320. THE EXAMINATION OF RIDLEY AND LATIMER
And thus hast thou, gentle reader, the whole life, both of Master Ridley and of Master Latimer, two worthy doers in the church of Christ, severally and by themselves set forth and described, withal their doings, writings, disputations, sufferings, their painful travails, faithful preachings, studious service in Christ's church, their patient imprisonment, and constant fortitude in that which they had taught, with all other their proceedings from time to time, since their first springing years, to this present time and month of Queen Mary, being the month of October, A. D. 1555; in the which month they were brought forth together, to their final examination and execution. Wherefore, as we have heretofore declared both their lives severally and distinctly one from the other; so now jointly to couple them both together, as they were together both joined in one society of cause and martyrdom, we will, by the grace of Christ, prosecute the rest thatremaineth concerning their latter examination, degrading, and constant suffering, with the order and manner also of the commissioners, which were, Dr. White, bishop of Lincoln, Dr. Brooks, bishop of Gloucester, with others; and what were their words, their objections, their orations there used; and what again were the answers of these men to the same, as in the process here followeth to be seen.
The order and manner of the examination of Doctor Ridley and Master Latimer, had the thirtieth day of September, 1555, before the queen's commissioners.
IRST, after the appearing of Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, before the pope's delegate and the queen's commissioners, in St. Mary's church at Oxford, about the twelfth day of September, whereof more shall be said (by the Lord's grace) when we come to the death of the said archbishop; shortly after, upon the twenty-eighth of the said month of September, was sent down to Oxford another commission from Cardinal Pole, legate a latere, to John White, bishop of Lincoln, to Dr. Brooks, bishop of Gloucester, and to Dr. Holyman, bishop of Bristol. The contents and virtue of which commission were, that the said John of Lincoln, James of Gloucester, and John of Bristol, they, or two of them, should have full power and authority, to ascite, examine, and judge Master Hugh Latimer, and Master Dr. Ridley, pretended bishops of Worcester and London, for divers and sundry erroneous opinions, which the said Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley did hold and maintain in open disputations had in Oxford, in the months of May, June, and July, in the year of our Lord 1554, as long before, in the time of perdition, and since. The which opinions if the named persons would now recant, giving and yielding themselves to the determination of the universal and catholic church, planted by Peter in the blessed see of Rome, that then they the deputed judges, by the said authority of their commission, should have power to receive the said penitent persons, and forthwith minister unto them the reconciliation of the holy father the pope. But if the said Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley would stoutly and stubbornly defend and maintain these their erroneous opinions and assertions, that then the said lords by their commission should proceed in form of judgment, according to the law of heretics, that is, degrading them from their promotion and dignity of bishops, priests, and all other ecclesiastical orders, should pronounce them as heretics; and therefore clean cut them off from the church, and so yield them to receive punishment due to all such heresy and schism.
Wherefore, the last of September, the said two persons, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer, were ascited to appear before the said lords, in the divinity school at Oxford, at eight of the clock. At what time thither repaired the lords, placing themselves in the high seat, made for public lectures and disputations, according to the usage of that school, being then fair set, and trimmed with cloth of tissue, and cushions of velvet. And after the said lords were placed and set, the said Latimer and Ridley were sent for; and first appeared Master Dr. Ridley, and anon Master Latimer. But because it seemed good severally to examine them, Master Latimer was kept back until Dr. Ridley was throughly examined. Therefore, soon after the coming of Dr. Ridley into the school, the commission was published by an appointed notary, and openly read. But Dr. Ridley, standing bareheaded, humbly expecting the cause of that his appearance, eftsoons as he had heard the cardinal named, and the pope's Holiness, put on his cap. Wherefore, after the commission was published in form and sense above specified, the bishop of Lincoln spake in sense following:
Lincoln.--"Master Ridley, although neither I, neither my Lords here, in respect to our own persons do look for cap or knee, yet because we bear and represent such persons as we do, that is, my Lord Cardinal's Grace, legate a latere to the pope's Holiness, as well in that he is of noble parentage, [and therewith Master Ridley moved his cap with lowly obeisance,] descending from the regal blood, as in that he is a man worthy to be reverenced with all humility, for his great knowledge and learning, noble virtues, and godly life, and especially in that be is here in England deputy to the pope's Holiness, it should have becomed you at this name to have uncovered your head. Wherefore, except you will of your own self take the pains to put your hand to your head, and at the nomination, as well of the said cardinal, as of the pope's Holiness, uncover the same, lest that this your contumacy, exhibited now before us, should be prejudicial to the said most reverend persons, (which thing we may in no case suffer,) you shall cause us to take the pain, to cause some man to pluck off your cap from you."
To whom Master Ridley, making his petition for licence, answered:
Ridley.--"As touching that you said, my Lord, that you of your own persons desire no cap nor knee, but only require the same in consideration that you represent the cardinal Grace's person, I do you to wit, and thereupon make my protestation, that I did put on my cap at the naming of the cardinal's Grace, neither for any contumacy that I bear towards your own persons, neither for any derogation of honour to the lord cardinal's Grace: for I know him to be a man worthy of all humility, reverence, and honour, in that he came of the most regal blood, and in that he is a man endued with manifold graces of learning and virtue. And as touching these virtues and points, I, with all humility [therewith he put off his cap, and bowed his knee] and obeisance that I may, will reverence and honour his Grace: but, in that he is legate to the bishop of Rome, [and therewith put on his cap,] whose usurped supremacy, and abused authority, I utterly refuse and renounce, I may in no wise give any obeisance or honour unto him, lest that my so doing and behaviour might be prejudicial to mine oath, and a derogation to the verity of God's word. And therefore, that I might not only by confession profess the verity in not reverencing the renounced authority, contrary to God's word, but also in gesture, in behaviour, and all my doings, express the same, I have put on my cap; and for this consideration only, and not for any contumacy to your Lordships, neither contempt of this worshipful audience, neither derogation of any honour due to the cardinal his Grace, both for his noble parentage, and also his excellent qualities, I have kept on my cap."
Lincoln.--"Master Ridley, you excuse yourself of that with the which we pressed you not, in that you protest you keep on your cap, neither for any contumacy towards us, (which look for no such honour of you,) neither for any contempt of this audience, which, although justly they may, yet (as I suppose) in this case do not require any such obeisance of you; neither in derogation of any honour due to my Lord Cardinal's Grace, for his regal descent [at which word Master Ridley moved his cap] and excellent' qualities; for although in all the premises honour be due, yet in these respects we require none of you, but only in that my Lord Cardinal's Grace is, here in England, deputy of the pope's Holiness [at which word the lords and others put off their caps, and Master Ridley put onthis] and therefore we say unto you the second time, that except you take the pains yourself to put your hand to your head, and put off your cap, you shall put us to the pain, to cause some man to take it from you, except you allege some infirmity and sickness, or other more reasonable cause, upon the consideration whereof we may do as we think good."
Ridley.--"The premises I said only for this end, that it might as well appear to your Lordships, as to this worshipful audience, why and for what consideration I used such kind of behaviour, in not humbling myself to your Lordships with cap and knee: and as for my sickness, I thank my Lord God, that I am as well at ease, as I was this long season; and therefore I do not pretend that which is not, but only this, that it might appear by this my behaviour, that I acknowledge in no point that usurped supremacy of Rome, and therefore contemn and utterly despise all authority coming from him. In taking off my cap, do as it shall please your Lordships, and I shall be content."
Illustration -- The Beadle removing Dr. Ridley's cap
Then the bishop of Lincoln, after the third admonition, commanded one of the beadles (that is, an officer of the university) to pluck his cap from his head. Master Ridley bowing his head to the officer, gently permitted him to take away his cap. After this the bishop of Lincoln in a long oration exhorted Master Ridley to recant, and submit himself to the universal faith of Christ, in this manner:
Lincoln.--"Master Ridley, I am sure you have sufficiently pondered with yourself the effect of this our commission with good advisement, considering both points thereof, how that authority is given to us, if you shall receive the true doctrine of the church, (which first was founded by Peter at Rome immediately after the death of Christ, and from him by lineal succession hath been brought to this our time,) if you will be content to renounce your former errors, recant your heretical and seditious opinions, content to yield yourself to the undoubted faith and truth of the gospel, received and always taught of the catholic and apostolic church, the which the king and queen, all the nobles of this realm, and commons of the same, all Christian people, have and do confess, you only standing alone by yourself: you understand and perceive, I am sure, that authority is given us to receive you, to reconcile you, and upon due penance to adjoin and associate you again into the number of the catholics and Christ's church, from the which you have so long strayed, without the which no man can be saved, the which thing I and my Lords here, yea, and all, as well nobles and commons of this realm, most heartily desire, and I for my part [wherewith he put off his cap] most earnestly exhort you to do.
"Remember, Master Ridley, it is no strange country whither I exhort you to return. You were once one of us; you have taken degrees in the school. You were made a priest, and became a preacher, setting forth the same doctrine which we do now. You were made bishop according to our laws; and, to be short, it is not so long agone, since you separated yourself from us, and in the time of heresy became a setter-forth of that devilish and seditious doctrine which in these latter days was preached amongst us. For at what time the new doctrine of only faith began to spring, the council, willing to win my Lord Chancellor, sent you to him, (I then being in my Lord's house, unknown as I suppose to you,) and after you had talked with my Lord secretly, and were departed, immediately my Lord declared certain points of your talk, and means of your persuasion; and amongst others this was one, that you should say, 'Tush, my Lord, this matter of justification is but a trifle, let us not stick to condescend herein to them; but for God's love, my Lord, stand stoutly in the verity of the sacrament: for I see they will assault that also.' If this be true, (as my Lord is a man credible enough in such a matter,) hereby it is declared of what mind you were then, as touching the truth of the most blessed sacrament.
"Also in a sermon of yours at Paul's Cross, you as effectually and as catholicly spake of that blessed sacrament, as any man might have done; whereby it appeareth that it is no strange thing, nor unknown place, whereunto I exhort you. I wish you to return thither from whence you came; that is, together with us to acknowledge the church of God, wherein no man may err, to acknowledge the supremacy of our most reverend father in God the pope's Holiness, which (as I said) lineally taketh his descent from Peter, upon whom Christ promised before his death, to build his church; the which supremacy or prerogative, the most ancient fathers in all ages, in all times did acknowledge [and here he brought a place or two out of the doctors, but especially stayed upon a saying of St. Augustine, who writeth in this manner: 'All the Christian countries beyond the sea are subject to the Church of Rome.'] Here you see, Master Ridley, that all Christendom is subject to the Church of Rome. What should stay you therefore to confess the same with St. Augustine and the other fathers?"
Then Master Ridley desired his patience, to suffer him to speak somewhat of the premises, lest the multitude of things might confound his memory; and having grant thereunto, he said in this manner:
Ridley.--"My Lord, I most heartily thank your Lordship, as well for your gentleness, as also for your sobriety in talk, and for your good and favourable zeal in this learned exhortation, in the which I have marked especially three points which you used, to persuade me to leave my doctrine and religion, which I perfectly know and am thoroughly persuaded to be grounded not upon man's imagination and decrees, but upon the infallible truth of Christ's gospel, and not to look back, and to return to the Romish see, contrary to mine oath, contrary to the prerogative and crown of this realm, and especially (which moveth me most) contrary to the expressed word of God.
"First, The first point is this, that the see of Rome, taking its beginning from Peter, upon whom you say Christ hath builded his church, hath in all ages lineally, from bishop to bishop, been brought to this time.
"Secondly, That even the holy fathers from time to time have in their writings confessed the same.
"Thirdly, That in that I was once of the same opinion, and, together with you, I did acknowledge the same.
"First, as touching the saying of Christ, from whence your Lordship gathereth the foundation of the church upon Peter, truly the place is not so to be understood as you take it, as the circumstance of the place will declare. For after that Christ had asked his disciples whom men judged him to be, and they had answered, that some had said he was a prophet, some Elias, some one thing, some another, then he said, Whom say ye that I am? Then Peter said, I say, That thou art Christ, the Son of God. To whom Christ answered, I say, Thou art Peter, and upon this stone I will build my church; that is to say, upon this stone -- not meaning Peter himself, as though he would have constituted a mortal man, so frail and brickle a foundation of his stable and infallible church; but upon this rock-stone -- that is, this confession of thine, that I am the Son of God, I will build my church. For this is the foundation and beginning of all Christianity, with word, heart, and mind, to confess that Christ is the Son of God. Whosoever believeth not this, Christ is not in him: and he cannot have the mark of Christ printed on his forehead, which confesseth not that Christ is the Son of God. Therefore Christ said unto Peter, that upon this rock, that is, upon this his confession, that he was Christ the Son of God, he would build his church; to declare, that without this faith no man can come to Christ: so that this belief, that Christ is the Son of God, is the foundation of our Christianity, and the foundation of our church. Here you see upon what foundation Christ's church is built, not upon the frailty of man, but upon the stable and infallible word of God.
"Now as touching the lineal descent of the bishops in the see of Rome, true it is, that the patriarchs of Rome in the apostles' time, and long after, were great maintainers and setters-forth of Christ's glory, in the which above all other countries and regions there especially was preached the true gospel, the sacraments were most duly ministered: and as before Christ's coming it was a city so valiant in prowess and martial affairs, that all the world was in a manner subject to it; and after Christ's passion, divers of the apostles there suffered persecution for the gospel's sake; so, after that the emperors, their hearts being illuminated, received the gospel, and became Christians, the gospel there, as well for the great power and dominion, as for the fame of the place, flourished most, whereby the bishops of that place were had in more reverence and honour, most esteemed in all councils and assemblies, not because they acknowledged them to be their head, but because the place was most reverenced and spoken of, for the great power and strength of the same. As now here in England, the bishop of Lincoln in sessions and sittings hath the pre-eminence of the other bishops, not in that he is the head and ruler of them; but for the dignity of the bishopric. [And therewith the people smiled.] Wherefore the doctors in their writings have spoken most reverently of this see of Rome, and in their writings preferred it; and this is the prerogative which your Lordship did rehearse the ancient doctors to give to the see of Rome. "Semblably, I cannot nor dare not but commend, reverence, and honour the see of Rome, as long as it continued in the promotion and setting-forth of God's glory, and in due preaching of the gospel, as it did many years after Christ. But, after that the bishops of that see, seeking their own pride, and not God's honour, began to set themselves above kings and emperors, challenging to them the title of God's vicars, the dominion and supremacy over all the world, I cannot but with St. Gregory, a bishop of Rome also, confess that the bishop of that place is the very true antichrist, whereof St. John speaketh by the name of the whore of Babylon, and say with the said St. Gregory, 'He that maketh himself a bishop over all the world, is worse than antichrist.'
"Now whereas you say St. Augustine should seem not only to give such a prerogative, but also supremacy to the see of Rome, in that he saith, All the Christian world is subject to the Church of Rome, and therefore should give to that see a certain kind of subjection, I am sure that your Lordship knoweth, that in St. Augustine's time, there were four patriarchs, of Alexandria, Constantinople, Antioch, and Rome, which patriarchs had under them certain countries; as in England the archbishop of Canterbury hath under him divers bishoprics in England and Wales, to whom he may be said to be their patriarch. Also your Lordship knoweth right well, that at what time St. Augustine wrote this book, he was then bishop in Africa. Further, you are not ignorant, that between Europe and Africa lieth the sea called Mare Mediterraneum, so that all the countries in Europe to him which is in Africa may be called transmarine, countries beyond the sea. Hereof St. Augustine saith, 'All the Christian countries beyond the seas and far regions, are subject to the see of Rome.' If I should say all countries beyond the sea, I do except England, which to me now, being in England, is not beyond the sea. In this sense St. Augustine saith, 'All countries beyond the sea are subject to the see of Rome;' declaring thereby that Rome was one of the sees of the four patriarchs, and under it Europe. By what subjection, I pray you? only for a pre-eminence, as we here in England say, that all the bishoprics in England are subject to the archbishoprics of Canterbury and York. For this pre-eminence, also, the other doctors (as you recited) say, that Rome is the mother of churches, as the bishopric of Lincoln is mother to the bishopric of Oxford, because the bishopric of Oxford came from the bishopric of Lincoln, and they were both once one; and so is the archbishopric of Canterbury mother to the other bishoprics which are in her province. In like sort the archbishopric of York is mother to the north bishoprics; and yet no man will say, that Lincoln, Canterbury, or York, is supreme head to other bishoprics; neither then ought we to confess the see of Rome to be supreme head, because the doctors in their writings confess the see of Rome to be mother of churches.
"Now whereas you say, I was once of the same religion which you are of, the truth is, I cannot but confess the same. Yet so was St. Paul a persecutor of Christ. But to that you say, that I was one of you not long agone, in that I, doing my message to my Lord of Winchester, should desire him to stand stout in that gross opinion of the supper of the Lord; in very deed I was sent (as your Lordship said) from the council to my Lord of Winchester, to exhort him to receive also the true confession of justification; and because he was very refractorious, I said to him, 'Why, my Lord, what make you so great a matter herein? You see many Anabaptists rise against the sacrament of the altar; I pray you, my Lord, be diligent in confounding of them;' for at that time my Lord of Winchester and I had to do with two Anabaptists in Kent. In this sense I willed my Lord to be stiff in the defence of the sacrament against the detestable errors of Anabaptists, and not in the confirmation of that gross and carnal opinion now maintained.
"In like sort, as touching my sermon which I made at Paul's Cross, you shall understand that there were at Paul's, and divers other places, fixed railing bills against the sacrament, terming it 'Jack of the box,' 'the sacrament of the halter,' 'round Robin,' with such-like unseemly terms; for the which causes, I, to rebuke the unreverent behaviour of certain evil-disposed persons, preached as reverently of that matter as I might, declaring what estimation and reverence ought to be given to it, what danger ensued the mishandling thereof; affirming in that sacrament to be truly and verily the body and blood of Christ, effectually by grace and spirit: which words the unlearned, understanding not, supposed that I had meant of the gross and carnal being which the Romish decrees set forth, that a body, having life and motion, should be indeed under the shapes of bread and wine."
With that the bishop of Lincoln, somewhat interrupting him, said:--
"Well, Master Ridley, thus you wrest places to your own pleasure; for whereas St. Augustine saith, that the whole Christian world is subject to the see of Rome without any limitation, and useth these words, In transmarinis, et longe remotis terris, only to express the latitude of the dominion of the see of Rome, willing thereby to declare that all the world, yea, countries far distant from Rome, yet nevertheless are subject to that see, yet you would wrest it, and leave it only to Europe. I am sure ye will not deny, but that totus mundus is more than Europe."
Ridley.--"Indeed, my Lord, if St. Augustine had said, simpliciter totus mundus, and not added in transmarinis, it had been without limitation; but in that he said, totus mundus in transmarinis partibus, 'all the countries beyond the seas,' he himself doth limit the universal proposition, declaring how far he meant by totus mundus."
The bishop not staying for his answer, did proceed, saying:-
"Well, if I should stay upon this place, I could bring many more places of the fathers for the confirmation thereof; but we have certain instructions, according to the which we must proceed, and came not hither to dispute the matter with you, but only to take your answers to certain articles; and used this in the way of disputation, in the which you interrupted me: wherefore I will return thither again.
"Ye must consider that the church of Christ lieth not hidden, but is a city on the mountain, and a candle on the candlestick. Ponder with yourself, that the church of Christ is 'catholic,' which is deduced of κατα ολον [Greek: kata olon], that is, per omnia: so that Christ's church is universally spread throughout the world, not contained in the alligation of places, not comprehended in the circuit of England, not contained in the compass of Germany and Saxony, as your church is. Wherefore, Master Ridley, for God's love be ye not singular; acknowledge with all the realm the truth: it shall not be (as you allege) prejudicial to the crown; for the king and queen their Majesties have renounced that usurped power taken of their predecessors, and justly have renounced it. For I am sure you know that there are two powers, the one declared by the sword, the other by the keys. The sword is given to kings and rulers of countries; the keys were delivered by Christ to Peter, and of him left to all the successors. As touching our goods, possession, and lives, we with you acknowledge us subjects to the king and queen, who hath the temporal sword; but as concerning matters of religion, as touching God's quarrel and his word, we acknowledge another head: and as the king and the queen their Highnesses do in all worldly affairs justly challenge the prerogative and primacy, so in spiritual and ecclesiastical matters they acknowledge themselves not to be heads and rulers, but members of Christ's body. Why therefore should ye stick at that matter, the which their Majesties have forsaken and yielded?
"Wherefore (Master Ridley) you shall not only not do injury to the crown, and be prejudicial to their Majesties' honour, in acknowledging with all Christendom the pope's Holiness to be supreme head of Christ's church here militant in earth, but do a thing most delectable in their sight, and most desired of his Holiness. Thus if you will do, revoking together all your errors, acknowledging with the residue of the realm the common and the public fault, you shall do that all men most heartily desire; you shall bring quietness to your conscience, and health to your soul. Then shall we with great joy, by the authority committed to us from the cardinal's Grace, receive you into the church again, acknowledging you to be no longer a rotten, but a lively member of the same. But if you shall still be singular, if you shall still and obstinately persevere in your errors, stubbornly maintaining your former heresies, then we must, against our will, according to our commission, separate you from us, and cut you off from the church, lest the rottenness of one part in process of time putrefy and corrupt the whole body; then must we confess and publish you to be none of ours; then must we yield you up to the temporal judges, of whom, except it otherwise please the king and queen's Highness, you must receive punishment by the laws of this realm, due for heretics.
"Wherefore, Master Ridley, consider you state; remember your former degrees; spare your body; especially consider your soul, which Christ so dearly bought with his precious blood. Do not you rashly cast away that which was precious in God's sight; enforce us not to do all that we may do, which is only to publish you to be none of us, to cut you off from the church; for we do not, nor cannot condemn you to die, (as most untruly hath been reported of us,) but that is the temporal judge's office, we only declare you to be none of the church; and then must you, according to the tenor of them, and pleasure of the rulers, abide their determination, so that we, after that we have given you up to the temporal rulers, have no further to do with you.
"But I trust, Master Ridley, we shall not have occasion to do that we may. I trust you will suffer us to rest in that point of our commission, which we most heartily desire, that is, upon recantation and repentance to receive you, to reconcile you, and again to adjoin you to the unity of the church."
Then Master Ridley, with often interruption, at length spake:--
Ridley.--"My Lord, I acknowledge an unspotted church of Christ, in the which no man can err, without the which no man can be saved; the which is spread throughout all the world, that is, the congregation of the faithful; neither do I alligate or bind the same to any one place, as you said, but confess the same to be spread throughout all the world; and where Christ's sacraments are duly ministered, his gospel truly preached and followed, there doth Christ's church shine as a city upon a hill, and as a candle in the candlestick: but rather it is such as you, that would have the church of Christ bound to a place, which appoint the same to Rome, that there, and no where else, is the foundation of Christ's church. But I am fully persuaded that Christ's church is every where founded, in every place where his gospel is truly received, and effectually followed. And in that the church of God is in doubt, I use herein the wise counsel of Vincentius Lyrinensis, whom I am sure you will allow, who, giving precepts how the catholic church may be in all schisms and heresies known, writeth in this manner: 'When,' saith he, 'one part is corrupted with heresies, then prefer the whole world before that one part; but if the greatest part be infected, then prefer antiquity.' In like sort now, when I perceive the greatest part of Christianity to be infected with the poison of the see of Rome, I repair to the usage of the primitive church, which I find clean contrary to the pope's decrees; as in that the priest receiveth alone, that it is made unlawful to the laity to receive in both kinds, and such like. Wherefore it requireth that I prefer the antiquity of the primitive church, before the novelty of the Romish church."
Lincoln.--"Master Ridley, these faults which you charge the see of Rome withal, are indeed no faults. For first, it was never forbidden the laity, but that they might, if they demanded, receive under both kinds. You know also, that Christ after his resurrection, at what time he went with his apostles to Galilee, opened himself by breaking of bread. You know that St. Paul, after his long sailing towards Rome, brake bread, and that the apostles came together in breaking of bread, which declareth that it is not unlawful to minister the sacrament under the form of bread only: and yet the church had just occasion to decree, that the laity should receive in one kind only, thereby to take away an opinion of the unlearned, that Christ was not wholly both flesh and blood under the form of bread. Therefore, to take away their opinion, and to establish better the people's faith, the Holy Ghost in the church thought fit to decree, that the laity should receive only in one kind; and it is no news for the church upon just consideration to alter rites and ceremonies. For you read in the Acts of the Apostles, that St. Paul, writing to certain of the Gentiles which had received the gospel, biddeth them to abstain, a sufocato et sanguine, that is from things stifled, and from blood; so that this seemeth to be an express commandment; yet who will say but that it is lawful to eat bloodings? how is it lawful, but by the permission of the church?"
Ridley.--"My Lord, such things as St. Paul enjoined to the Gentiles for a sufferance, by a little and little to win the Jews to Christ, were only commandments of time, and respected not the successors: but Christ's commandment, Do this, that is, that which he did in remembrance, which was not to minister in one kind only, was not a commandment for a time, but to persevere to the world's end."
But the bishop of Lincoln, not attending to this answer, without any stay, proceeded in this oration.
Lincoln.--"So that the church seemeth to have authority by the Holy Ghost, whom Christ said he would send after his ascension, which should teach the apostles all truth, to have power and jurisdiction to alter such points of the Scripture, ever reserving the foundation. But we came not, as I said before, in this sort to reason the matter with you, but have certain instructions ministered unto us, according to the tenor of the which we must proceed, proposing certain articles, unto the which we require your answer directly, either affirmatively or negatively to every of them, either denying them or granting them, without further disputations or reasoning; for we have already stretched our instructions, in that we suffered you to debate and reason the matter, in such sort as we have done: the which articles you shall hear now; and tomorrow, at eight of the clock, in St. Mary's church, we will require and take your answers; and then according to the same proceed. And if you require a copy of them, you shall have it, pen, ink, and paper; also such books as you shall demand, if they be to be gotten in the university."
Articles, jointly and severally ministered to Dr. Ridley and Master Latimer, by the pope's deputy.
"In Dei nomine, amen. Nos Iohannes Lincolniensis, Iacobus Glocesrensis, et Iohannes Bristollensis, episcopi, per reverendissimum dominum Reginaldum -- miseratione divina, S. Mariæ in cosmedin, sancta Romanæ ecclesiæ diaconum cardinalem Polum nuncupatum, sanctissimi domini nostri papæ, et sedis apostolicæ, ad serenissimos Philippum et Mariam Angliæ reges et ad universum Angliæ regnum legatum -- authoritate sufficiente delegati, ad inquirendum de quodam negotio inquisitionis hereticæ pravitatis contra et adversus Hugonem Latimerum et Nicholaum Ridleyum (pro episcopis Vigornensi et Londoniensi se respective gerentes, specialiter delegati, et contra et adversus eorum quemlibet inquirendo) proponimus, et articulamur conjunctim et divisim, prout sequitur.
"1. We do object to thee, Nicholas Ridley, and to thee, Hugh Latimer, jointly and severally; first, that thou, Nicholas Ridley, in this high university of Oxford, anno 1554, in the months of April, May, June, July, or in some one or more of them, hast affirmed, and openly defended and maintained, and in many other times and places besides, that the true and natural body of Christ, after the consecration of the priest, is not really present in the sacrament of the altar.
"2. Item, that in the year and months aforesaid, thou hast publicly affirmed and defended, that in the sacrament of the altar remaineth still the substance of bread and wine.
"3. Item, that in the said year and months thou hast openly affirmed, and obstinately maintained, that in the mass is no propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and the dead.
"4. Item, that in the year, place, and months aforesaid, these thy foresaid assertions solemnly have been condemned, by the scholastical censure of this school, as heretical and contrary to the catholic faith, by the worshipful Master Doctor Weston, prolocutor then of the convocation house, as also by other learned men of both the universities.
"5. Item, that all and singular the premises be true, notorious, famous, and openly known by public fame, as well to them near hand, and also to them in distant places far off."
The examination of Dr. Ridley upon the said articles.
All these articles I thought good here to place together, that as often as hereafter rehearsal shall be of any of them, the reader may have recourse hither, and peruse the same; and not to trouble the story with several repetitions thereof. After these articles were read, the bishops took counsel together. At the last the bishop of Lincoln said:
Lincoln.--"These are the very same articles which you, in open disputation here in the university, did maintain and defend. What say you unto the first? I pray you answer affirmatively, or negatively."
Ridley.--"Why, my Lord, I supposed your gentleness had been such, that you would have given me space until to-morrow, that, upon good advisement, I might bring a determinate answer."
Lincoln.--"Yea, Master Ridley, I mean not that your answers now shall be prejudicial to your answers to-morrow. I will take your answers at this time, and yet notwithstanding it shall be lawful to you to add, diminish, alter, and change of these answers to-morrow, what you will."
Ridley.--"Indeed, in like manner at our last disputations I had many things promised, and few performed. It was said, that after disputations I should have a copy thereof, and licence to change mine answers, as I should think good. It was meet, also, that I should have seen what was written by the notaries at that time. So your Lordship pretended great gentleness in giving me a time; but this gentleness is the same that Christ had of the high priest. For you, as your Lordship saith, have no power to condemn me, neither at any time to put a man to death: so, in like sort, the high priests said, that it was not lawful for them to put any man to death, but committed Christ to Pilate, neither would suffer him to absolve Christ, although he sought all the means therefore that he might."
Then spake Doctor Weston, one of the audience:
Weston.--"What! do you make the king Pilate?"
Ridley.--"No, Master Doctor; I do but compare your deeds with Caiaphas's deeds, and the high priest's, which would condemn no man to death, as ye will not, and yet would not suffer Pilate to absolve and deliver Christ."
Lincoln.--"Master Ridley, we mind not but that you shall enjoy the benefit of answering tomorrow, and will take your answers now as now: to-morrow you shall change, take out, add, and alter what you will. In the mean season we require you to answer directly to every article, either affirmatively or negatively."
Ridley.--"Seeing you appoint me a time to answer to-morrow, and yet will take mine answers out of hand, first, I require the notaries to take and write my protestation, that in no point I acknowledge your authority, or admit you to be my judges, in that point that you are authorized from the pope. Therefore, whatsoever I shall say or do, I protest, I neither say it, neither do it willingly, thereby to admit the authority of the pope; and, if your Lordship will give me leave, I will show the causes which move me thereunto."
Lincoln.--"No, Master Ridley, we have instructions to the contrary. We may not suffer you."
Ridley.--"I will be short; I pray your Lordships suffer me to speak in few words."
Lincoln.--"No, Master Ridley, we may not abuse the hearers' ears."
Ridley.--"Why, my Lord, suffer me to speak three words."
Lincoln.--"Well, Master Ridley, to-morrow you shall speak forty. The time is far past; therefore we require your answer determinately. What say you to the first article?"
And thereupon rehearsed the same.
Ridley.--"My protestation always saved, that by this mine answer I do not condescend to your authority in that you are legate to the pope, I answer thus: In a sense the first article is true, and in a sense it is false: for if you take really for vere, for spiritually, by grace and efficacy, then it is true that the natural body and blood of Christ is in the sacrament vere et realiter, indeed and really; but if you take these terms so grossly that you would conclude thereby a natural body having motion, to be contained under the forms of bread and wine, vere et realiter, then really is not the body and blood of Christ in the sacrament, no more than the Holy Ghost is in the element of water in our baptism."
Because this answer was not understood, the notaries wist not how to note it: wherefore the bishop of Lincoln willed him to answer either affirmatively, or negatively, either to grant the article, or to deny it.
Ridley.--"My Lord, you know that where any equivocation (which is a word having two significations) is, except distinction be given, no direct answer can be made; for it is one of Aristotle's fallacies, containing two questions under one, the which cannot be satisfied with one answer. For both you and I agree herein, that in the sacrament is the very true and natural body and blood of Christ, even that which was born of the Virgin Mary, which ascended into heaven, which sitteth on the right hand of God the Father, which shall come from thence to judge the quick and the dead, only we differ in modo, in the way and manner of being: we confess all one thing to be in the sacrament, and dissent in the manner of being there. I, being fully by God's word thereunto persuaded, confess Christ's natural body to be in the sacrament indeed by spirit and grace, because that whosoever receiveth worthily that bread and wine, receiveth effectuously Christ's body, and drinketh his blood (that is, he is made effectually partaker of his passion); and you make a grosser kind of being, enclosing a natural, a lively, and a moving body, under the shape or form of bread and wine. Now, this difference considered, to the question thus I answer, that in the sacrament of the altar is the natural body and blood of Christ vere et realiter, indeed and really, for spiritually, by grace and efficacy; for so every worthy receiver receiveth the very true body of Christ. But, if you mean really and indeed, so that thereby you would include a lively and a movable body under the forms of bread and wine, then, in that sense, is not Christ's body in the sacrament really and indeed."
This answer taken and penned of the notaries, the bishop of Lincoln proposed the second question or article. To whom he answered:
Ridley.--"Always my protestation reserved, I answer thus; that in the sacrament is a certain change, in that, that bread, which was before common bread, is now made a lively presentation of Christ's body, and not only a figure, but effectuously representeth his body, that even as the mortal body was nourished by that visible bread, so is the internal soul fed with the heavenly food of Christ's body, which the eyes of faith see, as the bodily eyes see only bread. Such a sacramental mutation I grant to be in the bread and wine, which truly is no small change, but such a change as no mortal man can make, but only that omnipotency of Christ's word."
Then the bishop of Lincoln willed him to answer directly, either affirmatively or negatively, without further declaration of the matter. Then he answered:
Ridley.--"That notwithstanding this sacramental mutation of the which he spake, and all the doctors confessed, the true substance and nature of bread and wine remaineth: with the which the body is in like sort nourished, as the soul is by grace and Spirit with the body of Christ. Even so in baptism, the body is washed with the visible water, and the soul is cleansed from all filth by the invisible Holy Ghost, and yet the water ceaseth not to be water, but keepeth the nature of water still: in like sort in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, the bread ceaseth not to be bread."
Then the notaries penned, that he answered affirmatively to the second article. The bishop of Lincoln declared a difference between the sacrament of the altar and baptism, because that Christ said not by the water, This is the Holy Ghost, as he did by the bread, This is my body.
Then Master Ridley recited St. Augustine, who conferred both the sacraments the one with the other: but the bishop of Lincoln notwithstanding, thereupon recited the third article, and required a direct answer. To whom Ridley said:
Ridley.--"Christ, as St. Paul writeth, made one perfect sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, neither can any man reiterate that sacrifice of his, and yet is the communion an acceptable sacrifice to God of praise and thanksgiving. But to say that thereby sins are taken away, (which wholly and perfectly was done by Christ's passion, of the which the communion is only a memory,) that is a great derogation of the merits of Christ's passion: for the sacrament was instituted, that we, receiving it,and thereby recognising and remembering his passion, should be partakers of the merits of the same. For otherwise doth this sacrament take upon it the office of Christ's passion, whereby it might follow, that Christ died in vain."
The notaries penned this his answer to be affirmatively. Then said the bishop of Lincoln:
Lincoln.--"Indeed, as you allege out of St. Paul, Christ made one perfect oblation for all the whole world, that is, that bloody sacrifice upon the cross: yet, nevertheless, he hath left this sacrifice, but not bloody, in the remembrance of that by the which sins are forgiven; the which is no derogation of Christ's passion."
Then recited the bishop of Lincoln the fourth article. To the which Master Ridley answered, that in some part the fourth was true, and in some part false; true, in that those his assertions were condemned as heresies, although unjustly; false, in that it was said they were condemned scientia scholastica, in that the disputations were in such sort ordered, that it was far from any school act.
This answer penned of the notaries, the bishop of Lincoln rehearsed the fifth article. To the which Ridley answered, that the premises were in such sort true, as in these his answers he had declared. Whether that all men spake evil of them, he knew not, in that he came not so much abroad to hear what every man reported.
This answer also written of the notaries, the bishop of Lincoln said:
Lincoln.--"To-morrow, at eight of the clock, you shall appear before us in St. Mary's church; and then, because we cannot well agree upon your answer to the first article, [for it was long before he was understood,] if it will please you to write your answer, you shall have pen, ink, and paper, and books, such as you shall require: but, if you write any thing saving your answers to these articles, we will not receive it."
So he, charging the mayor with him, declaring also to the mayor that he should suffer him to have a pen and ink, dismissed Master Ridley, and sent for Master Latimer, who, being brought to the divinity school, there tarried till they called for him.
Master Latimer appeareth before the commissioners.
Now, after Master Ridley was committed to the mayor, then the bishop of Lincoln commanded the bailiffs to bring in the other prisoner, who, eftsoons as he was placed, said to the lords:
Latimer.--"My Lords, if I appear again, I pray you not to send for me until you be ready: for I am an old man, and it is great hurt to mine old age to tarry so long gazing upon the cold walls."
Then the bishop of Lincoln:--"Master Latimer, I am sorry you are brought so soon, although it is the bailiff's fault, and not mine; but it shall be amended."
Then Master Latimer bowed his knee down to the ground, holding his hat in his hand, having a kerchief on his head, and upon it a night-cap or two, and a great cap, (such as townsmen use, with two broad flaps to button under the chin,) wearing an old thread-bare Bristol frieze-gown girded to his body with a penny leather girdle, at the which hanged by a long string of leather his Testament, and his spectacles without case, depending about his neck upon his breast. After this the bishop of Lincoln began on this manner
Lincoln.--"Master Latimer, you shall understand, that I and my Lords here have a commission from my Lord Cardinal Pole's Grace, legate a latere to this realm of England, from our most reverend father in God, the pope's Holiness, to examine you upon certain opinions and assertions of yours, which you, as well here openly in disputations in the year of our Lord 1554, as at sundry and at divers other times did affirm, maintain, and obstinately defend. In the which commission be specially two points; the one which we must desire you is, that if you shall now recant, revoke, and disannul these your errors, and, together with all this realm, yea, all the world, confess the truth, we, upon due repentance of your part, shall receive you, reconcile you, acknowledge you no longer a strayed sheep, but adjoin you again to the unity of Christ's church, from the which you in the time of schism fell. So that it is no new place to the which I exhort you; I desire you but to return thither from whence you went. Consider, Master Latimer, that without the unity of the church is no salvation, and in the church can be no errors. Therefore what should stay you to confess that which all the realm confesseth, to forsake that which the king and queen their Majesties have renounced, and all the realm recanted. It was a common error, and it is now of all confessed; it shall be no more shame to you, than it was to us all. Consider, Master Latimer, that within these twenty years this realm also, with all the world, confessed one church, acknowledged in Christ's church a head; and by what means and for what occasion it cut off itself from the rest of Christianity, and renounced that which in all times and ages was confessed, it is well known, ænd might be now declared upon what good foundation the see of Rome was forsaken, save that we must spare them that are dead, to whom the rehearsal would be opprobrious: it is no usurped power, as it hath been termed, but founded upon Peter by Christ, a sure foundation, a perfect builder, as by divers places, as well of the ancient fathers, as by the express word of God, may be proved."
With that Master Latimer, who before leaned his head to his hand, began somewhat to remove his cap and kerchief from his ears. The bishop proceeded, saying:
"For Christ spake expressly to Peter, saying, Pasce oves meas, et rege oves meas, the which word doth not only declare a certain ruling of Christ's flock, but includeth also a certain pre-eminence and government; and therefore is the king called Rex a regendo: so that in saying, rege, Christ declared a power which he gave to Peter, which jurisdiction and power Peter by hand delivered to Clement, and so in all ages hath it remained in the see of Rome. This, if you shall confess with us, and acknowledge with all the realm your errors and false assertions, then shall you do that which we most desire, then shall we rest upon the first part of our commission, then shall we receive you, acknowledge you one of the church, and, according to the authority given unto us, minister unto you, upon due repentance, the benefit of absolution, to the which the king and queen their Majesties were not ashamed to submit themselves, although they of themselves were unspotted, and therefore needed no reconciliation: yet lest the putrefaction and rottenness of all the body might be noisome, and do damage to the head also, they (as I said) most humbly submitted themselves to my Lord Cardinal his Grace, by him, as legate to the pope's Holiness, to be partakers of the reconciliation. But, if you shall stubbornly persevere in your blindness; if you will not acknowledge your errors; if you, as you now stand alone, will be singular in your opinions; if by schism and heresy you will divide yourself from your church, then must we proceed to the second part of the commission, which we would be loth to do, that is, not to condemn you, for that we cannot do, (that the temporal sword of the realm, and not we, will do,) but to separate you from us, acknowledge you to be none of us, to renounce you as no member of the church, to declare that you are a lost child; and, as you are a rotten member of the church, so to cut you off from the church, and so to commit you to the temporal judges, permitting them to proceed against you, according to the tenor of their laws. Therefore, Master Latimer, for God's love consider your estate; remember you are a learned man; you have taken degrees in the school, borne the office of a bishop; remember you are an old man; spare your body, accelerate not your death, and
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specially remember your soul's health, quiet of your conscience. Consider, that if you should die in this state, you shall be a stinking sacrifice to God; for it is the cause that maketh the martyr, and not the death: consider, that if you die in this state, you die without grace, for without the church can be no salvation. Let not vain-glory have the upper hand, humiliate yourself, captivate your understanding, subdue your reason, submit yourself to the determination of the church, do not force us to do all that we may do, let us rest in that part which we most heartily desire, and I, for my part, [then the bishop put off his cap,] again with all my heart exhort you."
After the bishop had somewhat paused, then Master Latimer lifted up his head, (for before he leaned on his elbow,) and asked whether his Lordship had said; and the bishop answered, "Yea."
Latimer.--"Then will your Lordship give me leave to speak a word or two?"
Lincoln.--"Yea, Master Latimer, so that you use a modest kind of talk, without railing or taunts."
Latimer.--"I beseech your Lordship license me to sit down."
Lincoln.--"At your pleasure, Master Latimer, take as much ease as you will."
Latimer.--"Your Lordship gently exhorted me in many words to come to the unity of the church. I confess, my Lord, a catholic church, spread throughout all the world, in the which no man may err, without the which unity of the church no man can be saved: but I know perfectly by God's word, that this church is in all the world, and hath not its foundation in Rome only, as you say; and methought your Lordship brought a place out of the Scriptures to confirm the same, that there was a jurisdiction given to Peter, in that Christ bade him govern his people. Indeed, my Lord, St. Peter did well and truly his office, in that he was bid regere; but, since, the bishops of Rome have taken a new kind of regere. Indeed they ought regere, but how, my Lord? not as they will themselves: but this regere must be hedged in and ditched in. They must rule, but according to the word of God. But the bishops of Rome have turned the rule according to the word of God, into the rule according to their own pleasures, and as it pleaseth them best: as there is a book set forth which hath divers points in it, and, amongst others, this point is one, which your Lordship went about to prove by this word regere; and the argument which he bringeth forth for the proof of that matter, is taken out of Deuteronomy, where it is said, If there ariseth any controversy among the people, the priests of theorder of Levi shall decide the matter according to the law of God, so it must be taken. This book, perceiving this authority to be given to the priests of the old law, taketh occasion to prove the same to be given to the bishops and others the clergy of the new law: but, in proving this matter, whereas it was said there, as the priests of the order of Levi should determine the matter 'according to God's law,' that 'according to God's law' is left out, and only is recited, as the priests of the order of Levi shall decide the matter, so it ought to be taken of the people; a large authority I assure you. What gelding of Scripture is this? what clipping of God's coin?" With the which terms the audience smiled. "This is much like the regere which your Lordship talked of. Nay, nay, my Lords, we may not give such authority to the clergy, to rule all things as they will. Let them keep themselves within their commission. Now I trust, my Lord, I do not rail yet."
Lincoln.--"No, Master Latimer, your talk is more like taunts than railing: but in that I have not read the book which you blame so much, nor know of any such, I can say nothing therein."
Latimer.--"Yes, my Lord, the book is open to be read, and is entituled to one which is bishop of Gloucester, whom I never knew, neither did at any time see him to my knowledge."
With that the people laughed, because the bishop of Gloucester sat there in commission.
Then the bishop of Gloucester stood up and said it was his book.
Latimer.--"Was it yours, my Lord? Indeed I knew not your Lordship, neither ever did I see you before, neither yet see you now, through the brightness of the sun shining betwixt you and me." Then the audience laughed again; and Master Latimer spake unto them, saying:-
Latimer.--"Why, my masters, this is no laughing matter. I answer upon life and death."
The bishop of Lincoln commanded silence, and then said:-
Lincoln.--"Master Latimer, if you had kept yourself within your bounds, if you had not used such scoffs and taunts, this had not been done." After this the bishop of Gloucester said, in excusing of his book, "Master Latimer, hereby every man may see what learning you have." Then Master Latimer interrupted him, saying:--
Latimer.--"Lo, you look for learning at my hands, which have gone so long to the school of Oblivion, making the bare walls my library; keeping me so long in prison, without book, or pen and ink; and now you let me loose to come and answer to articles. You deal with me as though two were appointed to fight for life and death, and over-night the one, through friends and favour, is cherished, and hath good counsel given him how to encounter with his enemy. The other, for envy or lack of friends, all the whole night is set in the stocks. In the morning, when they shall meet, the one is in strength and lusty, the other is stark of his limbs, and almost dead for feebleness. Think you, that to run through this man with a spear is not a goodly victory?"
But the bishop of Gloucester, interrupting his answer, proceeded, saying:--
Gloucester.--"I went not about to recite any place of Scripture in that place of my book; for then, if I had not recited it faithfully, you might have had just occasion of reprehension: but I only in that place formed an argument a majore, in this sense; that if in the old law the priests had power to decide matters of controversy, much more then ought the authority to be given to the clergy in the new law: and I pray you in this point what availeth their rehearsal secundum legem Dei?"
Latimer.--"Yes, my Lord, very much. For I acknowledge authority to be given to the spiritualty to decide matter of religion; and, as my Lord said even now, regere; but they must do it secundum verbum Dei, and not secundum voluntatem suam; according to the word and law of God, and not after their own will, their own imaginations and fantasies."
The bishop of Gloucester would have spoken more, saving that the bishop of Lincoln said that they came not to dispute with Master Latimer, but to take his determinate answers to their articles; and so began to propose the same articles which were proposed to Master Ridley. But Master Latimer interrupted him, speaking to the bishop of Gloucester.
Latimer.--"Well, my Lord, I could wish more faithful dealing with God's word, and not to leave out a part, and to snatch a part here, and another there, but to rehearse the whole faithfully."
But the bishop of Lincoln, not attending to this saying of Master Latimer, proceeded in the rehearsing of the articles in form and sense as I declared before in the examination of the articles proposed to Master Ridley, and required Master Latimer's answer to the first. Then Master Latimer, making his protestation, that notwithstanding these his answers, it should not be taken that thereby he would acknowledge any authority of the bishop of Rome, saying that he was the king ænd queen their Majesties' subject, and not the pope's, neither could serve two masters at one time, except he should first renounce one of them; required the notaries so to take his protestation, that whatsoever he should say or do, it should not be taken as though he did thereby agree to any authority that came from the bishop of Rome.
The bishop of Lincoln said, that his protestation should be so taken; but he required him to answer briefly, affirmatively or negatively, to the first article, and so recited the same again; and Master Latimer answered as followeth:--
Latimer.--"I do not deny, my Lord, that in the sacrament by spirit and grace is the very body and blood of Christ; because that every man, by receiving bodily that bread and wine, spiritually receiveth the body and blood of Christ, and is made partaker thereby of the merits of Christ's passion. But I deny that the body and blood of Christ is in such sort in the sacrament, as you would have it."
Lincoln.--"Then, Master Latimer, you answer affirmatively."
Latimer.--"Yea, if you mean of that gross and carnal being, which you do take."
The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively.
Lincoln.--"What say you, Master Latimer, to the second article?" and recited the same.
Latimer.--"There is, my Lord, a change in the bread and wine, and such a change as no power but the omnipotency of God can make, in that that which before was bread, should now have the dignity to exhibit Christ's body; and yet the bread is still bread, and the wine still wine. For the change is not in the nature, but in the dignity; because now that which was common bread hath the dignity to exhibit Christ's body: for whereas it was common bread, it is now no more common bread, neither ought it to be so taken, but as holy bread sanctified by God's word."
With that the bishop of Lincoln smiled, saying:--
Lincoln.--"Lo, Master Latimer, see what stedfastness is in your doctrine! That which you abhorred ænd despised most, you now most establish: for whereas you most railed at holy bread, you now make your communion holy bread."
Latimer.--"Tush, a rush for holy bread. I say the bread in the communion is a holy bread indeed." But the bishop of London interrupted him and said:-
Lincoln.--"Oh, ye make a difference between holy bread and holy bread." [With that the audience laughed.] "Well, Master Latimer, is not this your answer, that the substance of bread and wine remaineth after the words of consecration?"
Latimer.--"Yes, verily, it must needs be so; for Christ himself calleth it bread, St. Paul calleth it bread, the doctors confess the same, the nature of a sacrament confirmeth the same, and I call it holy bread: not in that I make no difference betwixt your holy bread and this, but for the holy office which it beareth, that is, to be a figure of Christ's body; and not only a bare figure, but effectually to represent the same."
So the notaries penned his answer to be affirmatively.
Lincoln.--"What say you to the third question?" and recited the same.
Latimer.--"No, no, my Lord, Christ made one perfect sacrifice for all the whole world, neither can any man offer him again, neither can the priest offer up Christ again for the sins of man, which he took away by offering himself once for all (as St. Paul saith) upon the cross; neither is there any propitiation for our sins, saving his cross only."
So the notaries penned his answer to this article also to be affirmatively.
Lincoln.--"What say you to the fourth, Master Latimer?"
And recited it. After the recital whereof, when Master Latimer answered not, the bishop asked him whether he heard him or no?
Latimer.--"Yes, but I do not understand what you mean thereby."
Lincoln.--"Marry, only this, that these your assertions were condemned by Master Dr. Weston as heresies; is it not so, Master Latimer?"
Latimer.--"Yes, I think they were condemned. But how unjustly, He that shall be judge of all knoweth."
So the notaries took his answer to this article also to be affirmatively.
Lincoln.--"What say you, Master Latimer, to the fifth article?" And recited it.
Latimer.--"I know not what you mean by these terms. I am no lawyer; I would you would propose the matter plainly."
Lincoln.--"In that we proceed according to the law, we must use their terms also. The meaning only is this, that these your assertions are notorious, evil spoken of, and yet common and recent in the mouths of the people."
Latimer.--"I cannot tell how much, nor what men talk of them. I come not so much among them, in that I have been secluded a long time. What men report of them I know not, nor care not."
This answer taken, the bishop of Lincoln said, "Master Latimer, we mean not that these your answers shall be prejudicial to you. To-morrow you shall appear before us again, and then it shall be lawful for you to alter and change what you will. We give you respite till to-morrow, trusting that, after you have pondered well all things against tomorrow, you will not be ashamed to confess the truth."
Latimer.--"Now, my Lord, I pray you give me licence in three words, to declare the causes why I have refused the authority of the pope."
Lincoln.--"Nay, Master Latimer, to-morrow you shall have licence to speak forty words."
Latimer.--"Nay, my Lords, I beseech you to do with me now as it shall please your Lordships: I pray you let not me be troubled to-morrow again."
Lincoln.--"Yes, Master Latimer, you must needs appear again to-morrow."
Latimer.--"Truly, my Lord, as for my part, I require no respite, for I am at a point; you shall give me respite in vain: therefore I pray you let me not trouble you to-morrow."
Lincoln.--"Yes, for we trust God will work with you against to-morrow. There is no remedy: you must needs appear again to-morrow, at eight of the clock, in St. Mary's church."
And forthwith the bishop charged the mayor with Master Latimer, and dismissed him, and then brake up their session for that day, about one of the clock at afternoon.
Here followeth the second day's session.
HE next day following, (which was the first day of October,) somewhat after eight of the clock, the said lords repaired to St. Mary's church, and after they were set in a high throne well trimmed with cloth of tissue and silk, then appeared Master Ridley, who was set at a framed table a good space from the bishop's feet, which table had a silk cloth cast over it, the which place was compassed about with framed seats in quadrate form, partly for gentlemen which repaired thither (for this was the session day also of gaol-delivery) and heads of the university to sit, and partly to keep off the press of the audience: for the whole body, as well of the university as of the town, came thither to see the end of these two persons. After Master Ridley's appearance, and the silence of the audience, the bishop of Lincoln spake in manner following:
Lincoln.--"Master Ridley, yesterday when that we challenged you for not uncovering your head, you excused yourself of that whereof no man accused you, in saying you did not put on your cap for any obstinacy towards us, which as touching our own persons desired no such obedience of you, but only in respect of them whose persons we bear; neither (you said) for any contempt that you bear to this worshipful audience, which although they justly may, yet in this case require no such humility of you; neither for any derogation of honour to my Lord Cardinal's Grace, in that he is descended from the regal blood, in that he is a man most noble, both for his excellent qualities and singular learning: for, as touching those points, you said, you with all humility would honour, reverence, and worship his Grace; but, in that he is legate to the most reverend father in God the pope's Holiness (with that the bishop and all then present put off their caps, but Master Ridley moved not his) you said you neither could nor would by any means be induced to give him honour: but, forasmuch as this is the point, as we told you yesterday, why we require honour and reverence of you, we tell you now as we did then, except you take the pains to move your bonnet, we will take the pains to cause your bonnet to be taken from you, except you pretend sickness, as yesterday you did not."
Ridley.--"I pretend now none other cause than I did yesterday; that is, only that hereby it may appear that not only in word and confession, but also by all my gesture and behaviour, in no point I agree or admit any authority or power that shall come from the pope; and not from any pride of mind, (as God is my judge,) neither for contempt of your Lordships or of this worshipful audience, neither for derogation of honour due to my Lord Cardinal's Grace as concerning those points which your Lordship spake of; that is, his noble parentage and singular graces in learning. And as for taking my cap away, your Lordship may do as it shall please you; it shall not offend me, but I shall be content with your ordinance in that behalf."
Lincoln.--"Forasmuch as you do answer now as you did yesterday, we must do also as we did then:" and forthwith one of his beadles very hastily snatched his cap from his head.
After this the bishop of Lincoln began the examination in sense following:
Lincoln.--"Master Ridley, yesterday we took your answer to certain articles, which we then proposed unto you: but because we could not be thoroughly satisfied with your answer then to the first article, neither could the notaries take any determinate answer of you, we (you requiring the same) granted you licence to bring your answer in writing, and thereupon commanded the mayor that you should have pen, paper, and ink, yea, any books also that you would require, if they were to be gotten: we licensed you then, also, to alter your former answers this day at your pleasure. Therefore we are come now hither, to see whether you are in the same mind now that you were in yesterday, (which we would not wish,) or contrary, contented to revoke all your former assertions, and in all points consent to submit yourself to the determination of the universal church; and I for my part most earnestly exhort you, [and therewith he put off his cap,] not because my conscience pricketh me, as you said yesterday, but because I see you a rotten member, and in the way of perdition. Yesterday I brought forth amongst others St. Augustine, to prove that authority hath always been given to the see of Rome, and you wrested the words far contrary to St. Augustine's meaning, in that you would have totus mundus to be applied only to Europe, which is but the third part of all the world: whereas, indeed, the process of St. Augustine's words will not admit that your interpretation; for he saith not totus mundus Christianus in transmarinis, &c., but first, 'all the Christian world is subject to the Church of Rome,' and afterwards addeth, in transmarinis partibus, 'beyond the sea,' but only to augment the dominion of the see of Rome."
But Master Ridley still persevered in his former answer, saying;
"I am sure, my Lord, you have some skill in cosmography, in the which you shall understand that there is a sea called Mare Mediterraneum, cast between Europe and Africa, in the which be meant Europe beyond the sea; even as I should say the whole world beyond the sea, excepting England in the which I stand."
And here many words were spent upon the interpretation of the same place of St. Augustine. After long disceptation the bishop of Lincoln said, that the meaning of St. Augustine might be known by the consent of other the doctors; and rehearsed divers. But Master Ridley required the rehearsal of the places, and to read the very words of the doctors, saying, that perhaps those which the bishop rehearsed, being proponed in other terms in the doctors, would admit a contrary meaning and interpretation: but in that book, out of the which the bishop rehearsed them, were none of the doctors, but only the sentences drawn out of the doctors by some studious man: he could not recite the very words of the doctors.
Then after, Lincoln came to Cyril, which (as he said) made against Master Ridley in the sacrament, even by Philip Melancthon's own alleging in his Common-Places; and forthwith he called for Melancthon, but in vain, because all such books were burned a little before -- wherefore he passed it over.
"Cyril also, in another place, proving to the Jews that Christ was come, useth this reason, 'Altars are erected in Christ's name in Britain, and in far countries: ergo, Christ is come.' But we may use the contrary of that reason, 'Altars are plucked down in Britain: ergo, Christ is not come.' A good argument a contrariis. I will stand to it in the schools by and by with any man. Ye see what a good argument this your doctrine maketh for the Jews, to prove that Christ is not come."
"Dr. Ridley smiling, answered, 'Your Lordship is not ignorant that this word altare, in the Scripture, signifieth as well the altar whereupon the Jews were wont to make their burnt sacrifices, as the table of the Lord's supper. Cyril meaneth there by this word altare, not the Jewish altar, but the table of the Lord; and by that saying, 'Altars are erected in Christ's name: ergo, Christ is come,' he meaneth that the communion is ministered in his remembrance: ergo, Christ is come. For the strength of his argument is, because the remembrance of a thing cannot be, except itself be past; then could not all countries celebrate the communion in remembrance of Christ's passion, except Christ had been come and suffered. As for the taking down of the altars, it was done upon just considerations, for that they seemed to come too nigh to the Jews' usage: neither was the supper of the Lord at any time better ministered, more duly received, than in those latter days when all things were brought to the rites and usage of the primitive church."
Lincoln.--"A goodly receiving, I promise you, to set an oyster table instead of an altar, and to come from puddings at Westminster, to receive and yet, when your table was constituted, you could never be content, in placing the same now east, now north, now one way, now another, until it pleased God of his goodness to place it clean out of the church."
Ridley.--"Your Lordship's unreverent terms do not elevate the thing. Perhaps some men came more devoutly from puddings, than other men now do from other things."
Lincoln.--"As for that, Master Ridley, you ought to be judge of no man: but by this your reasoning you cause us to stretch and enlarge our instructions. We came not to reason, but to take your determinate answers to our articles;" and eftsoons he read the first article in manner above specified. "Now, Master Ridley, what say you to the first article? If you have brought your answer in writing, we will receive it; but if you have written any other matter, we will not receive it."
Then Master Ridley took a sheet of paper out of his bosom, and began to read that which he had written: but the bishop of Lincoln commanded the beadle to take it from him. But he desired licence to read it, saying that it was nothing but his answer, but the bishop would in no wise suffer him.
Ridley.--"Why, my Lord, will you require my answer, and not suffer me to publish it? I beseech you, my Lord, let the audience bear witness in this matter. Your Lordships may handle it at your pleasure; therefore let the audience be witness to your doings."
Lincoln.--"Well, Master Ridley, we will first see what you have written, and then, if we shall think it good to be read, you shall have it published; but, except you will deliver it first, we will take none at all of you."
With that Master Ridley, seeing no remedy, delivered it to an officer, which immediately delivered it to the bishop of Lincoln, who, after he had secretly communicated it to the other two bishops, declared the sense, but would not read it as it was written, saying, that it contained words of blasphemy; therefore he would not fill the ears of the audience therewithal, and so abuse their patience. Notwithstanding Master Ridley desired very instantly to have it published, saying, that except a line or two, there was nothing contained but the ancient doctors' sayings, for the confirmation of his assertions.
After the said bishops had secretly viewed the whole, then the bishop of Lincoln said:--
Lincoln.--"In the first part, Master Ridley, is nothing contained but your protestation, that you would not have these your answers so to be taken as though you seemed thereby to consent to the authority or jurisdiction of the pope's Holiness."
Ridley.--"No, my Lord, I pray you read it out that the audience may hear it."
But the bishop of Lincoln would in no wise, because (he said) there were contained words of blasphemy.
Then the bishop of Lincoln recited the first article, and required Master Ridley's answer to it. Then Master Ridley said, that his answer was there in writing, and desired that it might be published: but the bishop would not read the whole, but here and there a piece of it. So the notaries took his answer, that he referred him to his answer in writing exhibited now, and also before at the time of disputation, Master Doctor Weston being prolocutor.
In like wise the bishop of Lincoln recited the second article, and required an answer, and Master Ridley referred him to his answer in writing, exhibited now, and also before at the time of disputation: and like answers were taken to all the residue of the articles.
These answers in this manner rehearsed, taken, and penned of the notaries, the bishop of Gloucester began an exhortation to move Master Ridley to turn.
Gloucester.--"If you would once empty your stomach, captivate your senses, subdue your reason, and together with us consider what a feeble ground of your religion you have, I do not doubt but you might easily be induced to acknowledge one church with us, to confess one faith with us, and to believe one religion with us. For what a weak and feeble stay in religion is this I pray you? Latimer leaneth to Cranmer, Cranmer to Ridley, and Ridley to the singularity of his own wit: so that if you overthrew the singularity of Ridley's wit, then must needs the religion of Cranmer and Latimer fall also. You remember well, Master Ridley, that the prophet speaketh most truly, saying, Væ, Væ, Woe be to them which are singular and wise in their own conceits!
"But you will say here, 'It is true that the prophet saith: but how know you that I am wise in mine own conceit?' Yes, Master Ridley, you refuse the determination of the catholic church; you must needs be singular and wise in your own conceit, for you bring Scripture for the probation of your assertions, and we also bring Scriptures; you understand them in one sense, and we in another. How will you know the truth herein? If you stand to your own interpretation, then you are singular in your own conceit: but, if you say you will follow the minds of the doctors and ancient fathers, semblably you understand them in one meaning, and we take them in another. How will ye know the truth herein? If you stand to your own judgment, then are you singular in your own conceit; then can you not avoid the væ and woe which the prophet speaketh of. Wherefore if you have no stay but the catholic church in matters of controversy, except you will rest upon the singularity and wisdom of your own brain, if the prophet most truly saith, Væ, Væ, Woe, woe be to them that are wise in their own conceit! then, for God's love, Master Ridley, stand not singular; be not you wise in your own conceit; please not yourself over-much. How were the Arians, the Manichees, Eutychians, with other divers heretics which have been in the church,-- how I pray you were they suppressed and convinced? By reasoning and disputations? No, truly, the Arians had no more places of Scripture for the confirmation of their heresy, than the catholics for the defence of the truth. How then were they convinced? Only by the determination of the church. And, indeed, except we do constitute the church our foundation, stay, and judge, we can have no end of controversies, no end of disputations. For in that we all bring Scriptures and doctors for the probation of our assertions, who should be judge of this our controversy? If we ourselves, then, be singular and wise in our own conceits, then cannot we avoid the woe that the prophet speaketh of.
"It remaineth therefore that we submit ourselves to the determination and arbitrement of the church, with whom God promised to remain to the world's end, to whom he promised to send the Holy Ghost which should teach it the truth. Wherefore, Master Ridley, if you will avoid the woe that the prophet speaketh of, be not you wise in your judgment: if you will not be wise and singular in your own judgment, captivate your own understanding, subdue your reason, and submit yourself to the determination of the church."
This is briefly the sum of the oration of the bishop of Gloucester, by the which he endeavoured in many more words, amplifying and enlarging the matter eloquently with sundry points of rhetoric to move affections, to persuade Master Ridley to recant and forsake his religion.
To whom Master Ridley answered in few words, that he said most truly with the prophet, Woe be to him that is wise in his own conceit! but that he acknowledgeth no such singularity in him, nor knew any cause why he should attribute so much to himself. And whereas he, the bishop of Gloucester, said Master Cranmer leaned to him, that was most untrue, in that he was but a young scholar in comparison of Master Cranmer: for at what time he was a young scholar, then was Master Cranmer a doctor, so that he confessed that Master Cranmer might have been his schoolmaster these many years. It seemed that he would have spoken more, but the bishop of Gloucester interrupted him, saying:--
Gloucester.--"Why, Master Ridley, it is your own confession, for Master Latimer, at the time of his disputation, confessed his learning to lie in Master Cranmer's books, and Master Cranmer also said, that it was your doing."
Likewise the bishop of Lincoln, with many words, and gently holding his cap in his hand, desired him to turn. But Master Ridley made an absolute answer, that he was fully persuaded the religion which he defended to be grounded upon God's word; and, therefore, without great offence towards God, great peril and damage of his soul, he could not forsake his Master and Lord God, but desired the bishop to perform his grant, in that his Lordship said the day before, that he should have licence to show his cause why he could not with a safe conscience admit the authority of the pope. But the bishop of Lincoln said, that whereas then he had demanded licence to speak three words, he was contented then that he should speak forty, and that grant he would perform.
Then stepped forth Dr. Weston, which sat by, and said, "Why, my Lord, he hath spoken four hundred already." Master Ridley confessed he had, but they were not of his prescribed number, neither of that matter. The bishop of Lincoln bade him take his licence: but he should speak but forty, and he would tell them upon his fingers. And eftsoons Master Ridley began to speak: but before he had ended half a sentence, the doctors sitting by cried and said, that his number was out; and with that he was put to silence.
After this the bishop of Lincoln, which sat in the midst, began to speak as followeth:
Lincoln.--"Now I perceive, Master Ridley, you will not permit nor suffer us to stay in that point of our commission which we most desired: for I assure you, there is never a word in our commission more true than dolentes et gementes: for indeed I for my part (I take God to witness) am sorry for you."
Whereunto Master Ridley answered, "I believe it well, my Lord, forasmuch as one day it will be burdenous to your soul."
Lincoln.--"Nay, not so, Master Ridley, but because I am sorry to see such stubbornness in you, that by no means you may be persuaded to acknowledge your errors, and receive the truth. But, seeing it is so, because you will not suffer us to persist in the first, we must of necessity proceed to the other part of our commission. Therefore I pray you hearken what I shall say."
And forthwith he did read the sentence of condemnation, which was written in a long process: the tenor of which, because it is sufficiently already expressed before, we thought meet in this place to omit, forasmuch as they are rather words of course, than things devised upon deliberation. Howbeit indeed the effect was as this:
"That forasmuch as the said Nicholas Ridley did affirm, maintain, and stubbornly defend certain opinions, assertions, and heresies, contrary to the word of God, and the received faith of the church, as in denying the true and natural body of Christ, and his natural blood, to be in the sacrament of the altar: Secondarily, in affirming the substance of bread and wine to remain after the words of the consecration: Thirdly, in denying the mass to be a lively sacrifice of the church for the quick and the dead; and by no means would be induced and brought from these his heresies: they therefore (the said John of Lincoln, James of Gloucester, John of Bristol), did judge and condemn the said Nicholas Ridley as a heretic, and so adjudged him presently both by word and also in deed, to be degraded from the degree of a bishop, from priesthood, and all ecclesiastical order; declaring, moreover, the said Nicholas Ridley to be no member of the church: and therefore committed him to the secular powers, of them to receive due punishment according to the tenor of the temporal laws; and further excommunicating him by the great excommunication."
The last appearance and examination of Master Latimer before the commissioners.
This sentence being published by the bishop of Lincoln, Master Ridley was committed as a prisoner to the mayor, and immediately Master Latimer was sent for: but in the mean season the carpet or cloth which lay upon the table whereat Master Ridley stood, was removed, because (as men reported) Master Latimer had never the degree of a doctor, as Master Ridley had. But eftsoons as Master Latimer appeared, as he did the day before, perceiving no cloth upon the table, he laid his hat, which was an old felt, under his elbows, and immediately spake to the commissioners, saying:
Latimer.--"My Lords, I beseech your Lordships to set a better order here at your entrance: for I am an old man, and have a very evil back, so that the press of the multitude doth me much harm."
Lincoln.--"I am sorry, Master Latimer, for your hurt. At your departure we will see to better order."
With that Master Latimer thanked his Lordship, making a very low courtesy. After this the bishop of Lincoln began on this manner:
Lincoln.--"Master Latimer, although yesterday after we had taken your answers to those articles which we proposed, we might have justly proceeded to judgment against you, especially in that you required the same, yet we, having a good hope of your returning, desiring not your destruction, but rather that you would recant, revoke your errors, and turn to the catholic church, deferred further process till this day; and now, according to the appointment, we have called you here before us, to hear whether you are content to revoke your heretical assertions and submit yourself to the determination of the church, as we most heartily desire; and I, for my part, as I did yesterday, most earnestly do exhort you: or to know whether you persevere still the man that you were, for the which we would be sorry."
It seemed that the bishop would have further proceeded, saving that Master Latimer interrupted him, saying:
Latimer.--"Your Lordship often doth repeat the catholic church, as though I should deny the same. No, my Lord, I confess there is a catholic church, to the determination of which I will stand; but not the church which you call catholic, which sooner might be termed diabolic. And whereas you join together the Romish and catholic church, stay there, I pray you. For it is one thing to say Romish church, and another thing to say catholic church: I must use here, in this mine answer, the counsel of Cyprian, who at what time he was ascited before certain bishops that gave him leave to take deliberation and counsel, to try and examine his opinion, he answered them thus: 'In sticking and persevering in the truth, there must no counsel nor deliberation be taken.' And again, being demanded of them sitting in judgment, which was most like to be of the church of Christ, whether he who was persecuted, or they who did persecute? 'Christ,' said he, 'hath foreshowed, that he that doth follow him, must take up his cross and follow him. Christ gave knowledge that the disciples should have persecution and trouble.' How think you then, my Lords, is it like that the see of Rome, which hath been a continual persecutor, is rather the church, or that small flock which hath continually been persecuted of it, even to death? Also the flock of Christ hath been but few in comparison to the residue, and ever in subjection" which he proved, beginning at Noah's time even to the apostles.
Lincoln.--"Your cause and St. Cyprian's is not one, but clean contrary: for he suffered persecution for Christ's sake and the gospel. But you are in trouble for your errors and false assertions, contrary to the word of God and the received truth of the church."
Master Latimer interrupting him, said: "Yes verily, my cause is as good as St. Cyprian's: for his was for the word of God, and so is mine."
But Lincoln goeth forth in his talk: "Also at the beginning and foundation of the church, it could not be but that the apostles should suffer great persecution. Further, before Christ's coming, continually, there were very few which truly served God; but, after his coming, began the time of grace. Then began the church to increase, and was continually augmented, until it came unto this perfection, and now hath justly that jurisdiction which the unchristian princes before by tyranny did resist. There is a diverse consideration of the estate of the church now in the time of grace, and before Christ's coming. But, Master Latimer, although we had instructions given us determinately to take your answer to such articles as we should propose, without any reasoning or disputations, yet we, hoping by talk somewhat to prevail with you, appointed you to appear before us yesterday in the divinity school, a place for disputations. And whereas then, notwithstanding you had licence to say your mind, and were answered to every matter, yet you could not be brought from your errors, we, thinking that from that time ye would with good advisement consider your estate, gave you respite from that time yesterday when we dismissed you, until this time; and now have called you again in this place, by your answers to learn whether you are the same man you were then or no? Therefore we will propose unto you the same articles which we did then, and require of you a determinate answer, without further reasoning" and eftsoons recited the first article.
Latimer.--"Always my protestation saved, that by these mine answers it should not be thought that I did condescend and agree to your Lordships' authority, in that you are legated by authority of the pope, so that thereby I might seem to consent to his jurisdiction -- to the first article I answer now, as I did yesterday, that in the sacrament the worthy receiver receiveth the very body of Christ, and drinketh his blood by the Spirit and grace: but, after that corporal being, which the Romish church prescribeth, Christ's body and blood is not in the sacrament under the forms of bread and wine."
The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively. For the second article he referred himself to his answers made before. After this the bishop of Lincoln recited the third article, and required a determinate answer.
Latimer.--"Christ made one oblation and sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, and that a perfect sacrifice; neither needeth there to be any other, neither can there be any other, propitiatory sacrifice."
The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively. In like manner did he answer to the other articles, not varying from his answers made the day before. After his answers were penned of the notaries, and the bishop of Lincoln had exhorted him in like sort to recant, as he did Master Ridley, and revoke his errors and false assertions, and Master Latimer had answered that he neither could nor would deny his Master Christ, and his verity, the bishop of Lincoln desired Master Latimer to hearken to him: and then Master Latimer, hearkening for some new matter and other talk, the bishop of Lincoln read his condemnation; after the publication of the which, the said three bishops brake up their sessions, and dismissed the audience. But Master Latimer required the bishop to perform his promise in saying the day before, that he should have licence briefly to declare the cause, why he refused the pope's authority. But the bishop said that now he could not hear him, neither. ought to talk with him.
Then Master Latimer asked him, whether it were not lawful for him to appeal from this his judgment. And the bishop asked him again to whom he would appeal. "To the next general council," quoth Master Latimer, "which shall be truly called in God's name." With that appellation the bishop was content: but, he said, it would be a long season before such a convocation as he meant would be called.
Then the bishop committed Master Latimer to the mayor, saying, "Now he is your prisoner, Master Mayor." Because the press of the people was not yet diminished, each man looking for further process, the bishop of Lincoln commanded avoidance, and willed Master Latimer to tarry till the press were diminished, lest he should take hurt at his egression, as he did at his entrance. And so continued Bishop Ridley, and Master Latimer, in durance till the sixteenth day of the said month of October.
A communication between Dr. Brooks and Dr. Ridley, in the house of Master Irish, the 15th day of October, at which time he was degraded.
In the mean season, upon the fifteenth day in the morning, and the same year abovesaid, Dr. Brooks, the bishop of Gloucester, and the vice-chancellor of Oxford, Dr. Marshal, with divers other of the chief and heads of the same university, and many others accompanying them, came unto Master Irish's house, then mayor of Oxford, where Dr. Ridley, late bishop of London, was close prisoner. And when the bishop of Gloucester came into the chamber where the said Dr. Ridley did lie, he told him for what purpose their coming was unto him, saying, that yet once again the queen's Majesty did offer unto him, by them, her gracious mercy, if that he would receive the same, and come home again to the faith which he was baptized in, and revoke his erroneous doctrine that he of late had taught abroad to the destruction of many. And further said, that if he would not recant and become one of the catholic church with them, then they must needs (against their wills) proceed according to the law, which they would be very loth to do, if they might otherwise.
"But," saith he, "we have been oftentimes with you, and have requested that you would recant this your fantastical and devilish opinion, which hitherto you have not, although you might in so doing win many, and do much good. Therefore, good Master Ridley, consider with yourself the danger that shall ensue, both of body and soul, if that you shall so wilfully cast yourself away in refusing mercy offered unto you at this time."
"My Lord," quoth Dr. Ridley, "you know my mind fully herein; and as for the doctrine which I have taught, my conscience assureth me that it was sound, and according to God's word (to his glory be it spoken); the which doctrine, the Lord God being my helper, I will maintain so long as my tongue shall wag, and breath is within my body, and in confirmation thereof seal the same with my blood."
Gloucester.--"Well, you were best, Master Ridley, not to do so, but to become one of the church with us: for you know this well enough, that whosoever is out of the catholic church, cannot be saved. Therefore I say once again, that while you have time and mercy offered you, receive it, and confess with us the pope's Holiness to be the chief head of the same church."
Ridley.--"I marvel that you will trouble me with any such vain and foolish talk. You know my mind concerning the usurped authority of that Romish antichrist. As I confessed openly in the schools, so do I now, that both by my behaviour and talk I do no obedience at all unto the bishop of Rome, nor to his usurped authority, and that for divers good and godly considerations."
And here Dr. Ridley would have reasoned with the said Brooks, bishop of Gloucester, of the bishop of Rome's authority, but could not be suffered, and yet he spake so earnestly against the pope therein, that the bishop told him, if he would not hold his peace, he should be compelled against his will. "And seeing," saith he, "that you will not receive the queen's mercy now offered unto you, but stubbornly refuse the same, we must, against our wills, proceed according to our commission to degrading, taking from you the dignity of priesthood. For we take you for no bishop, and therefore we will the sooner have done with you. So, committing you to the secular power, you know what doth follow."
Ridley.--"Do with me as it shall please God to suffer you, I am well content to abide the same with all my heart."
Gloucester.--"Put off your cap, Master Ridley, and put upon you this surplice."
Ridley.--"Not I, truly."
Gloucester.--"But you must."
Ridley.--"I will not."
Gloucester.--"You must therefore make no more ado, but put this surplice upon you."
Ridley.--"Truly, if it come upon me, it shall be against my will."
Gloucester.--"Will you not do it upon you?"
Ridley.--"No, that I will not."
Gloucester.--"It shall be put upon you by one or other."
Ridley.--"Do therein as it shall please you; I am well contented with that, and more than that; the servant is not above his master. If they dealt so cruelly with our Saviour Christ, as the Scripture maketh mention, and he suffered the same patiently, how much more doth it become us his servants."
And in saying of these words, they put upon the said Dr. Ridley the surplice, with all the trinkets appertaining to the mass. And as they were putting on the same, Dr. Ridley did vehemently inveigh against the Romish bishop, and all that foolish apparel, calling him antichrist, and the apparel foolish and abominable, yea, too fond for a vice in a play, insomuch that Bishop Brooks was exceeding angry with him, and bade him hold his peace, for he did but rail. Dr. Ridley answered him again, and said, so long as his tongue and breath would suffer him, he would speak against their abominable doings, whatsoever happened unto him for so doing.
Gloucester.--"Well, you were best to hold your peace, lest your mouth be stopped."
At which words one Edridge, the reader then of the Greek lecture, standing by, said to Dr. Brooks; "Sir, the law is, he should be gagged; therefore let him be gagged." At which words Dr. Ridley, looking earnestly upon him that so said, wagged his head at him, and made no answer again, but with a sigh said, "Oh, well, well, well!" So they proceeded in their doings, yet nevertheless Dr. Ridley was ever talking things not pleasant to their ears, although one or other bade him hold his peace, lest he should be caused against his will.
When they came to that place where Dr. Ridley should hold the chalice and the wafer-cake, called the singing-bread, they bade him hold the same in his hands. And Dr. Ridley said, "They shall not come in my hands; for, if they do, they shall fall to the ground for all me." Then there was one appointed to hold them in his hand, while Bishop Brooks read a certain thing in Latin, touching the degradation ,of spiritual persons according to the pope's law.
Afterward they put a book in his hand, and withal read (as is before said) a certain thing in Latin, the effect whereof was "We do take from you the office of preaching the gospel," &c. At which words Dr. Ridley gave a great sigh, looking up towards heaven, saying, "O Lord God, forgive them this their wickedness!" And as they put upon him the mass-gear, so they began with the uppermost garment, in taking it away again, reading a thing in Latin, according to the order contained in the said book of the pope's law. Now when all was taken from him, saving only the surplice left on his back, as they were reading and taking it away, Dr. Ridley said unto them, "Lord God, what power be you of, that you can take from a man that which he never had! I was never singer in all my life, and yet you will take from me that which I never had."
So when all this their abominable and ridiculous degradation was ended very solemnly, Dr. Ridley said unto Dr. Brooks, "Have you done? If you have done, then give me leave to talk with you a little concerning these matters." Brooks answered and said, "Master Ridley, we may not talk with you; you be out of the church, and our law is, that we may not talk with any that be out of the church." Then Master Ridley said, "Seeing that you will not suffer me to talk, neither will vouchsafe to hear me, what remedy but patience? I refer my cause to my heavenly Father, who will reform things that be amiss, when it shall please him." At which words they would have been gone, but Master Ridley said, "My Lord, I would wish that your Lordship would vouchsafe to read over and peruse a little book of Bertram's doings, concerning the sacrament. I promise you, you shall find much good learning therein, if you will read the same with an indifferent judgment." Dr. Brooks made no answer to this, but would have been gone away. Then Master Ridley said.
"Oh, I perceive that you cannot away with this manner of talk. Well! it boots not, I will say no more, I will speak of worldly affairs. I pray you therefore, my Lord, hear me, and be a mean to the queen's Majesty, in the behalf of a great many of poor men, and especially for my poor sister and her husband which standeth there. They had a poor living granted unto them by me, whiles I was in the see of London, and the same is taken away from them, by him that now occupieth the same room, without all law or conscience. Here I have a supplication to the queen's Majesty in their behalfs. You shall hear the same read, so shall you perceive the matter the better."
Then he read the same and, when he came to the place in the supplication, that touched his sister by name, then he wept, so that for a little space he could not speak for weeping. After that he had left off weeping, said, "This is nature that moveth me: but I have now done." And with that read out the rest, and delivered the same to his brother, commanding him to put it up to the queen's Majesty, and to sue, not only for himself, but also for such as had any leases or grants by him, and were put from the same by Dr. Bonner, then bishop of London. Whereunto Brooks said, "Indeed Master Ridley, your request in this supplication is very lawful and honest: therefore I must needs in conscience speak to the queen's Majesty for them."
Ridley.--"I pray you, for God's sake, do so."
Gloucester.--"I think your request will be granted, except one thing let it, and that is, I fear, because you do not allow the queen's proceedings, but obstinately withstand the same, that it will hardly be granted."
Ridley.--"What remedy? I can do no more but speak and write. I trust I have discharged my conscience therein; and God's will be done."
Gloucester.--"I will do what lieth in me."
The copy of this supplication written to the queen here followeth.
"May it please your Majesty, for Christ our Saviour's sake, in a matter of conscience (and now not for myself, but for other poor men) to vouchsafe to hear and understand this humble supplication. It is so, honourable princess, that in the time whiles I was in the ministry of the see of London, divers poor men, tenants thereof, have taken new leases of their tenantries and holdings, and some have renewed and changed their old, and therefore have paid fines and sums of money, both to me, and also to the chapter of Paul's, for the confirmation of the same.
"Now, I hear say, that the bishop which occupieth the same room now, will not allow the foresaid leases, which must redound to many poor men's utter ruin and decay. Wherefore this is mine humble supplication unto your honourable Grace, that it may please the same, for Christ's sake, to be unto the foresaid poor men their gracious patroness and defender, either that they may enjoy their foresaid leases and years renewed, as I suppose when their matter shall be heard with conscience, both justice, conscience, and equity shall require, for that their leases shall be found (I trust) made without fraud or cunning, either of their part, or of mine, and always also the old rents reserved to the see without any kind of damage thereof: or if this will not be granted, then that it may please your gracious Highness, to command that the poor men may be restored to their former leases and years, and to have rendered to them again such sums of money as they paid to me and to the chapter for their leases and years, so now taken from them. Which thing concerning the fines paid to me, may be easily done, if it shall please your Majesty to command some portion of those goods which I left in my house when I fled in hope of pardon for my trespass towards your Grace, which goods (as I have heard) be yet reserved in the same house. I suppose that half of the value of my plate that I left in mine offices, and specially in an iron chest in my bedchamber, will go nigh to restore all such fines received, the true sums and parcels whereof are not set in their leases; and therefore, if that way shall please your Highness, they must be known by such ways and means as your Majesty, by the advice of men of wisdom and conscience, shall appoint: but yet, for Christ's sake, I crave and most humbly beseech your Majesty, of your most gracious pity and mercy, that the former way may take place.
"I have also a poor sister that came to me out of the north, with three fatherless children, for her relief, whom I married after to a servant of mine own house: she is put out of that I did provide for them. I beseech your honourable Grace, that her case may be mercifully considered, and that the rather, in contemplation that I never had of him, which suffered in durance at my entrance into the see of London, not one penny of his movable goods; for it was almost half a year after his deposition, afore I entered into that place: yea and also, if any were left, known to be his, he had licence to carry it away, or there for his use it did lie safe, as his officers do know. I paid for the lead which I found there, when I occupied any of it to the behoof of the church, or of the house. And moreover, I had not only no part of his movable goods, but also (as his old receiver, and then mine, called Master Stanton, can testify) I paid for him towards his servants' common liveries and wages, after his deposition, fifty-three or fifty-five pounds, I cannot tell whether. In all these matters I beseech your honourable Majesty to hear the advice of men of conscience, and in especial the archbishop of York, who, for that he was continually in my house a year and more, before mine imprisonment, I suppose is not altogether ignorant of some part of these things; and also his Grace doth know my sister, for whose succour and some relief, now unto your Highness I make most humble suit. The sixteenth of October, anno 1555.
This degradation being past, and all things finished, Dr. Brooks called the bailiffs, delivering to them Master Ridley with this charge, to keep him safely from any man speaking with him, and that he should be brought to the place of execution when they were commanded. Then Master Ridley in praising God, burst out with these words, and said, "God, I thank thee, and to thy praise be it spoken, there is none of you all able to lay to my charge any open or notorious crime: for if you could, it should surely be laid in my lap, I see very well." Whereunto Brooks said, he played the part of a proud Pharisee, exalting and praising himself. But Master Ridley said, "No, no, no, as I have said before, to God's glory be it spoken. I confess myself to be a miserable wretched sinner, and have great need of God's help and mercy, and do daily call and cry for the same: therefore, I pray you, have no such opinion of me." Then they departed, and in going away a certain warden of a college, of whose name I am not very sure, bade Dr. Ridley repent him, and forsake that erroneous opinion. Whereunto Master Ridley said, "Sir, repent you, for you are out of the truth. And I pray God (if it be his blessed will) have mercy upon you, and grant you the understanding of his word." Then the warden, being in a chafe thereat, said, "I trust that I shall never be of your erroneous and devilish opinion, neither yet to be in that place whither you shall go. He is," saith he," the most obstinate and wilful man that ever I heard talk since I was born."