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A discourse of the apprehension, examination, and condemnation of John Denley, gentleman, John Newman, and Patrick Packingham, martyred for the testimony of Christ's gospel.

N the midst of this tempestuous rage of malignant adversaries, persecuting and destroying the poor flock of Christ, many there were, who though they were not spiritual men, yet thought to help forward, for their parts, and, as one would say, to heap up more coals to this furious flame of persecution, whether of a blind zeal or a parasitical flattery, I know not: amongst which one was Edmund Tyrrel, esq., and at that time a justice of peace within the county of Essex, an assister (as it seemeth) to cruel murderers of God's saints, who, as he came from the burning and death of certain godly martyrs, met with Master John Denley, gentleman, and one John Newman, (both of Maidstone in Kent,) travelling upon the way, and going to visit such their godly friends as then they had in the county of Essex. And upon the sight of them, as he yet braggeth, first upon suspicion apprehended and searched them; and at last, finding the confessions of their faith in writing about them, sent them up unto the queen's commissioners, directing also unto one of the same commissioners these his favourable letters in their behalf. The copy whereof here may appear as followeth.

            "Sir, with most hearty commendations unto you, these shall be to advertise you, that I have received a letter from Sir Nicholas Hare and you, and others of the king and queen's Majesty's commissioners, by a servant of the king and queen, called John Failes, for certain business about St. Osith's, the which I could not immediately go about, for that I had received a letter from the council, to assist the sheriff for the execution of the heretics, the one at Raileigh, and the other at Rochford, the which was done on Tuesday last.

            "And as I came homeward, I met with two men: even as I saw them I suspected them, and then I did examine them, and search them; and I did find about them certain letters which I have sent you, and also a certain writing in paper, what their faith was. And they confessed to me that they had forsaken and fled out of their country for religion's sake; and, since, they have been in many countries, by their confession, which I have sent you: for the which I thought it good (for that they came from London, and that there might be more had of them than I yet have understood) to send them to you, whereby you and others of the king and queen's commissioners there, might try them so that their lewdness might be thoroughly known; for I think these have caused many to trouble their consciences. So this hath been some let to me, wherefore I could not go about those matters expressed in your letters; but, to-morrow at noon, I intend by God's grace to accomplish your letters, with as much diligence as I may. And thus the Holy Trinity have you ever in his keeping. I beseech you to be so good, master, to discharge these poor men that bring these prisoners up, as soon as may be. And thus most heartily farewell.--From Ramsdon Park, the twelfth of June, 1555.
            "By yours assured to command,
            EDMUND TYRREL."

            Forasmuch as in this letter mention is made of a certain writing in paper, found about them of their faith; what this writing was, and what were the contents of it, the copy thereof here ensueth.

            "Christ is in the sacrament, as he is where two or three are gathered together in his name.

            "The difference of doctrine between the faithful and the papists concerning the sacrament is, that the papists say, that Christ is corporally under or in the forms of bread and wine; but the faithful say, that Christ is not there, neither corporally nor spiritually; but in them that worthily eat and drink the bread and wine, he is spiritually, but not corporally.

            "For figuratively he is in the bread and wine, and spiritually he is in them that worthily eat and drink the bread and wine; but really, carnally, and corporally he is only in heaven, from whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

            "My belief in the sacrament of the blessed body and blood of my Saviour Jesus Christ.

            "As concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, my belief is this, that the bread and wine is appointed unto a sacrament, and that after thanks be given to God the Father, then it doth represent unto me the very body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ: not that the bread is the body, or the wine the blood, but that I in faith do see that blessed body of our Saviour broken on the cross, and his precious blood plenteously shed, for the redemption of my sins. Also in faith I hear him call us unto him, saying, Come unto me, all ye that labour and are laden, and I will refresh you. In faith I come unto him, and I am refreshed, so that I believe that all that do come unto the table of the Lord in this faith, fear, and love, being sorry for their offences, intending earnestly to lead a godly conversation in this vale of misery, do receive the fruit of the death of Christ, which fruit is our salvation.

            "I do understand, spiritually, that as the outward man doth eat the material bread which comforteth the body, so doth the inward man, through faith, eat the body of Christ, believing that as the bread is broken, so was Christ's body broken on the cross for our sins; which comforteth our souls unto life everlasting; and signifying thereby, that even as that bread was divided among them, so should his body and fruit of his passion be distributed unto as many as believed his words. But the bread broken and eaten in the supper, monisheth and putteth us in remembrance of his death, and so exciteth us to thanksgiving, to laud and praise God for the benefits of our redemption.

            "And thus we there have Christ present: in the inward eye and sight of our faith we eat his body, and drink his blood; that is, we believe surely that his body was crucified for our sins, and his blood shed for our salvation.

            "Christ's body and blood are not contained in the sacramental bread and wine, as the papists have said, and as some yet do say, as ye read in these scriptures following: first read iii Matt. ix.; Luke v.; Matt. xxiv. and xxvi.; Mark xvi.; Luke xxiv.; John xiii.; Luke xxiii. in the end; John xiv. xv. xvi. xvii.; Acts i. iii. vii. ix.; Rom. viii.; Psalm viii.; 1 Cor. x. xi.; Exod. xii.; Col. i.; Ephes. i. iv.; Phil. i. ii.; 1 Thess. i. iv.; Heb. i. v. viii. ix. x. xii.; 1 Pet. iii.; Psalm xi. xlvii. ciii. x.

            "Christ's material body is not in all places, as these scriptures do testify hereafter.

            "First read St. Matthew the last, Mark the last, Luke the last, John xi. xx. xxi. These places of the Scripture do plainly declare, that his body, that was born of the Virgin Mary, cannot be in more places than one, and that is in heaven, on the right hand of God, and not in the sacrament; nor in all places, as the papists have affirmed, and yet do affirm.

            "Therefore, whosoever they be that do worship the creatures of bread and wine, do commit idolatry, and make abominable idols of them, and take the glory from God, and give it to his creatures, which is contrary to the mind of God, as these scriptures hereafter do testify; first in Exod. xx. xxii. xxiii. xxiv.; Lev. xix.; Deut. iv. vi. xxxii.; Psalm lxxx.; Isa. xlv.; Mal. ii.; Matt. iv.; Luke iv.; Acts xiv.; Rev. xiv.; Psalm xcviii.; 1 Cor. viii.; Ephes. iv.; 1 Tim. ii.; 1 John v.; Rev. xix. xxii.
            "JOHN DENLEY."

            Now to return to the commissioners again: they, receiving these prisoners afore-mentioned, after they saw they could little prevail with their own persuasions, sent them unto Bishop Bonner, to be handled after his fatherly and charitable discretion; which how discreet and favourable it was, as well the history of others, as also the sequel of this, doth manifestly declare; for the twenty-eighth of June then next following, he caused the said Denley and Newman, with one Patrick Packingham, to be brought into his chamber, within his house or palace, there examining them upon their confessions, (which Tyrrel had found about them,) objecting also unto them certain other articles of his own. To the which they all answered in effect one thing, although Denley answered more largely than the others; and therefore I thought it enough only to manifest his, as sufficient, and in no part differing from the others, except that Packingham had one article of no great force objected to him, which the rest had not.

            This done, the bishop used with them his accustomed persuasions, to the which Master Denley said, "God save me from your counsel, and keep me in the mind that I am in, for that you count heresy, I take to be the truth "and thereupon they were commanded to appear in the bishop's consistory the fifth of July then next coming, in the afternoon, where these articles were objected against them.

            "First, That the said N. now is of the diocese of London, and the jurisdiction of the bishop of London.

            "2. That the said N. hath not believed, nor doth believe, that there is any catholic church of Christ here in earth.

            "3. That the said N. hath not believed, nor doth believe, that this Church of England is any part or member of the said catholic church.

            "4. That the said N. hath believed, and doth believe, that the mass now used in this realm of England is naught, and full of idolatry and evil, and plain against God's word; and therefore he (the said N.) hath not heard it, nor will hear it.

            "5. That the said N. hath believed, and doth so believe, that auricular confession, used now in this realm of England, is not good, but contrary to God's word.

            "6. That the said N. hath believed, and doth so believe, that absolution, given by the priest hearing confession, is not good, nor allowable by God's word, but contrary to the same.

            "7. That the said N. hath believed, and doth so believe, that christening of children, as it is now used in the Church of England, is not good, nor allowable by God's word, but against it: likewise confirming of children, giving of orders, saying of matins and even-song, anointing or anoiling of sick persons, making of holy bread and holy water, with the rest of the church.

            "8. That the said N. hath believed, and doth so believe, that there are but two sacraments in Christ's catholic church; that is to say, the sacrament of baptism, and the sacrament of the altar.

            "9. That the said N. hath believed, and doth so believe, that forasmuch as Christ is ascended up into heaven, therefore the very body of Christ is not in the sacrament of the altar.

            "10. That thou, Patrick Packingham, now being of the age of twenty-one at the least, being within the house of the bishop of London at Paul's, and by him brought to the great chapel to hear mass there, the said twenty-third day of June, the year of our Lord 1555, didst unreverently stand in the said chapel having thy cap on thy head all the mass while; and didst also refuse to receive holy water and holy bread at the priest's hands, there contemning and despising both the mass, and the said holy water and holy bread."


The answer of John Denley and the rest, to the articles objected.

            "To the 1st article I answer, it is very true.

            "To the 2d article I answer, that it is not true: for I believe the holy catholic church which is builded upon the foundation of the prophets and apostles, Christ being the Head, which holy church is the congregation of the faithful people, dispersed through the whole world, the which church doth preach God's holy word truly, and doth also minister the two sacraments; that is to say, baptism and the supper of the Lord, according to his blessed word.

            "To the 3d article I answer, that I do believe, that this Church of England, using the faith and religion which is now used, is no part or member of the aforesaid catholic church, but is the church of antichrist, the bishop of Rome being the head thereof; for it is plain that they have altered the testament of God, and set up a testament of their own devising, full of blasphemy and lies: for Christ's testament is, that he would have all things done to the edifying of the people, as it appeareth when he taught them to pray, and also it appeareth by St. Paul, for he saith, that he that prophesieth, speaketh unto men for their edifying, for their exhortation, and for their comfort; he that speaketh with the tongue, profiteth himself; he that prophesieth, edifieth the congregation. Also he saith, Even so likewise when ye speak with tongues, except ye speak words that have signification, how shall it be understood what is spoken? for ye shall but speak in the air; that is as much to say, in vain. Also he saith, Thou verily givest thanks well, but the other is not edified. I thank my God, I speak with tongues more than ye all: yet I had rather in the congregation to speak five words with understanding, to the information of others, than ten thousand words with the tongue. Also he saith, Let all things be done to edification. Also it is written in the Psalms, For God is King of all the earth: O sing praises unto him with understanding, &c. So it doth appear, that this Church of England, now used, is not builded upon Christ, if St. Paul's words be true, and also the Psalms: therefore this church is not builded upon the prophets, apostles, nor Christ, as I have declared before.

            "To this 4th article I answer, and I do believe (as I have afore said) that the mass, now used in this realm of England, is naught, and abominable idolatry and blasphemy against God's holy word; for Christ, in his holy supper, instituted the sacraments of bread and wine, to be eaten together in remembrance of his death till he come, and riot to have them worshipped, and make an idol of them: for God will not be worshipped in his creatures, but we ought to give him praise for his creatures, which he hath created for us. For he saith in the second commandment, Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image, nor the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath: thou shalt not bow down to them nor worship them. So it appeareth by this commandment, that we ought not to worship the sacrament of bread and wine, for it is plain idolatry; for he saith, no similitude: therefore thou shalt not bow down to them nor worship them. I pray you what do you call kneeling down, holding up the hands, knocking of the breast, putting off the cap, and making curtesy, with other like superstition? You would make men to be so blind, that this is no worshipping. Peradventure you will object and say, You do not worship the bread and the wine, but Christ's body which was born of the Virgin Mary, contained under the forms of bread and wine. But that is a very lie; for Christ's body that was born of the Virgin Mary is in heaven, if St. Paul's words be true, as undoubtedly they are: for be saith, But this man, after he hath offered one sacrifice for sins, is set down for ever on the right hand of God, and from henceforth tarrieth till his foes be made his footstool.

            "Also he saith, For Christ is not entered into holy places that are made with hands, which are similitudes of true things, but is entered into very heaven, to appear now in the sight of God for us, &c. Also, But our conversation is in heaven, from whence we look for the Saviour, even the Lord Jesus Christ, &c. For they themselves show of you, what manner of entering in we had unto you, and how ye returned to God from images, to serve the living God, and to look for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from death, even Jesus which delivered us from the wrath to come, &c. Also, I went out from the Father, and came into the world. Again, I leave the world, and go to the Father, &c. Now I am not in the world, and they are in the world, and I Come to thee. And these places of the Scripture, with other more, prove plainly to them that have ears to hear, that Christ's body that was born of the Virgin Mary is in heaven, and not in the sacramental bread and wine; and therefore it is idolatry to worship them, &c.

            "To this 5th article I answer, that I do believe as I have afore said, that auricular confession is not good, as it is now used. Touching my sins, wherein I have offended God, I must seek to him for remission thereof, for our Saviour Christ saith, Come unto me, all ye that labour and are laden: I will ease you, &c. The riotous son saith, I will arise and go to my father, and I will say to him, Father, I have sinned against heaven and before thee, and I am no more worthy to be called thy son, &c. I said I will knowledge mine offences, and accuse myself unto the Lord, and so thou forgavest me the wickedness of my sin, &c. But I will reprove mine own ways in his sight: he shall make me whole, and there may no hypocrite come before him. The son of Sirach saith, Who can be cleansed of the unclean? And there was but one of the ten lepers that were cleansed, that came to Christ to give him thanks: he asked for the other nine. But if I have offended my neighbour, I must reconcile myself to my neighbour: and if I be a notorious sinner, after the first and second admonition, it ought to be declared to the congregation; and the minister of the congregation hath power by the word to excommunicate me, and I am to be taken as a heathen person, not for a day, or forty days, but unto such time as I do openly, in the congregation, acknowledge my fault. Then the minister hath power, by the word, to preach to me or them the remission of our sins in the blood of Jesus Christ, as it is written in the Acts of the Apostles, (chap. xiii.,) and Matthew, (chap. xviii.) Other confession I know none.

            "To this 6th article, I (the said John Denley) hare answered in the fifth.

            "To the 7th article I answer, that as touching the sacrament of baptism, which is the christening of children, it is altered and changed; for St. John Baptist used nothing but the preaching of the word and the water, as it doth appear, when Christ required to be baptized of him,-- and others, also, which came to John to be baptized, as it appeareth in Matt. iii., Mark i., and Luke iii.: and in Acts viii., the chamberlain said, See here is water: what letteth me to be baptized? It appeareth here that Philip had preached unto him; for he said, Here is water. We do not read that he asked for any cream, nor oil, not for spittle, nor conjured water, nor conjured wax, nor yet crysom, nor salt, for it seemeth that Philip had preached no such things to him; for he would as well have asked for them as for water -- and the water was not conjured, but even as it was afore. Also, Then answered Peter, Can any man forbid water that these should not be baptized? &c. And Paul and Silas preached unto him the word of the Lord, and to all that were in his house. And he took them the same hour of thenight, and washed their wounds; and so was he baptized, and all they of his household straightway: where ye see nothing but preaching the word and the water. The like also is to be said of the rest of the ceremonies of your church.

            "To the 8th article I answer shortly, that there be sacraments no more but two; baptism, and the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ,-- except ye will make the rainbow a sacrament: for there is no sacrament but hath a promise annexed unto it.

            "To the 9th article I do answer you, that ye have my mind written already, for it was found about me when I was taken; and also ye know my mind in the 4th article, plainly expressed concerning the bodily presence: for Christ's body is in heaven, and will not be contained in so small a piece of bread. And as the words which Christ spake are true indeed, so must they also be understood by other of the Scriptures which Christ spake himself, and also the apostles after him. And thus I make an end, &c.
            "By me.
            JOHN DENLEY."

            The first day of the month of July, the said three prisoners were brought into the consistory in Paul's church, where be proceeded against them after the usual form and manner of law, reading first their confessions, articles, and answers; and then, tempting them, sometimes with fair promises, otherwhiles with threatenings, which were always his chiefest arguments and reasons to persuade withal. In the end, seeing their unmovable constancy, upon the fifth of July he condemned them as heretics, and gave them unto the sheriffs of London, as to his common executioners, who kept them until they were commanded by writ to send them to their several places of suffering; which was for Master Denley, Uxbridge; where, the eighth day of August, he was burned. And being set in the fire with the burning flame about him, he sung in it a psalm.

            Then cruel Dr. Story, being there present, commanded one of the tormentors to hurl a faggot at him, whereupon, being hurt therewith upon the face that he bled again, he left his singing, and clapt both his hands on his face. "Truly," quoth Dr. Story to him that hurled the faggot, "thou hast marred a good old song."

            The said John Denley, being yet still in the flame of the fire, put his hands abroad, and sung again, yielding at the last his spirit into the hands of God, through his Son Jesus Christ.

            After the martyrdom of Master Denley, at Uxbridge, which was the eighth of August, suffered also not long after Patrick Packingham at the same town of Uxbridge, about the twenty-eighth of the said month. This Packingham was charged of Bonner (as ye heard in the tenth article before) for his behaviour showed in the bishop's chapel, who, at the mass time there standing, would not put off his cap, which was taken for a heinous offence. The said Packingham also, being much laboured by Bonner to recant, protested in these words to the bishop, that the church which he believed was no catholic church, but was the church of Satan, and therefore he would never turn to it, &c.

            Furthermore, as touching the other, which was John Newman, pewterer, dwelling at Maidstone in Kent, he was burned the last of August, at Saffron Walden in the county of Essex, whose examination and confession of his faith and belief, for the which he was cruelly burnt and persecuted, hereunder followeth.


The story of John Newman, martyr.

OHN Newman first was apprehended in Kent. dwelling in the town of Maidstone, and there was examined before Dr. Thornton, suffragan, and others, at Tenderden. From thence he was brought to Bonner, and there condemned with Master Denley and Packingham, and burned at Saffron Walden, as is before storied. But, because his examination and answers before the suffragan came not then to my hands, I thought here in this place to bestow them, rather than they should utterly be suppressed. And first, what his answer was by writing to the said suffragan, after his apprehension, you shall bear by the tenor of his own words, as follow:

            "It may please you to understand, that for the space of all the time of King Edward's reign, we were diligently instructed with continual sermons, made by such men, whose faith, wisdom, learning, and virtuous living, was commended unto all men under the king's hand and seal, and under the hands of the whole council. These men taught diligently a long time, persuading us by the allegations of God's word, that there was no transubstantiation nor corporal presence in the sacrament. Their doctrine was not believed of us suddenly, but by their continual preaching, and also by our continual prayer unto God, that we might never be deceived, but, if it were true, that God would incline our hearts unto it; and, if it were not true, that we might never believe it. We weighed that they laboured with God's word, and we asked the advice of our friends, neither could we find that they preached false doctrine. We considered also, as we did learn, that the king's Grace and his council, and the most part of the whole realm, believed as they taught, because no man preached the contrary. Also we know that the preachers were commanded by the king and laws of the realm, to preach unto us such doctrine, as was to the authority of God's word agreeable, and no other; and by their diligent setting-forth of it by the king's commandment, and the whole consent of the whole council, and by the authority of the parliament, we embraced it, and received it as a very infallible truth, taught unto us for the space of seven years. Wherefore, until such time as our consciences are otherwise taught and instructed by God's word, we cannot with safeguard of our consciences take it, as many suppose at this time. And we trust in God that the queen's merciful Highness, neither yet her most honourable council, will in a matter of faith use compulsion nor violence; because faith is the gift of God, and cometh not of man, neither of man's laws, neither at such time as men require it, but at such time as God giveth it."


The examination and answers of John Newman, martyr, before Dr. Thornton and others.

            First, one of the doctors, or one of the bench, (either the archdeacon or Faucet, or some other, whose name John Newman doth not express,) beginneth, asking in this wise.

            Doctor.--"How say you to this, This is my body which is given for you?"

            Newman.--"It is a figurative speech; one thing spoken, and another meant; as Christ saith, I am a vine, I am a door, I am a stone, &c. Is he therefore a material stone, a vine, or a door?"

            Doctor.--"This is no figurative speech. For be saith, This is my body which is given for you; and so saith he not of the stone, vine, or door; but that is a figurative speech."

            Newman.--"Christ saith, This cup is the new testament in my blood: if ye will have it so meant, then let them take and eat the cup."

            Doctor.--"Nay, that is not so meant; for it is a common phrase of speech among ourselves. We say to our friend, 'Drink a cup of drink,' and yet we mean he should drink the drink in the cup."

            Newman.--"Why, if ye will have the one so understood, ye must so understand the other."

            Doctor.--"Nay, it is a common use of speech, to say, 'Drink a cup of ale or beer;' and therefore it is no figurative speech."

            Newman.--"The often using of a thing doth not make that thing otherwise than it is; but wheresoever one thing is spoken, and another meant, it is a figurative speech."

            Doctor.--"Well, we will not stand hereabout. How say ye by the real presence? Is not Christ's natural body there, that was born of the Virgin Mary?"

            Newman.--"No, I do not so believe, neither can I so believe; for the soul of man doth not feed upon natural things as the body doth."

            Doctor.--"Why, how then doth it feed?"

            Newman.--"I think the soul of man doth feed as the angels in heaven, whose feeding is only the pleasure, joy, felicity, and delectation that they have of God: and so the soul of man doth feed and eat, through faith, the body of Christ."

            Collins.--"Yea, but if the body do not feed upon natural things, the soul cannot continue with the body: therefore the body must needs feed upon natural things, that both may live together."

            Newman.--"I grant it to be true; but yet the soul doth Iive otherwise than the body which doth perish: therefore natural things do but feed the body only. I pray you what did Judas receive at the supper?"

            Collins.--"Marry, Judas did receive the very body of Christ; but it was to his damnation."

            Newman.--"Why, was the devil entered into him before? Then he had both the devil and Christ in him at one time."

            Collins.--"Nay, the devil did enter into him afterward."

            Newman.--"Yea, and before too. What do ye think? Had he but one devil? Nay, I think he had rather a legion of devils at the latter end."

            Collins.--"Well, put case it be so: what say you to that?"

            Newman.--"Marry, if Christ and the devil were both in Judas at once, I pray you how did they two agree together?"

            Collins.--"We grant that they were both in Judas at that time: for Christ may be where the devil is, if he will; but the devil cannot be where Christ is, except it please Christ."

            Newman.--"Christ will not be in an unclean person that hath the devil."

            Thornton.--"Why, will ye not believe that Christ was in hell? and ye will grant that the devil is there; and so might he be in Judas, if it pleased him."

            Newman.--"Christ would not suffer Mary Magdalene to touch him, which sought him at his grave, and did love him entirely; much less he will suffer an ungodly man to receive him into his unclean body."

            Thornton.--"Yes, seeing God may do all things, he may do what he list, and be where he will. And doth not the Psalm say, he is in hell, and in all places? Why should we then doubt of his being there?"

            Newman.--"Though his Godhead be in all places, yet that is not sufficient to prove that his humanity is in all places."

            Thornton.--"No? do you not believe that God is omnipotent, and may do all things?"

            Neuman.--"I do believe that God is almighty, and may do all that he will do."

            Thornton.--"Nay, but if he be omnipotent, he may do all things, and there is nothing impossible for him to do."

            Newman.--"I know God is almighty, and can do all that he will; but he cannot make his Son a liar, he cannot deny himself, nor can he restore virginity once violated and defiled."

            Thornton.--"What is that to your purpose? God doth not defile virginity; we speak but of things that God doth."

            Newman.--"Why, will ye have the humanity of Christ in all places as the Deity is?"

            Thornton:--"Yea, he is in all places as the Deity is, if it please him."

            Newman.--"I will promise you that seemeth to me a very great heresy, for heaven and earth are not able to contain the divine power of God; for it is in all places, as here and in every place: and yet ye will say, that wheresoever the Deity is, there is also the humanity, and so ye will make him no body, but a fantastical body, and not a body indeed."

            Thornton.--"Nay, we do not say he is in all places as the Deity is; but, if it please him, he may be in all places with the Deity."

            Newman.--"I promise you, that it seemeth to me as great a heresy as ever I heard in my life, and I dare not grant it, lest I should deny Christ to be a very man; and that were against all the Scriptures."

            Thornton.--"Tush, what shall we stand reasoning with him? I dare say he doth not believe that Christ came out of his mother not opening the matrix. Do you believe that Christ rose from death, and came through the stone?"

            Newman.--"I do believe that Christ rose from death; but I do not believe that he came through the stone, neither doth the Scripture so say."

            Thornton.--"Lo! how say you? he doth not believe that Christ came through the stone; and if he doth not believe this, how shall he believe the other? If he could believe this, it were easy for him to believe the other."

            Newman." The Scripture doth not say he went through the stone, but it saith the angels of God came down, and rolled away the stone, and for fear of him the keepers became even as dead men."

            Thornton.--"Ah! fool, fool; that was because the woman should see that was risen again from death."

            Newman.--"Well, the Scripture maketh as much for me, as it doth for you, and more too."

            Thornton.--"Well, let us not stand any longer about this: back again to the real presence. How say ye, is the body of Christ really in the sacrament, or no?

            Newman.--"I have answered you already."

            Thornton.--"Well, do ye not believe that he is there really?"

            Newman.--"No, I believe it not."

            Thornton.--"Well, will ye stand to it?"

            Newman.--"I must needs stand to it, till I be persuaded by a further truth."

            Thornton.--"Nay, ye will not be persuaded, but stand to your own opinion."

            Newman.--"Nay, I stand not to mine own opinion, (God I take to witness,) but only to the Scriptures of God, and that can all those that stand here witness with me, and nothing but the Scriptures: and I take God to witness, that I do nothing of presumption, but that that I do, is only my conscience; and if there be a further truth than I see, except it appear a truth to me, I cannot receive it as a truth. And seeing faith is the gift of God, and cometh not of man; for it is not you that can give me faith, nor no man else: therefore I trust ye will bear the more with me, seeing it must be wrought by God; and when it shall please God to open a further truth to me, I shall receive it with all my heart, and embrace it."

            "Thornton had many other questions which I did not bear away; but as I do understand, these are the chiefest: as for taunts, foolish and unlearned, he lacked none. Praise God for his gifts, and God increase in us strength."


The Arguments of John Newman.

            "If the body of Christ were really and bodily in the sacrament, then whosoever received the sacrament, received also the body.

            "The wicked receiving the sacrament, receive not the body of Christ.

            "Ergo, The body of Christ is not really in the sacrament."

            "They which eat the flesh, and drink the blood of Christ, dwell in him, and he in them.

            "The wicked dwell not in Christ, nor he in them.

            "Ergo, the wicked eat not the flesh, nor drink the blood of Christ."



            "They that have Christ dwelling in them, bring forth much fruit: He that dwelleth in me, and I in him, bringeth forth much fruit.

            "The wicked bring forth no fruit of goodness.

            "Ergo, They have not Christ's body dwelling in them."



            "Where remembrance is of a thing, there is imported the absence thereof.

            "Remembrance of Christ's body is in the sacrament, Do this in remembrance of me, &c.

            "Ergo, Christ's body there, is imported to be absent."

            "Marry they will say, we see him not with our outward eyes, but he is commended under the forms of bread and wine, and that we see is nothing but a quality or an accident. But let them show me a quality or an accident without a substance, and I will believe them."

            And thus much concerning Newman's examinations and arguments.


The faith of John Newman, dwelling at Maidstone in Kent, who was by occupation a pewterer.

            "The Lord is the protector of my life. The just shall live by faith, and if he withdraw himself, my soul shall have no pleasure in him.

            "My faith is, that there is one God, which is without beginning, and without ending. This God created all things visible and invisible. And after that he had made both heaven and earth, with all other creatures, he made man, and set him in the place which he had prepared for him, which place he called Eden. He gave to Adam his commandments and precepts, and said, Whensoever thou dost the thing which I forbid, thou shalt surely die the death. Yet did man, for all this, disobey God his Creator, and after his sin, he fled from God, hid himself, and was in a miserable desperate case. But God, seeing man in his miserable estate, because he and all posterity should riot continue in death, promised Adam that the woman's seed should break the serpent's head; whereby is meant, that Son of God should become man, and destroy the devil, which by his subtle persuasions had deceived Adam. Then did Adam, by faith, take hold of God's promise, and became the servant of righteousness, through the faith which he had in the promise of the woman's seed: so did Abel, Seth, Enoch, and Noah, with faithful Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the rest of the faithful until Christ's time. As St. Paul saith, They did eat all of one spiritual meat, and did all drink of one spiritual drink: they did drink of that spiritual rock that followed them, which rock was Christ that saveth us. And when the time was full come, God sent his Son, made of woman, that is, he took flesh of the Virgin Mary, and became man; not the shadow of a man, nor a fantastical man, as some falsely feign, but a very natural man in all points, sin only excepted, which God and man is Christ, the promised woman's seed. This Christ was here conversant among men for the space of thirty years and more; and when the time was come that he should go to his Father, he gave unto us the mystery of our redemption, that we, through faith, should eat his body, and drink his blood, that we might feed on him through faith, to the end of the world. After this, Christ offered up his body on the cross to pacify his Father, and to deliver us from the thraldom of the devil, in the which we were, through sin original and actual. And with that one sacrifice of his body once offered on the cross, he hath made perfect for ever all them that are sanctified. He descended into hell, the third day he rose again from death, and was conversant at certain times with his disciples for the space of forty days after he rose from death. Then, in the sight of all his disciples, he ascended into heaven: and as his disciples stood looking upward, and beholding him how he went into heaven, two men stood by them in white apparel, which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come even as ye have seen him go into heaven. St. Peter also saith, that the heavens must receive him, until the time that all things which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his prophets since the world began, be restored again; which is the latter day, when he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

            "I do believe in the Holy Ghost, which is the Spirit of God, proceeding from the Father and the Son, which Holy Spirit is one God with them. I believe that there is a holy church, which is the company of the faithful and elect people of God, dispersed abroad throughout the whole world, which holy church or congregation doth not look for Christ here, nor Christ there, neither in the desert, nor in the secret places, whereof Christ warneth us; but as St. Paul saith, in heaven, where he sitteth on the right hand of God the Father. They set their affections on things that are above, and not on things that are on the earth; for they are dead concerning the things of this world, and their life is hid with Christ in God: and when Christ, which is their life, shall show himself, then shall they also appear with him in glory.

            "I believe that there is a communion of saints, even the fellowship of the faithful people which are dispersed abroad throughout all the whole world, and are of one mind. They follow Christ their Head; they love one another as Christ loved them, and are knit together in one, even in Christ; which church or congregation hath forgiveness of sins through Christ, and shall enter without spot before the face of God into his glory: for as Christ, being their Head, hath entered pure and clean, so they, entering by him, shall be like him in glory.

            "And I am certain and sure that all they which do die, shall rise again and receive their bodies. In them shall they see Christ come in his glory, to judge the quick and the dead; at whose coming all men shall appear and give a reckoning of their doings. He shall separate the good from the bad; he shall say to them which are his elect, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the beginning; but to the others that have always resisted his will, he shall say, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, which is prepared for the devil and his angels.

            "Thus have I briefly declared my faith, which were no faith at all, if I were in doubt of it. This faith therefore I desire God to increase in me. Praise God for his gifts!"

            And thus have ye the martyrdom with the confession of this blessed man, and witness of the Lord's truth, who for that gave his life, as is before declared.

            Likewise Richard Hook about the same season, and for the same matter, gave his life at Chichester.


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