HIS Majesty having left Colonel Winckle at Halle as governor, with a strong garrison to command the town, he ordained and left the Duke of Anhalt as Stadt-holder, not only over the town, but also over the whole Stift of Magdeburg: having taken leave of the Duke of Saxony, after many protestations and promises of mutual friendship; our march did continue towards Erfurt; and before our up-breaking, the castle of Leipzig was given over by accord unto the Duke of Saxony: and the Duke's army was also marching towards Silesia and Bohemia.
The seventeenth of September, our first night's quarter was taken at a dorp, two miles from Halle; where those of Erfurt being so displeased at our coming, as unwilling to entertain such Guests (they being all Catholics, Jesuits and Monks) being mightily afraid, they did send their commissioners before them, to treat with his Majesty, but his Majesty did give them their answers, by Duke William of Weimar, that they should quit the Catholic faction, and give their oath of fidelity to his Majesty of Sweden, and that they should take in his garrisons within their town, and render up to his Majesty the castle of Cyriaksburg, with the colleges to come in his Majesty's will; who should suffer them to be untroubled in their religion, paying their contribution to the wars, like the other burghers and country.
The commissioners thinking their conditions to be hard, they took leave of his Majesty, promising to refer the business to the town and clergy: and they being departed, the Duke of Weimar with a regiment of horse was directed after them; having charge to ride as hard as they could, and entering the ports with a few horse at the first, commanded the guard to lay down their arms, which hardly they could refuse, the rest being so near; they entered the town and marched peaceably unto the market place, which caused an extraordinary fear amongst the burghers, and yet a greater terror amongst the clergy.
The Council being called to come on the market place, they were commanded to render the town keys unto the Duke; who getting the keys, the town was taken without blood.
The twenty two of September, his Majesty having quartered the greatest part of the army without the town, he entered the town with eight thousand men foot and horse, which were all quartered within the town, and cloisters; having all free entertainment, in abundance; some of the clergy removed themselves, those who pleased to stay, were not troubled but in their means, and his Majesty promised unto the town and council the free enjoyment of their former liberties.
His Majesty having rested the army some few days, Duke William of Weimar was made Stadt-holder, who had absolute command over three thousand horse and foot, getting also full power to take in the contribution, and to give out patents, for levying of horse and foot regiments for his Majesty's service.
My cousin, the Baron of Fowles, with his regiment of foot, being left there in garrison, took afterwards patent of the Duke of Weimar for levying a regiment of horse, which he after brought to pass.
His Majesty giving direction for repairing the fortifications of the town, there were orders given to the army to be in readiness, for to march over Thüringer Wald unto Franconia, and the regiment had orders to provide their soldiers sufficiently of pikes and muskets, being desired to send unto Erfurt for such as they stood in need of.
The nineteenth Observation.
HIs Majesty as he was valourous and diligent in conquering; so he was careful to maintain his conquest: the one being as necessary as the other. Likewise we see his Majesty's wisdom, in appointing the Duke of Anhalt (in respect of his power in those quarters) to be Stat-holder at Halle, and over the Stift of Magdeburg, till the Chancellor of Sweden's coming, where we see, that his Majesty, for his own aims, did make no difference betwixt Protestants and Lutherans, but made a like use of them both. For though the Duke of Anhalt was a Protestant, he being powerful in those quarters, to do his Majesty service (being father-in-law to Duke William of Weimar) this command was imposed upon him.
Here also at Erfurt, being the first part in Dutchland belonging unto the Catholic League, as appertaining to the Bishopric of Mainz, notwithstanding, we see his Majesty clemency towards the Papists, in using no violence against them, save only, Jure belli, as those who were conquered by the sword; his Majesty did exact of them contribution to the wars, and their fidelity in giving their Oaths to be true unto his Majesty, in doing no harm unto his person or army; by entertaining correspondence with his enemies, and on those terms, his Majesty was pleased, to let them remain untroubled in their consciences, and those that were scrupulous to give this oath, were suffered to depart in peace, and those who were contented to give it, could not say, they were injured.
Here then we see, that Princes' charters are no others over their conquered lands, than their sword, and the oath of fidelity.
It is reported of Peter Count of Savoy that he coming to give his oath of fidelity to the Emperor Otto the fourth, he came presenting himself before the Emperor, the one half of his body clad over with cloth of gold, and his left side clad over with glittering Armour; the one, to testify the honour and respect he carryed to the Emperor; the other, how ready he was to fight against his enemies, or those that durst speak evil of his Majesty: and being asked for his charters, which he had of lands given him in time of wars, he drew his sword, saying; here they are, signifying thereby, that brave warriors, kings or princes had no better right than their swords.
Here also we see, that nothing is more powerful, to bring our enemies to an accord, than a strong army, while as they want strength to oppose them; for the conquest will render and give such conditions to the conqueror, as he pleaseth to further, good or bad.
We see also here as formerly, his Majesty in respect of the Duke of Wimar his power in those quarters (which in effect is great) appointed him Stadt-holder, and supreme commissioner in his Majesty's absence, in governing the country, and in strengthening the army, by levying of forces, of horse and foot, being a fit man for such employment, that part of the country being the most populous part in Germany, and cheapest to entertain them, through the fertility of ground in those parts, rendering increase beyond any part of lower Germany.