My Colonel and his officers being parted for Scotland to bring over a recruit, I being left to command the regiment: In November I received orders from his Majesty to leave three companies in Fyn and to march myself, with the other four companies, and the regiment staff unto Lolland: the reason of our march was: the Imperialists having by shipping crossed Angelandsbaelt, and taken the Isle of Fehmarn under their contribution, Lolland the Queen Mother's dowry being next unto it, and without soldiers, his Majesty was afraid the enemy out of Fehmarn might set over with shipping, destroy the land, and retire again, seeing there was no fortified city within Lolland, though it was the fertilest soil within Denmark: to prevent this inconvenience, I was ordained to march thither, and to quarter the companies in the most convenient parts of the land, and to remain there during his Majesty's will, having only charge to watch where our garrisons lay, and the boors were ordained to watch night and day alongst the coast, at such places where the enemy might land: This march though short was tedious, being in the midst of winter the ways deep and foul, being fat clay ground, the best and fertilest part in Denmark; and the march was the more troublesome, that we were forced in the winter time to cross the seas over Angelandsbaelt twice.
Marching through Langland, having quartered there a night, there happened an odious complaint to be made on a soldier called Mac-Myer of Monro his company, for forcing the boor's daughter, where he quartered. The boor complains to the Commissary, and the Commissary to me; to satisfy justice, we called a council of wars (having our auditor with us) of the regiment officers; the business exactly examined, according to his Majesty's articles, the soldier was condemned to die, and to be shot at a post, to terrify others by his example from the like heinous sin: The soldier getting time for that night to prepare himself for death, the minister instructing him of his duty, the next morning the companies drawn to arms, a guard was directed to see the execution, the soldier courageously and Christianly resolved, being tied to a post was shot dead by his comrades, who without any delay executed the command laid on them by the malefactor, whose corpse was presently buried. The next day having shipped, we crossed over unto Lolland, where, according to his Majesty's orders, we were well quartered and courteously received. The Colonel's company and Sir Patrick Mac-Geys with the staff, were quartered with me in Maribo, Captain Mac-Kenyee his company were quartered in Rødby, and Captain Monro his company in Nykøbing, where the Queen mother did remain.
The tenth Observation.
Here I did observe that wisdom and virtue were the best guards of safety, the one securing the soul, the other the estate and body: For this magnanimous and wise King, by his foresight and wisdom, did prevent the evil (by a timely foresight) which his enemies might have brought upon this Isle of Lolland, being the richest part within the Kingdom, for corn a magazine, and a garner for foreign countries: It abounds also in all sorts of fishes, the ponds belong to the gentry, making great commodity of their fish, being sold in the cities and country, that are not licentiate to have the like of their own. The gentry of this land are much given to policy and economy, following the example of their King, having great stalls and stables, containing above four hundred oxen, and their stables some threescore horses, being well fed and made lusty, they are sold to the Germans, which yearly brings unto the gentility great store of money: this island abounds in deer and wild fowl.
This country is also plentiful of wood for building of ships, where his Majesty every year hath some builded by his own master builder, a worthy gentleman begotten of Scots ancestors, called Mr. Sinclaire, who speaks the Scottish tongue, and is very courteous to all his countrymen which come thither. The citizens also of this island, being very rich, build ships for their own use, and some they sell unto strangers.
My host the Burgomaster of Maribo, sometime furnished his Majesty for building of his ships, to a reckoning of one hundred thousand rixdollars, so that in a word, in this little Isle of Lolland I did observe virtue to be habitual in it, and so was the people's goodness distributive unto us and our soldiers, so that during our residence there, we were so welcome, that all things smiled upon us, where it was my fortune one night to have gotten his Majesty to be my guest, having then my quarter in the Burgomaster's house, and though he was a king, I persuade myself he was contented with his entertainment, being both good and rare, whereof truly I had a good deal, but my guest departed by three of the clock in the morning without bidding me farewell; yet being his Majesty's will, I was well pleased, having sat up all night I was not for attendance in the morning, which his Majesty at his departure gratiously did excuse.
To return then to my observation, I did see and learn here the truth of that proverb in his Majesty's person, that the wise man only is the cunningest fencer; no man can give a blow so soon, or ward and keep himself so safely as the wise man, and nothing is to be placed above him, but God, the King of Kings and giver of wisdom. To live is common, to be wise and good particular, and granted to a few: many I see wish for honour, for wealth, for friends, for fame, for pleasure; I desire but those two; virtue, and wisdom, which both I saw in this magnanimous king, and in his country people following his Majesty's example. We find not a man that the world ever had so plentiful in all things, as was Solomon: yet his request was but one of these two, though indeed it includeth the other; for without virtue, wisdom is not; or if it be, it undoes us at last: and to return to my observation, in my judgement it may be said of this magnanimous king, as was said of Caesar, Semi-Deus est: for as he is valiant, so he is learned, Ex utroque Rex, being valiant and wise, a prince of an excellent spirit, capable of all good things, as I have seen, and observed in him: he is learned in the liberal sciences, and understands well the mathematics and the practise of fortifications, as a soldier studied in the laws, joining arms with justice, two great helps for the government of a princely dignity: he handles well his arms, and is expert in riding of horses, a strong man for wrestling, as all Europe affords, able for to give strokes, and the levellest shooter with a piece, that ever I did see; for with a pistol he never misses a dog in the head he shoots at; for experience in warfare, nothing inferior to the greatest captains we read of, easy to come to, and very affable, patient to bear with heat, cold, hunger, and most durable in travail; and if I were to wish for the personage of a man, mine eyes did never see his like, for a stately majestic person, whom ever I will greatly respect and love for the good received, and shall be ever ready to serve him against all his enemies, my gracious sovereign only excepted, and his dearest sister's royal issue, to whom I have vowed my best service.
Here also in this kingdom I did observe, that there is nothing moves subjects more to obedience, than the opinion they conceive of their prince's care and diligence, in the conservation of his kingdom and subjects; and experience teacheth us, that the obedience due to kings by their subjects is weak, if it be not grounded on fear and respective reverence. As authority is gotten by honourable and convenient carriage: so oft-times we see it is lost by evil carriage. So that all greatness destitute of virtue doth vanish in an instant; and therefore the poets did say, that honour and reverence were the children begotten of majesty and authority: the example wherof, we have in the person of Charles called the Wise, who having seen France ruined by the former wars, under his predecessors Philip and John, Normandy and Picardy possessed by the English, and having Edward the third to deal with, the best and happiest king ever England had, who defeated the French in two battles. This prince resolved to keep the rest, finding it to be as good to govern by counsel as by force of arms, he did nothing rashly nor unforeseen, but his designs were all well premeditated and digested, making choice of men wise, valiant, and knowing how to command in wars. Edward seeing his sword thus blunted, and the course of his victories by the wisdom of Charles interrupted, said, who did ever see one out of his chamber to give a man so much ado without arms? Thus Charles was so wise, that his enemies did make no difficulty to praise him, for he not only freed his people from misery, but also gathered afterward a great treasure for his son, being called rich, as he was wise, and being respected of his subjects, and of his enemies, as this magnanimous King of Denmark is, for his prudence after his wars, is as much to be commended, as his valour was in preserving his subjects & throne from his enemies, being redacted to a corner; and his counsel served also well, for the good of his subjects, the estate of his throne, and for the recovery of his loss. And therefore Cicero said, that counsel availed for the good of the state as well as captains, for it is oft seen in effect, that by the good advice of the one, the others have happily drawn, and governed their swords; And in another place he saith that Agamemnon general of Greece, did never wish for ten such great captains as Ajax was, but rather ten wise counsellors, as Nestor was, which made Cicero so often to proclaim the honour due to eloquence above valour, saying, Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea linguae but joined together, as in this magnanimous King of Denmark, they work one to another's hands, for the establishment of his throne, which I wish so long to continue as the world. Here also we may learn to eschew vice by the punishment inflicted upon this soldier for his exorbitancy, in having ravished a virgin of her honour, he was bereft himself of life, by God's justice, punishing man for sin examplary to others.
Against this sin of ravishing emperors ordained punishment, to wit, to lose their heads, and their goods also to be confiscate, but the law of the canonists treats more meekely with ravishers, suffering them to marry those whom they ravished: But the Lord judging more severely, steeping his rods in vineger, ordains stricter punishment for such malefactors. To eschew therefore the committing of such villanies, I will here set down some remedies to hinder man from such vices, that we may eschew the like punishment. The first remedy then is to abstain from the excess of wine and meats, not to be drunk with wine, wherein there is dissolution. The second remedy is to eschew idleness and too much sleeping, which is enemy to travail and diligence. The third, to eschew the company of uncleaan persons, whose delight is in filthy communications, for he that will touch pitch, must be defiled with it. Evil speeches corrupt good manners; and with wolves we learn to howl and cry. Dinah the daughter of Jacob desiring to see what was not convenient, neither for her shamefacedness, nor for the respect she ought to have carried to her father's house, was ravished, violated, and was the cause of greater evil. The fourth remedy is to keep both women and maids in a convenient modesty of a chaste behaviour, without which there is a door opened to all villany and filthiness, which is able of virtue to make vice. The other remedies are, to live soberly and virtuously in our callings, eschewing evil company and filthy communications, loving rather to take pains in our callings, remembering our duty we owe to God, in not delighting in any uncleanness, that we may eschew the malediction hanging over the heads of those, which continue in their filthiness without repentance, abusing the long suffering and patience of the Lord our God and Father.
To conclude this observation, there are laws and justice observed as well among soldiers, as in other governments, and the strictest justice that is, with least partiality: our laws are the King's Articles, we are sworn to obey our president or judge, he amongst us present having the command, to whom his Majesty joins, as assessor to the judge, an auditor for doing of justice, our assizers or jury we have not to seek (viz.) a competent number of thirteen of our own regiment, officers, captains, lieutenants, ensigns, sergeants and corporals, till our number be full: our proforce or gavileger brings in the complaints, and desires justice, in his Majesty's name, to the party offended, and to his master the King's Majesty or general, that führs or leads the war; and every regiment is bound to have an executioner of their own, which if the regiment wants, the colonel is obliged to hire another to do the execution for payment, and sometimes as the crime and the person is respected, that is to suffer, he is honoured to be shot by his comrades, or beheaded, not suffering an executioner to come near him. Other slight punishments we enjoin for slight faults, put in execution by their comrades; as the loupegarthe, when a soldier is stripped naked above the waist, and is made to run a furlong betwixt two hundred soldiers, ranged alike opposite to others, leaving a space in the midst for the soldier to run through, where his comrades whip him with small rods, ordained and cut for the purpose by the gavileger, and all to keep good order and discipline; for other lesser faults, there is ordained slighter punishments, as irons, standing at a post, his hands bound up above his head; likewise sitting on a treen or wooden mare, in some public place, to make him ashamed of his fault: As also sometimes to stand six or seven hours longer than ordinary at the sentry posture; as I was once made to stand in my younger years at the Louvre gate in Paris, being then in the King's regiment of the guards, passing my prenticeship, for sleeping in the morning, when I ought to have been at my excercise, for punishment I was made stand from eleven before noon, to eight of the clock in the night sentry, armed with corslet, head-piece, bracelets, being iron to the teeth, in a hot summer's day, till I was weary of my life, which ever after made me the more strict in punishing those under my command.