Having remained five weeks in this leaguer, during which time, preparation was making, for the transportation of the army unto Holstein; seeing the Emperor's forces come from Silesia, and Tilly's army were joined very strong, which barred our passage from coming into Holstein by land, which made us ship our army for going unto Heiligenhafen; and from thence to the pass of Oldenburg in Holstein, of intention to lie secured there, till then rest of his Majesty's forces might join with us. The army then consisted of eight thousand foot, and horse, besides those that were left behind on the island under the command of General Major Slamersdorfe.
Having all safely landed, at Heiligenhafen: we matched towards the pass of Oldenburg, where arrived before night, our leaguer was drawn out into the most convenient part, for maintaining of the pass, where the first night we begin to work in the trenches, and continue working the whole night, and the next day, till noon, that the enemy was seen marching towards the pass, in full battalions of horse, and foot, which before three of the clock had planted batteries, to play with cannon on our leaguer and to force a passage over the pass, which our General perceiving, gave orders, to double the guards both of horse, and foot; as also strongly to barricade the pass, and to cast up in the night a redoubt before the pass: the night drawing on being dark, silence was over all, on both sides of the pass.
But the day clearing, the guards on both sides begin the skirmish, the cannons on both sides begin to discharge, the horse guards charge one another, till ours were forced to give ground; the foot guards beginning to fight, the reliefs were commanded on both sides to second their own, the service growing hot; and the pass in danger of losing.
My colonel in all haste was commanded to march with the half of his regiment to maintain the pass; The colonel commanded me, to have the men in readiness, and to distribute ammunition amongst the soldiers; which done the colonel leading on marches towards the pass under mercy of cannon, and musket: the general meeting us bids ask the soldiers, if they went on with courage; they shouting for joy, cast up their hats, rejoicing in their march, seeming glad of the occasion. The general commending their courage, and resolution, doth bless them in passing. At our ongoing to the pass, the enemies' cannon played continually on the colours, which were torn with the cannon: Also to my grief, my comrade Lieutenant Hugh Rosse, was the first that felt the smart of the cannon bullet, being shot in the leg, who falling not fainting at his loss, did call courageously, go on bravely comrades, and I wish I had a treen, or a wooden leg for your sakes; in this instant of time, and, as I believe, with one bullet, the leg was also shot from David Rosse son to Rosse of Gannis. The service thus hot, both of cannon and musket, many were hurt at the ongoing, where I received a favourable mark, being hurt in the inner side of my right knee, with the end of mine own partizan, being shot off, by the cannon bullet. And we drawing near to the pass, the Dutch, that were on service being all fled but the captain, the pass near lost, my colonel draws off a platoon of musketeers of the right wing, being most of them brave young gentlemen of the colonel's own company, which in all haste with an officer were directed to maintain the pass, which being hardly pursued, sundry worthy young gentlemen did lie on the place in the defence of it, and sundry were hurt, as Andrew Monro, Hector Monro, Alexander Tollough, Arthur Forbesse, and divers more, of common soldiers. By this time, the rest of the colonel's division were not idle from service, the reliefs going often on, and the rest doing service along the pass, having a hedge for their shelter, The body of the pikes standing, for two hours in battle, under mercy of cannon and musket, so that their sufferings and hurts were greater both amongst officers and soldiers than the hurt done to the musketeers, that were on service, for few of their officers escaped unhurt, as Ensign Ennis, Ensign Stewart, Ensign Monro; divers also were killed, as Andrew Monro, Ferwhar Monro, and Murdo Powlson was killed with a cannon. In time of this hot service, powder being distributing amongst soldiers, a whole barrel was blown up, whereby the colonel was burnt in the face, and many soldiers spoiled: the enemy seeing our powder blown up, press to force the passage, and some coming over, Captain John Monro with a few musketeers was commanded in a flat champaign to encounter the enemy, who forced the enemy to retire, so that the pass was cleared again by Captain John his valour, much to his credit.
The first division of our regiment having thus maintained the pass for two hours hot service, then comes from the leaguer, for relief of the Colonel's division, the Lieutenant Colonel, with the other division nothing inferior to the first, who falling on fresh with man-like courage, the other division falls off, to refresh themselves during their comrades being on service, at the very entry the Lieutenant Colonel was hurt, Sir Patrick Mackey and John Forbesse of Tullough, both captains were hurt, Lieutenant Andrew Stewart, Ensign Seaton and Ensign Gordon were also hurt, and many gentlemen and common soldiers were killed. This service continued in this manner from seven o' clock in the morning, till it was past four in the afternoon, first began, with the half of the regiment, who were relieved by the other half, which continued till mid-day; after that the service not being so hot, as before, they went on to service by companies, one company relieving another, till night that it grew dark, and then darkness, the enemy of valour, made the service to cease.
During all this time, our horsemen stood bravely in battle under mercy of cannon and musket, besides the foot, attending to second us, in case the enemy had set over, and forced the pass, which once he adventured to do, but was suddenly beaten back: all this while, the General the Duke of Wismar, and both the armies, were witnesses to the manly and brave carriage of this praiseworthy regiment.
In the evening before night ammunition on both sides growing scarce, & darkness coming on, the service begins to bear up: by this time, there is a barrel of beer sent us, from the leaguer, the officers for haste caused to beat out the head of it, that every man might come unto it, with hat, or head piece, they flocking about the wagon, whereon the barrel lay, the enemies' cannonier gives a volley to their beer, which, by God's providence, though shot amongst the mid'st of them, did no more harm, but blew barrel and beer in the air, the nearst miss that I did ever see; for many of them were down to the ground, whereof my brother, Captain Obstell of worthy memory was one.
At night the service ceased, I was sent by the rest of the officers to the leaguer to my colonel for orders, to learn of the general, who should relieve us at night: My colonel did go to the general's tent, and I with him, to have his Excellence's resolution, who having nobly accepted of the colonel, did praise him and his regiment, requesting him, that as the regiment had done bravely all day, in being the instruments under God of his safety, and of the army's, he would once more request him, that his regiment might hold out the inch, as they had done the span, till it was dark, and then they should be relieved, as he was a Christian; and drinking to me, I returned with a resolution to my comrades, leaving my colonel in the leaguer: And as it grew dark, we were relieved by the Duke of Weimar his earnest and diligent entreaty, having proved our good friend, in urging to take us first off. The General having resolved to retire from the enemy, with the whole army, by reason ammunition grew scarce, and we having deserved best, were first brought off, getting orders to march in the night to ships.
The sixth Observation.
The wise ancients said, it was the principal thing in all things to look unto the end: but it is the property of our nation to be over-wise behind the hand; as we were after the service, having lost thereat a great many of our friends, we ought to have been the more circumspect again. But our condition is so, that no experience can make us wise, till we be sore beaten by others, and then we will grow kind one to another.
Amongst the Romans none was admitted to the dignity of a commander, till first he had passed a prenticeship under a brave general, where he was taught the use of arms, and novices durst not be so bold, as to intrude themselves in this honourable profession, in any degree, to take command on them, without long practise, and experience, as was requisite to undergo a charge in so high a calling, and of such importance, as to lead others: Nevertheless, the ground work or foundation of military discipline once well laid, then they were suffered to advance by degrees unto high charges, proposing recompense, and reward unto those, that did merit, and to that effect, they invented several sorts of crowns, for the reward of their travails, and wisdom: Amongst others, the crown called obsidional was ordained, for those that entered first the besieged places, being of the most esteem of all crowns, which was made of the root of the herbs, or grain, that had taken root within the place besieged; also those that first scaled the walls, were wont to get a crown of the herb woodbine, or parietaria, pellitory growing on the walls, and those that first entred the enemies' ports by force, had also a crown given unto them; And the crown castean was ordained, for him that first entered the enemies' trenches, and broke the palisades, making way to enter unto the enemies' leaguer: Also a crown was given unto those of the naval army, that first entered the enemies' galleys, or ships on sea; this crown was made of gold, representing the combat, and the general afoot, being victorious, had given him a crown made of hats, and mitres, and triumphing in a chariot, he carried a hat made of laurel. At last, these crowns were made of gold, laid over with precious stones. They had also given them, for recompense of their travails, chains, and bracelets, all to the end they might accustom themselves to virtue, and to the discipline and toil of wars. Who then would not desire to be of this society, to get a crown for well doing? On the contrary, cowards, poltroons, and effeminate persons, were disdained, degraded and put off charge, while the valiant were honoured, advanced, and recompensed, as the Turk doth practise to this day; to the disgrace of Christians neglecting discipline, till they are overthrown. It should then be the duty of brave generals to make choice of brave and virtuous commanders, not asking of whom they come, but where, and how long, have they practised to be virtuous. Then we see here, what was the custom of the ancient Romans, in choosing the virtuous, that had passed their prenticeship, and not novices to be commanders: for we see, that the love of the public brings honour, pleasure and profit to the virtuous, who think on it sincerely; But those, that would raise their fortunes by the ruin of others, shall never prosper.
The reason of our coming to this pass of Oldenburg was, to have stayed there in safety from our enemies, till we might join with our friends; but the enemy prevented us, in coming betwixt us and our friends: then there was no remedy, but to hold him up at the pass, till our army might join with us, and of this intention we resolved for best, to maintain the pass, as we did, till ammunition grew scant, and then we were forced to retire to our ships.
This King is powerful by sea, and is mightily well furnished of all things necessary for wars, of arms, artillery, ammunition, victuals, money, and what else is requisite to set forwards a war; and, which is more, a noble, and a liberal master, as ever I did serve.
Here also I observe the slowness of our general, that did not patronize the pass some few days before the enemies' coming, that it might have been fortified: for it was no time for us to fortify the pass in the night, when the enemy came before us, and the next day, we were not suffered to work, being otherwise employed. Another oversight was, that our general did not know certainly, how we were provided of ammunition, for though we had lead in abundance, we wanted bullets in the time of need. Whereupon the general was accused, after our coming into Denmark, and the blame was found in the commissary, that had the charge of the artillery, Et jure, for they were all rogues, and deceived his Majesty, that trusted them too much. Nevertheless, I cannot excuse the general of being ignorant of the provisions ordained for the army; seeing he was certain of the enemies' coming: for it is most sure, if we had been provided of ball, we were sufficiently bastant to have kept the pass against our enemy, since it came not in the enemies' power, till we had left it voluntarily in the night. The enemy also retiring from us, hearing the Rhinegrave's forces were coming behind him, of intention to join with us. I observed also, that the general was too slow, in the encouragement of his officers and soldiers, having delayed his exhortion to the very time of our going on service. And it is easy, at such time, to prognosticate by the countenance going on service how they are affected. But never men went on service with more cheerful countenances, than this regiment did, going as it were, to welcome death, knowing it to be the passage unto life, especially fighting in a good cause, against the enemies of the daughter of our King, the Queen of Bohemia, for whose sake, our magnific and royal master did undertake the wars, and for her sake, we resolved to have followed such a courageous leader, as the earth this day affords none stouter, as mine eyes did witness divers times: And for her sake, I persuade myself, our noble colonel did engage his estate, and adventured his person, to have done her sacred Majesty good service. I did also observe this day, that the best way to eschew danger, is not to perceive it; for a man well resolved perceives no danger neither doth anything seem difficult unto him, that may import his credit. And the best commanders, in my opinion, as they are in measure remiss, not seeming prodigal of their lives, though resolutely adventurous; and for me, I love a man that is modestly valiant, that stirs not till he must needs: for he that is conscious of his inward courage, is confident to show it to the world, when he will; but a man prodigal of life, oft-times endangers himself and others; for though he have courage to lead them on, he lacks wit and discretion to bring them off, in case of eminent danger. And at such times, as I condemn him that runs away first, I cannot allow of him, that, out of ostentation, will stay after all his comrades are gone, till he yield himself prisoner, or die unnecessarily there, where he might have preserved himself with honour for a better occasion. I have also observed, that a base fellow hath been killed running away, when a valiant soldier stood to it, and came off with credit.
I did also remark the invincible courage and resolution of that worthy gentleman Lieutenant Rosse, who having lost his leg, wished for a wooden or treen leg, lying on the ground, as the example of pity, that he, who was endued with such courage, and Christian resolution, had not time in the warfare, to have given the world greater proof of his valour.
Here also I must condemn those arrogant spirits, who contemn God and Fate, that while as being on service, and being hurt, may retire with credit, and on the contrary will be so foolishly valiant, as to stay on a second hurt, worse than the first; as became that day of a young gentleman of my name, and kindred, who being shot in the arm with a musket bullet, would not at my desire retire, but slighting his wound stayed on service, till he was shot dead in the head. David Monro Ensign, being shot through the body above the left pap, went a little aside, till he was dressed, and returned again to his station, keeping his colours in his hand, till night, before the enemy, never fainting with his wound, an example of rare courage, and of great strength of body, neither did he ever thereafter keep bed or lodging one hour, more than ordinary, for all this hurt.
Here also I did observe, that the former distractions amongst the officers of the regiment were taken away, having been companions of equal danger against their enemies, made them love one another the better ever after: for Captain John Monro helped Lieutenant colonel Seaton, being shot, to his horse, having on the march two days before fallen horribly out: which verifies the Scots proverb, Dogs will part swine, and make them agree amongst themselves. We see oft-times, that those that are feeblest themselves, are most ready to speak derogatively of others. Here I might infer divers instances, yet I will infer, and only point, for the present a little at those unlucky dispositions, that cannot endure any but themselves to be well thought of, for if one be justly praised, or advanced in recompense of his virtue, they will presently dismount his virtues, and stab him to the heart, obnubilating his brightest glory, with a butt of detraction bred of envy, nasty indeficient minds devising spots, where they find them not, a base office to make his tongue whip a worthy man. If I knew vice in another, I would nobly show my charity in concealing it, if he be absent; if present, I would not flatter: for the valiant man his tongue is ever the greatest coward in absence, for it is not good to deprave the fame of the absent, with a viperous tongue: Therefore my advice were to thee, in such a case, to do like the wise man, to learn somewhat by thine enemies' outrage, as King Philip of Macedon learned well the lesson, who many times thanked his enemies for their outrage, which made him afterwards the more wise, more circumspect, and more settled: for nothing gives a man more good experience, than wars, laws, love, and detraction: And for detraction thou oughtest to be so wise, if thou be made the mark for calumniators to shoot at, let them shoot, as they please, I would be hard, they should not pierce me, being armed with a good conscience, we should not care for their shooting, for though it sometime take root in the ears of some hearers, yet thy comfort should be, that one day, he shall kill himself, soon or late, as the poisonable birth kills the mother: and such fellows should be punished, as thieves: seeing the one bereaves men but of their substance, but the other bereaves them of life, and death, and of their dearest friends also. And he should be holden as such a one himself, till he brought his evidence; as the custom was of old: and for myself, I never found better remedy against them, than to disdain them, as coming about the ears of a deaf man, that did not hear them, and this I found to be the best bridle, to curb their tongues, for in the end he would hold his peace, and turn his tongue another way: but I must confess, the tongue of a calumniator hath sometimes offended me, and grieved me much, but they profited me, in making me the more circumspect and diligent, in thinking on all circumstances, that might conserve my credit and reputation, to be avenged on them. And with the proverb, which I know to be true, I will conclude this point, things that grieve us, should lead us to repentance, seeing that which destroys, instructs; and God oft-times, cleanses the inward man, by the outward, by the contrary course, leading us to our wished for harbour: for there is no such great discommodity, but brings commodity with it; for those that are stinged by scorpions, though at first it be very dangerous, yet at last, the hurt being cured by convenient remedies, it brings fruit with advantage, as experience hath taught, neither fly, bee, nor wasp can harm those thus cured.
To conclude then this point of detraction, men should be circumspect, what to determine of other men's actions, being on service: for I am of the opinion, that in time of hot service, no man doth remember the half of his own actions, much less to remark the actions of others, except some circumstances, which he may remember. Therefore we should be loath unnecessarily to bring ourselves in question, in speaking evil of others: for commonly, at such times, cowards, or feeble men, that are not in action themselves, see more than others that are better employed: yet the feeble man is ever readiest to detract, for to prevent his own insufficiency, too well known to others. But after this day's service, our detractions, and distractions also, were almost taken away, being companions of the like danger, against our enemies: And I inferred this discourse of detraction, by reason, that at such service commonly men do speak, as they do favour, or rather, as their envy carries them; which fault as being too much in use in all estates, especially amongst soldiers, I would wish from my heart that it might be eschewed.
Here also I observed, that want of circumspection in command, especially over young soldiers, as we had to command, do many times cause great inconveniences to follow, as was seen in the blowing up of our powder, whereby our Colonel was burnt in the face, and many more. Here I might speak somewhat of the hurt and inconveniency, that doth happen many times by cannon, and powder, but I will refer it to a fitter place, to be spoken of.
Likewise I cannot here omit to speak somewhat of the resolution of some particular soldiers, that were hurt on this service. Hector Monro of Cool, being shot through one of his feet, was desired to go off, who answered, it was not time, till first he had emptied his bandoleers against his enemies, before which time he was shot through the other foot also, and then was not able to come off alone, without help of others, and some of his comrades, which helped him off, going farther with him than he thought needful for his safety, or their credit, he wished them to retire, and discharge their duties against the enemy, as they had sufficiently done towards him. Hugh Murrey being desired in time of hot service, to go and take off his brother being killed; he lacking powder said, going towards his dead brother, I will first empty my brother's bandoleers, as I have done mine own, to be revenged on his enemies, before I take him off: in the mean time, he was shot in the eye himself, and that wondrous favourably, the bullet some few days after having come forth at his nose, which is most true, though seeming incredible. This day also I observed an ill custom too common to all generals, that they make most use, in time of desperate service, of those that do best serve them, and when once they have experience of their valour, they never omit to employ them on the most dangerous exploits; and for reward, they only do commend their valour, when others are scarce remembered at all.
Here also I did see, that on hot service, nothing can be more comfortable, than the getting of a timely relief, as we did get of the rest of our regiment, for having long smarted under the mercy of cannon and musket, in hot service, so that a soldier was not able to handle his musket for fear of burning, having shot so oft, till his shoulder did ache; who can think, but to such a one a relief was welcome: truly I think no man that hath his foot in the fire, but would gladly take it out: yet I persuade myself, there were some here, who would suffer to burn before they retired with disgrace, or discredit, their honour being so dear unto them. The best proofs a soldier can infer of his valiant courage, are his wounds got with credit, not running away, and the best exhortation a leader can give common soldiers is, to show himself courageous, and then, without words, with a sign, some will follow him, in imitating his example.
Here also I did observe, that the Dutch are not the best soldiers in extremity of danger, though I confess for the discharge of all duty, otherwise very obedient, till it come to extremity, and then commonly they make a cloak of discontentment, and call for money, as they did this day. Likewise I cannot say, but horse-men are useful many times, as they were here; yet in my opinion, in their service, they are not to be paralleled to foot: For at the in-taking of towns, and in hilly and mountainous countries, that are straight by nature, they are not useful, neither can they do but little service, yet for their great charges, they are much harder to be entertained: Therefore my choice shall be ever, as most credible to command on foot, and if I were worthy to advise a king, or a general following wars, I would wish him to esteem more of his foot officers, than of his horse: then fewer should serve on horseback, and more on foot, and as his charges should be less, his profit should be the more, his army the stronger, his country less spoiled, his contribution to maintain his army, the better paid, his treasure richer, his victories more frequent, and more durable, his conquest the better maintained.
This I dare presume to affirm to be all true, out of my little experience, and which is more, all the time I have served, where I have heard one fault imputed to a body of foot, I could instance ten defects in our horsemen's service: for the worst sort of them being too much given to plundering, makes them neglect their duties, which fault also is too common amongst many of their leaders; though I have known some honest men amongst them free from this imputation: and for a king, or prince, that must defend his country, by sea, (as our noble master the King of Denmark was) I would advise him, as unprofitable for his service and country, not to entertain strangers in this kind, so being their charges would far surmount the benefit that could redound by their service, yet I cannot say, but the Rhinegrave his regiment was the only regiment under the King at this time, that did best service, which was ever praiseworthy.
Likewise, I have found by experience that those who fight best in occasions, have ever the best of it, though they chance to suffer loss, if it come to a retreat, commonly they are most respected and come first off, as we did at this time, and it is ever better to fight well, and to retire timely, than for a man to suffer himself to be taken prisoner, as many were that morning after our retreat: and in occasions, I rather choose to die honourably, then to live and to be prisoner to a churlish fellow, that perhaps would keep me in perpetual bondage, as many brave men are kept; or otherwise, at my taking, to be scurvily used, being stripped naked by a villain, and then, if I lacked moneys about me, to be cut and carved, and at last, poorly put to death, being naked without arms to defend myself. My advise then is to him that cannot resolve to fight well, that he resolve according to his station, and charge, to be well furnished of money, not only about him, but also, to have money to the best in a sure place, and in sure hands to maintain him, being prisoner, and to pay his ransom; or otherwise, let him resolve to remain in perpetual bondage, except some noble friend or other have compassion on him.
Likewise I would advise all worthy soldiers, and officers going on service, if they can, never to want some moneys about them, that, if they chance to come as prisoners in undiscreet hands, they may cast a bone in the dog's teeth, to curry favour of the cruel cur.
I did also observe here, that continency is a virtue very necessary for a soldier, for abstaining from many inordinate appetites, that follow his profession, that he may the better suffer hunger, cold, thirst, nakedness, travail, toil, heat, and what else patiently, never mutinying for any defect: for it is the greatest victory we can attain unto, to overcome ourselves, and our appetites. Likewise I did observe, that kings, and generals are very courteous to cavaliers, while as they stand in need of their service, in making their use of them, but the occasion once past, oft times they do look on cavaliers at a distance, as if they had not employment for them; which should teach cavaliers, to take their time with reason of their masters also; and then they might care the less for them (being strangers or foreign kings) while as, they would disdain them, having still a sure retreat to their own king, and master. Here also I found that a friend in need was better than gold, for had not the Duke of Weimar been our friend we had been left behind at the pass, and been prisoners the next day with the rest of the army. It is therefore ever best to do well, come after what may; for virtue in despite of envy, will not want a reward: And a stout mariner that hath ridden out the storm with loss, as we did this day, rejoices in the calm, when it comes; and he is said to merit the Crown, that hath fought valiantly.
It is also very necessary, that at such service, as this was, if we have time, that we be careful, to bring off our comrades' bodies killed on service, that died honourably before their enemies, to be laid in the bed of honour, in burying their bodies, as becomes Christians. We are also tied in duty to our comrades, that were with us in danger, if either they be wounded, or mutilated, to care for their safeties, so far as lieth in our power: And we must not prefer the safety of our own bodies, to the public weal of our comrades, and countrymen dead or living, but we ought, with the hazard of our own lives, to bring off the dead and hurt.
An example of this duty, we have in the person of the President of Chassangue treating of the Jews' law, that did command, that the bodies of their dead enemies should not lie unburied. Caesar caused to be buried the head of his enemy Pompey, and wept at his death, as Valerius Maximus reports in his fifth book, and sixth chapter. Hercules is thought to have been the first that ordained to bury the bodies of those killed on service, and David calls them blessed, that were so thankful, as to have buried Saul. Judas Macchabi did cause to bury the bodies of the enemy killed in battle, and Alexander restored unto the mother of Darius the dead body of her son, Hannibal did bury the body of his enemy Marcellus, as Valerius affirms. It is also expedient, for the common-weal, that the bodies of the dead be buried: and Leonard Darez reports that Cyrus, Alexander, and Caesar did recommend their funerals to their friends, as Lieutenant Rosse did his to his Captain and me, which we performed in the best manner we could, for the time. If pagans had such regard to their burials, Christians should be more careful, whose bodies sometimes were the receptacles of the holy Spirit, and of the immortal soul created to God's own image.
Here also I would report the commandment that we read in the second chapter verse 23. of the fourth book of Esdras. Where thou findest the dead, put them in the grave (with a certain mark) and I will give thee the first seat in my resurrection: and the wise Ancients said, men should look unto the end. My exhortation then is to all my worthy countrymen, and women, that were interested in our loss in this day's service, to consider, that when these gentlemen, and cavaliers were born, that they were marked and ordained to die honourably, fighting in the good cause; and for the liberty of our King's daughter, the Queen of Bohemia and her distressed royal issue, under the magnanimous King of Denmark our master, who for her Majesty's liberty, did hazard not only his life, but his crown; let them then that are interested, as said is, in this our loss consider again, that they died with great honour, and reputation, seeing they live eternally in their fame, having laid down their lives, as servants of the public, if not for their country, yet at least, as cannot be denied, for the liberty of their king's royal issue: It then became them well, to have died standing. Therefore those mothers, friends, or sisters, are to be condemned, that mourn for them that live (after their death) in their fame, and though their grief be great, let them shed no tears, for fear it become of them, as became of that ancient woman called Vicia, mother to Futius Geminus, who was killed at Rome, for having wept at the death of her son, that had lost his life in the public service, as reporteth Tacitus in his 6 book of his Annals, and our Saviour in the Evangelist Saint Luke doth forbid the widow to weep for her son that was dead, and St. Paul writing to the Thessalonians saith, Brethren I would not have you ignorant of the estate of those that are asleep, to the end you do not over-mourn, as those do, that are without hope. Therefore, let us forbear all tears for those departed, and if we should mourn, let us mourn with tears, even those most precious tears for sin, these are the Christian tears, that should be shed from our hearts, to reconcile us unto God, those tears are as the blood of the soul, hurt and wounded with the sense, and feeling of our sins, before God these are the tears, that draw God's mercy upon us, as David cried unto God in the 36 Psalm. Thou hast counted my wanderings, and put my tears in thy bottle, are they not in thy register? Therefore though we be grieved at the loss of our friends, and at the loss of the day; Yet O God, make us thankful unto thee, for our deliverance, that we may rejoice at our own safety.