For though the world rage, and blaspheme the elect of God, ye know that it did so unto Christ, his apostles, and to all that were in the primitive church, and shall be, unto the world's end.

            "Therefore believe in the light while ye have it, lest it be taken away from you; if you shall seem to neglect the great mercy of God that hath been opened unto you, (and your hearts consented unto it,) that it is the very and only truth pronounced by God's only Son Jesus Christ, by the good will of our heavenly Father: therefore I say, in the bowels of my Lord Jesus Christ, stick fast unto it; let it never depart out of your hearts and conversation, that you with us and we with you at the great day, being one flock as we have one Shepherd, may rise to the life immortal, through Jesus Christ our only Saviour. Amen.
            "Yours in him that liveth for ever.
            THOMAS HAUKES."

            Here followeth another letter of Thomas Haukes, sent to his wife after his condemnation, being prisoner in Newgate; the copy whereof is this:

            "Grace be with you, and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, which gave himself for our sins, to deliver us from this present evil world, through the good will of God our Father, to whom be praise for ever and ever. Amen.

            "My dear yoke-fellow in the Lord, forasmuch as the Lord hath not only called me to work in his vineyard, but hath also fulfilled his good work in me, (I trust to his glory, and to the comfort of all those that look for his coming,) I thought it my duty, dear yoke-fellow, to write unto you some lessons out of God's book; and if you will direct yourself thereafter, doubt not of it but God, who refuseth none that will come to him with their whole heart, will assist you with his Holy Spirit, and direct you in all his ways, to his honour and glory, who grant it for his mercy sake. Amen.

            "First, I exhort you to fear God; to serve and honour his holy name; to love him with all your heart, soul, and mind; to believe faithfully all his promises; to lay sure hold upon them, that in all your troubles, whatsoever they are, ye may run straight to the great mercy of God, and he will bring you forth of them. Keep you within his wings; then shall ye be sure that neither devil, flesh, nor hell, shall be able to hurt you.

            "But take heed; if you will not keep his holy precepts and laws, and to the uttermost of your power call for the help of God to walk in the same, but will leave them, and run to all abominations with the wicked world, and do as they do; then be sure to have your part with the wicked world in the burning lake that never shall be quenched. Therefore beware of idolatry, which doth most of all stink before the face of Almighty God, and was of all good men most detested from the beginning of the world. For the which, what kingdoms, nations, and realms, God hath punished with most terrible plagues, with fire, brimstone, hunger, sword, and pestilence, &c., to the utter subversion of them, it is manifestly to be seen through the whole Bible. Yea, his own peculiar people, whom he had done so much for, when they fell from him and went and served other gods, contrary to his commandment, he utterly destroyed and rooted them out from off the earth: and as many as died in that damnable state, not repenting their abominable evil, he threw them into the pit of hell. Again, how he hath preserved those that abhor superstition and idolatry, and that have only taken hold upon God with their whole heart, to serve him, and to love him, to fear him, &c.:-- it is most manifestly to be seen even from the beginning, out of what great dangers he hath ever delivered them: yea, when all hope of deliverance was past as touching their expectation, even then, in the sight of all his enemies, would he work his godly will and purpose, to the utter amazing and destruction of all those that were his manifest enemies.

            "Further, I exhort you, in the bowels of Christ, that you will exercise and be stedfast in prayer; for prayer is the only mean to pierce the heavens, to obtain at the hand of God whatsoever we desire; so that it be asked in faith. Oh what notable things do we read in Scriptures that have been obtained through fervent prayer! We are commanded to call upon him for help, aid, and succour, in necessities and troubles, and he hath promised to help us. Again, they that will not call upon him with their whole heart, but upon other dead creatures, in whom there is no help, (for there was none found worthy to open the book, but only the Lamb Christ which was killed for our sins,) I say, who that will refuse his help, must even by the terrible judgments of God come utterly to confusion: as it hath, and is daily manifest to be seen. And whatsoever you desire of God in your prayer, ask it for Jesus Christ's sake, for whom and in whom God hath promised to give us all things necessary. And though that which we ask come not by and by at the first and second calling, yet continue still knocking, and he will at the length open his treasures of mercy, so that ye shall be sure to obtain; for he hath so promised, if we continue in faith, hoping surely in him. These former lessons, with all such instructions as I have told you by mouth, I do wish that you would most earnestly learn; and then I doubt not, but God, who is the giver of all grace, will assist you in all your doings, that ye may be found worthy of his kingdom, which is prepared through Christ.

            "Further, whereas it hath pleased God to send us children, my desire is that they may be brought up in the fear of God and in his laws. And this is to certify you, that ye deliver in any wise my eldest son unto Master Throgmorton, who, upon his good will, hath promised me to bring him up according to my desire; and, I trust, as God hath put into his heart. See therefore that ye deliver him in any wise without delay; and as for the other, if ye shall seem to be burdened with him, (which I think nature will not suffer,) my desire is, that it be brought up in the fear of God to the uttermost of your endeavour, with some honest man that hath the fear of God before his eyes; and let us give thanks unto God who hath given them us, beseeching him that they may be counted worthy to be of that flock that shall stand on the right hand of the majesty of God, when he shall judge the world. Amen.

            "Yet once again I warn you, that ye continue in fervent prayer, as I said before; then shall ye be sure, that God, even of his own mercy, according as he hath promised, will be a husband unto you, and provide better for you than ever I was able to do; yea, he will cause all men that fear him to pity you, to help you, to succour you in all your necessities, so that if any will do you wrong, he will be avenged on him. Moreover I wish you to keep company with those of whom ye may learn to come to a more perfect knowledge in God, and I doubt not but God will provide that such will be glad to receive you, if you shall profess and go forward in his truth.

            "Finally, and to make an end, I desire you that ye take heed with whom ye couple yourself. See that he be a man that feareth God, loveth his laws, and will walk in the same to the uttermost of his power: such a one as can be content to love you, and to care for you. Take heed he be no brawler, no drunkard, no wicked person, not given to filthiness, no worldling, no dicer, nor carder: in fine, no filthy person, but choose you such a one as God may be glorified in both your lives. And again, on your part, love him, serve him, obey him in all godliness, as long as God shall give you life in this world. Then shall ye both be sure to obtain that kingdom which God the Father hath prepared, and Jesus Christ obtained for you, that never shall have end, where I trust to abide your coming. Amen.
            "By your husband.
            THOMAS HAUKES."

            Ye heard before, in the letter of Thomas Haukes written to his wife, mention made concerning his eldest son to be sent to Master Throgmorton. Now what he writeth himself to the said Master Throgmorton touching the same matter, by this his letter to the said party, hereunder ensuing, may appear.

            "Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, be with you, and assist you in all your thoughts, words, and works, that he in all things, as most worthy, may be glorified, and that the blessing of Abraham may be poured plenteously on you and all your posterity.

            "Whereas the love of God hath moved you to require my son to be brought up before your eyes, and the selfsame love hath also moved me in like case to leave him in your hands, as unto a father in mine absence, I shall require you in God's behalf, according to your promise, that ye will see him brought up in the fear of the Lord, and instructed in the knowledge of his holy word, that he may thereby learn to leave the evil, and know the good, and always be pricked forward with fatherly instructions, to follow my footsteps, that as Almighty God hath made me worthy, through his special grace, to work his will in obedience, he may learn to follow me his father in the like, to God's honour and praise: and this I require you in God's behalf to fulfil, or cause to be fulfilled, as ye, before the living God, will make answer for the same. I have left for the child certain books which shall be delivered unto you, wherein his instruction and salvation lieth, if he learn and practise the same. And thus most humbly beseeching you, once again, to be as good to him as your promise was unto me, that is, to be a father, and a wall of defence unto him in all troubles, I leave him in your hand through the Lord Jesus, and desire him to bless both him and you according to his good promise: and all that good which ye shall do unto him, I shall most heartily desire the everlasting God to recompense unto you in his kingdom, where I hope to meet both him and you among all God's elect. To which God be all praise, honour, and glory. Amen.
            "Yours and all men's in Christ Jesus.
            THOMAS HAUKES."


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