This following discourse, being no direct part of the discharge of duty intended of the regiment: nevertheless for lack of emploiment in my calling, at that time being idle in garrison, I remarkd, so far as I could by report, the actions of others, as they occurred then, being out of action myself; yet I can affirm, what I relate will be found true; if not, let me be no more blamed than those that gave the intelligence.
His Majesty having gone to meet the Queen being come from Leipzig to Hanau, the twenty second of January 1632, his Majesty conveyed the Queen to Frankfurt, where all the cannons went off, after their entries. At this time also, the Rex-chancellour Oxensterne came from Prussia, conveyed by our countryman Sir Patrick Ruthven, then eldest Colonel of Scots under his Majesty, being then governor of Mariburg, and Colonel of a Dutch regiment lay there, with whom did come from Prussia Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Hamilton, who was Lieutenant Colonel then to Sir George Cuningham his regiment of Scots that lay in Prussia. Captain Montgomery came also with them, who soon after was made Lieutenant Colonel to a free Squadron of foot, and after that was killed in combat on horseback by the General Quarter-master Bullion, at first Captain under me. At this time also came with him Quarter-master Sandelence, who afterwards was Captain Major and Lieutenant Colonel, having ascended by degrees, according to worth and deserving.
The Chancellor being come, his Majesty and he sat ordinarily all day in counsel, treating on weighty matters; At which time, the Colognes' ambassador was treating apart with his Majesty for neutrality, affirming he had given no assistance to the last League, neither yet was he of the League; As also he affirmed that at the last Westphalia convention he refused assistance to the rest of the League: his Majesty replied to the Colognes' ambassador, how hardly and unchristianly they had dealt with the Evangelists Stends, worse than if they had been Jews or Turks, in taking their Churches from them, and in banishing themselves. Nevertheless there were some Articles proposed unto them concerning the Neutrality (viz.) First of all, molesting the Evangelists, under whatsoever pretence, to be abolished and put away. Secondly the free liberty of the Religion to be granted and suffered, and that the Students of the Religion should be taken as well in the Colleges as the Papists Thirdly, in all cities, the Evangelists to be as free to traffic as the Papists. Fourthly, they should give no assistance unto the King's Majesty's enemies, nor no contribution, nor bills to answer moneys on exchange. Fifthly, to give free passage through their land aswell to his Majesty's army, as to his enemies, not to hinder them of it, both alike. Sixthly, that his Majesty of Sweden's servants should have the passes open, when they pleased to pass and repass. Seventhly, that his Majesty's Agents might lie at Cologne to see the neutrality were justly observed. Eigthly, that his Majesty of Sweden his friends and confederates, should have free traffic in their towns and Territories.
The Colognes' ambassador returned from Frankfurt with these sleight points to be granted by their Bishop. The Swedens were come so near Cologne that the superiors were reprehended for it by the clergy out of the pulpits; for giving such liberty to heretics to come again so near unto their jurisdictions.
By this time the Landgrave of Hessen with his army, being near ten thousand strong of horse and foot, for our assistance did lie on the other side of the Rhine over against us, and from thence they fell strong on the Spaniards which were in Rheingau, making them also quit those parts, and the inhabitants for fear, forsaking their houses, his Majesty promised them his gracious protection to stay and remain in their houses, they paying their weekly contribution, which they paid before to the Bishop of Mainz.
Being here also at Mainz, the French ambassador I did see get audience. The reason of his coming being to show his Majesty of Sweden, that the King's Majesty of France was offended, his Majesty of Sweden had crossed the Rhine against his paction, and confederacy made with the King of France, and therefore desired he should retire again with his army. His Majesty answered he did but prosecute his enemy, and if his Majesty of France was offended, he could not help it, and those that would make him retire over the Rhine again, it behoved them to do it with the sword in their hand, for otherwise he was not minded to leave it but to a stronger; & if his Majesty of France should anger him much, he knew the way to Paris, and he had hungry soldiers would drink wine, and eat with as good a will in France as in Germany. Therefore he hoped his Majesty would be better advised in sending the next ambassage in milder terms. This interchange of message went betwixt them, till at last, they were settled on secondary conditions of a new league offensive and defensive.
At this time the Field-marshal Gustavus Horne took in Mergentheim on the Saale stream, Heilbronn, on the Neckar, Winpveniphem, and Neckar Olin.
Likewise Königstein in the Wetterau, was taken in by accord after Mainz, as also the Spaniard left Wetzlar, and Gelnhausen, leaving them both unto the Sweden, without shot of musket or cannon.
His Majesty at this time, caused publish an edict, where all merchants of whatsoever religion, or nation they were of, should be free to pass and repass with their goods to the Frankfurter Messe, and that none of his Majesty's army of whatsoever condition they were, either of horse or foot, should trouble them, under pain of death, where the concealer of the wrong being got notice of should be punished to death, as the actor.
Likewise the twelfth of January, Babenhausen was taken in by accord, by his Majesty's order and direction, and in the end of December, Mannheim was taken in by Duke Barnard of Weimar, having surprised their guards, where about two hundred and fifty were cut off, of the strangers, and quarters and service given to the Dutch; where a captain and his ensign were taken prisoners, and let loose again, for the payment of their ransom, and being come to Heidelberg they were executed by the governor's direction there, for over-seeing their duties, and these of the league, lying at Heidelberg were mightily troubled with the nearness of the Swedens neighbour-hood, having gotten Mannheim, their passage unto the Rhine was altogether cut off from them. Likewise the Spaniard did quit Germersheim, and retiring to Frankenthal they had no more in the Pfalz but that and Heidelberg, his Majesty wonderfully having gotten in Bad Kreuznach, and the castle.
Where the valorous courage of my Lord Craven, a noble and worthily renowned English lord, was, to his great commendation, taken notice of by both the Kings. For he, out of affection and desire to advance the cause, following his Majesty of Bohemia of worthy memory, at the storming of the works at Bad Kreuznach (in sight of his Majesty of Sweden) leading up his company of volunteers, to the good example of others, gave outward testimony of his inward courage; in so much that his Majesty of Sweden and all the beholders openly extolled his Lordship's noble & praise-worthy carriage; for having endeavoured so far as lay in him, on this exploit, to make his memory out-live himself. As afterward his Lordship did show his prowess & heroic spirit at the in-taking of Donauwörth. Where he did merit so much, that I having reason to have said more, could say no less. His worth being known, his affection to the cause, & his respects to his Majesty of Bohemia whom he followed, merits a well deserving reward from his Majesty's royal issue.
Before Bad Kreuznach Lieutenant Colonel Talbot was killed: and the worthy Captain Dowglas was shot in the arm.
Colonel Alexander Ramsey was placed governor of Bad Kreuznach by his Majesty of Sweden, as a beginning of reward for his old service & attendance, who loved nothing better than nobly and kindly to entertain his friends and strangers, being the common receptacle and refuge of all his countrymen, that liked to honour him with their company: As also he was most willing to entertain and respect strangers of the best quality, and most of all he was peremptory in maintaining his country's credit, obliging all cavaliers to his power: but most unwilling to be beholden to others, carrying still a noble mind.
At this time, his Majesty being in Mainz, Bingen, Bacharach on the Rhine, and Scholl, were taken in by scalade, with a surprise by the Scots of Sir James Ramsey's regiment, where those within were thrice stronger than those pursued them, but being once entered the town, the inhabitants assisting the Scots, they put all to the sword, except the officers that were taken prisoners by Major Hanan, a gentleman of much worth, valour, and discretion in command, whose loss was much lamented, he, having died soon after of a consumption, was much regrated of all his acquaintance, and of myself in particular, being my old comrade.
At this time also the town of Hochspeyer came under his Majesty's protection and devotion, and levied three companies for his Majesty's service; Landau also and Wiessenburg did become good Swedens. Landstall was taken in also by storm, through the help of the country boors; shortly after was Ellwangen, Oberwesel, Boppard, and Löwenstein taken in by accord. Also the castle of Ehrenfels, and the toll-house over against Bingen was taken in by the Landgrave of Hessen's folk.
By this time was Dömitz in Mecklenburg given over by accord, unto General Major Lowhowsen; as also Wismar on the Baltic Coast was taken in by accord the tenth of January 1632. And the garrison marched out three thousand strong, being commanded by Colonel Grame, who having buried some cannon, robbed the ships, and took away against accord a number of arms. Likewise on his march unto Silesia, he killed a Swedens Lieutenant; but being followed, the Swedens (at the command of General Tott) General Major Lowhowsen having overtaken them, five hundred were killed, and two thousand taken prisoners that took service; and Colonel Grame was sent prisoner to Greifswald, to remain there till further trial.
By this time also, General Tott his army marched over the Elbe towards Lüneburg, being near fourteen thousand strong of foot and horse, under whom were several Scots regiments come from Scotland the harvest before (viz.) Sir James Lumsdell's regiment, to whom Robert Stewart was Lieutenant Colonel. The master of Forbesse his regiment, to whom Sir Arthur Forbesse was Lieutenant Colonel; Sir Frederick Hamilton's regiment, to whom Alexander Cunningham was Lieutenant Colonel; Colonel Astin's English regiment, to whem Vavezer was Lieutenant Colonel; Colonel Monro of Obstell his regiment, to whom John Monro was Lieutenant Colonel; and a Squadron of English, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Mon-Gorge, being the remainder of Sir Thomas Conways regiment; and Colonel Robert Lesly, his old regiment of Scots. General Tott his army being over the Elbe; Colonel Ryneaker, and Curmago did gather all the Imperialists, and those of the League out of all other garrisons, towards Stade, and Buxtehude, to defend themselves; where leaving them to some other pen to write of, I return to the Rhine.His Majesty being making preparation towards the Danube, to visit the Bayer-Fürst, and Tilly: where I mind to follow out my march, our idle time being almost spent.
His Majesty did write unto the States of Holland, to draw sooner unto the fields, than their custom was, to hinder the Spaniards from sending forces unto Dutchland, which letters moved the States to give out edicts, that all regiments and companies should be complete, under pain of cashiering, to draw to the fields against the first of March. By this time, his Majesty of France having a strong army together on the borders of Dutchland, the Catholic League did what they could, to put his Majesty of France by the ears with the King of Sweden, alledging his Majesty of Sweden's intention was fully to root out the Catholic Religion; and that he had already banished a number of them from their cloisters, which was an untruth; for his Majesty of Sweden banished none, but those who through fear did banish themselves. But on the contrary, his Majesty in all places he had taken in, suffered them the free liberty and use of their religion untroubled, without troubling of any man's conscience in matters of religion. But his Majesty of France, being better informed, refused any assistance to the Catholic League, against his Majesty of Sweden; but wished rather the Catholic League to remain neutral; and that he would interpose with his Majesty of Sweden for obtaining the neutrality; whereupon instantly they begun to treat of the neutrality; and Monsieur Seharnasse was sent ambassador to his Majesty of Sweden to that effect, and his Majesty proposed, and set down the points he desired of them, if he should yield unto the neutrality.
First, they should give his Majesty and his army free passage through their lands, especially over the Danube.
Secondly, they should take all their forces from the Imperialists, and be bound hereafter to give them no more help.
Thirdly, they should restore the Palatinate unto the former estate, and all others they had taken beside.
Fourthly, they should contribute to the maintaining of the Swedens army.
The French ambassador having promised within fourteen days to get the foresaid Articles confirmed, his Majesty granted a fortnights stillstand, providing the ambassador would make Papenham retire his forces out of Westphalia, and Stift Magdeburg; As also that those forces the Duke of Bavaria and the League had in Bohemia, should also retire; and that such parts as his Majesty's army had beleaguered or blockered, they should go on notwithstanding of the stillstand, till they came to an accord, or forced to quit them. The time of this treaty, the Catholic League found many doubts.
First, that it was hard for them being so much obliged to the house of Austria, to forsake them in their greatest need.
Secondly, the Catholic religion, in that case, did lack a strong Protector; whose like they could not soon find again.
Thirdly, the King of France had his own pretentions in this treaty, to wit, to weaken the house of Austria; which his Majesty of France could easily do, by separating the League from the house of Austria. It was easy then unto him to transferr the Empire unto another family: and the League embracing the neutrality, the Crown of France had won their point against the house of Austria; and if the neutrality were not granted or accepted by the League, the King's Majesty of France would not quit the Swedens faction; but rather favourize all their enterprises; whereby, in times coming, he should have the less cause to fear the house of Austria; but in the end, the seeking of this neutrality was but for mere policy, to hinder his Majesty of Sweden's progress, till such time, as that General Tilly could make a strong head again, and to win time of his Majesty to prepare themselves for war.
This treaty turning to nought without any fruit; neither were the Spaniards still this time, but having drawn to strong head, they came over the Moselle again unto the Pfalz, and were beaten back with great loss, and the whole Pfalz made free of them.
In which conflict master Horne in presence of the Rex-chancellor Oxensterne, before the face of the whole army, with his own troop, and two other troops of horse, charged a strong body of the Spanish horsmen, & took nine cornets from them, having hunted and chased them, to their great shame, and to the perpetual credits of the pursuers, especially of the leader, whose actions are worthy to be recorded to posterity.
After this victory obtained over the Spaniard, his Majesty of Sweden did propose certain propositions and articles unto the Duke of Bavaria, and the Catholic Stends that were confederate with him. First, to break the Imperial edict that was published over the Empire. Secondly, both the Evangelists' religion to be let free and untroubled by the Papists. Thirdly, Bohemia, Nördlingen and Silesia to be restored in the old manner, and the banished freely to return to their lands and country. Fourthly, to set his Majesty of Bohemia free again in the Pfalz. Fifthly, the Dukedom of Bavaria to be transferred on him again. Sixthly, the town of Augsburg to be put in the former estate again, and the exercise of the Evangelists' religion to be free again unto it as before. Seventhly, all Jesuits to be put away and banished out of the Empire, as the pest of the Common-weal. Eighthly, all Evangelists' cloisters to be restored again, as well as the Catholic cloisters. Ninthly, all cloisters in Wartenburgland, to be restored again. Tenthly, to choose his Majesty of Sweden, as King of the Romans.
About the end of January Papinham gathered the whole garrisons together that were in Brunswick lands, and Westphalia, and relieved Magdeburg; forcing Banier to retire on Calbe; alleging he had a mandate of his Majesty of Sweden not to fight; Papenham, who having relieved the town, and gotten intelligence the Duke of Lüneburg with a strong army, was to come on him from Wolfenbüttel, he having left Magdeburg, and taken out the garrison having nailed the cannon, and destroyed all he could, in casting it into the Elbe, which he could not take with him on wagons; having spoiled their best cannon, leaving the bare walls to the Swedens; which they immediately beset again with three companies: Papenham marched towards Wolfenbüttel to meet the Duke of Luneburg.
Likewise Palsgrave Wolfegan William, did also by his brother's intercession, Palsgrave Augustus, hold on with his Majesty of Sweden for a neutrality, but in vain. The fourteen days of stillstand being out, they fell to work again, every one for himself.
Bamberg also taken by Gustavus Horne Field Marshal, and shortly after was Tilly come thither with a strong army from Nördlingen, unlooked for, set on Gustavus Horne's forces, the town being almost made fast by the Swedens, Tilly with his army falls on: and the Field Marshal having put his cannon away by water on the Main, retired in haste with loss upon Hassfurt, after a long skirmish had with the Imperialists, and having gotten intelligence of four regiments of Tilly's, that had passed by Hallstadt, he did break up with the cavalry, and in their quarter in Obere Beide, being but half a mile from Bamberg, falls on them two hours before day, and defeats two regiments, to wit, Planck, Hartish and Meradish the younger's regiment by fire and sword, where he got but two cornets, the rest being burnt in the fire, with their goods: The Crabbats were forced to swim the Main, the rest betook themselves for refuge unto the dragoniers' quarters that lay at Staffelbach, and retiring to the church-yard, the Field Marshal having no musketeers with him, pressed to fire them out, but in vain, so that he retired again with his officers on Hassfurt and Schweinfurt. These news coming unto his Majesty, he prepared for a march unto Franconia, bringing the rest of his Majesty's forces together, that were with the Field Marshal; and he did send unto Thuringia, to the Duke of Weimar, and to General Banier to bring their forces together, to meet betwixt Nuremberg and Donauwörth, to search out General Tilly, and about the midst of March 1632, we broke up from Mainz, having left the Rex-chancellor Oxensterne, and Duke Bernard of Weimar, with eight thousand men in the Pfalz, to attend the Spaniards' further intentions on the Rhine.
The twenty-sixth Observation.
The Catholic League, seeing the Spaniard terrified in the Pfalz, and almost beaten away, they begun being members of that head, to quake and tremble for fear of the Swedens neighbourhood, and therefore the Bishops of Mainz, Trier, Cologne, Würzburg and of Bamberg presently resolved, out of their policy, to treat for a neutrality, pressing, so far as lay in them, to bring the King of France and his Majesty of Sweden to pull at each others beards; alleging the Swedens intentions were only to subvert the Catholic Religion, and the professors of Popery, as hehad already (as they alleged) persecuted and banished the churchmen out of Ehrfurt, Würzburg, Frankfurt, Höchst, and out of all other parts where they were: whereupon his Majesty of France notwithstanding of his confederacy with the King of Sweden was commoved at his crossing the Rhine, fearing he might bring the Catholic League on his side, and then turn his arms against France, which suspicions wrought an ambassage from his Majesty of France, towards his Majesty of Sweden, for treaty of neutrality betwixt the King of Sweden and the Catholic League, which in th'end turned to nothing. Where we see, that all potentates and great kings, do keep no confederacy nor league, but only so far as they are helpful for their own aims and designs; preferring their benefit before the keeping of their covenants; where we see, that kings' hand-writings or seals, in pactions making, tie them no more than as nothing, when they find them prejudicial to their own greatness, and cannot be made to keep their covenants, but with stronger power. Then we see here, his Majesty of Sweden was nothing moved with the King of France his threatening (except he would retire over the Rhine again) seeing he knew his own ability at that time, that being once over the Rhine, he could march unto France. The consideration whereof made them agree better on secondary conditions, having passed from the first covenant; so that we see there is no dealing with kings but on equal terms, and then are they most reasonable; but the example of kings, in this point of their covenants, is not to be imitated by any other inferiors; for in respect of them, though not in respect of God, they are privileged persons; who cannot be punished for their faults but by God alone. And therefore, amongst inferiors, nothing is to be kept more strict next unto faith unviolated, then men's word and promise, especially promises betwixt old friends. But alas! no friendship is permanent, seeing many things come betwixt, turning it unto hatred and hostility; for where love doth not grow, the friendship is not durable.
Likewise here we see, his Majesty of France made haste to interpose his request for the weal of the Catholic League, showing himself discontented with their usage, to make them the more ready to think on him, before they should any ways lean in their necessity to the King of Sweden. As also we see the policy of the League, though in their necessity they seemed to make use of the King of France his friendship, yet they would not cast off the house of Austria, and King of Spain their old friends, for the hope they had in their new friend the King of France, lest their new friend might disappoint them of their expectations, as he did in th'end, missing his own aims.
We see also here the French's policy, in making haste to intercede for the Leagueists, lest the danger might come on himself; for the King of France hearing the King of Sweden had crossed the Rhine, he did not stay to bring his army together, till the League should call for his help, lest it should be too late, but incontinent brought his army to the Moselle, and then sent his ambassador to Mainz to his Majesty of Sweden to treat, having his army at hand, which was the only sure way then to get the better conditions, knowing the King of Sweden had already too many irons in the fire.
Those we see are the best friends, that in necessity keep their paction, as the Catholic League did at all times unto the Emperor, who otherwise had been no Emperor, neither yet had he been Emperor, had the Evangelists kept together and hazarded their means and blood, in defence of the public cause, as the Catholics did in their greatest necessity, once every year setting up ever new armies, as one was beaten unto them: their wisdom and constancy were so great, that presently the next Spring, through their power and diligence, they had ever another new army afoot, which in th'end made their enemies the Evangelists weary, sparing their means, they suffered in a manner the cause and the public to be near lost; being since beaten by their own arms and means, seeing they neglected time, while as they might employ their means to the final overthrow of their enemies: and yet to my knowledge, in Germany, if they would conjoine their strengths together constantly against the Papists, they are powerful enough to free all Germany of Popery, banishing them over the Alps, from whence they came. And I persuade myself, none that knows Germany, but in his conscience he must confess this to be truth. But when our fellows in friendship fail us, as the Evangelists one after another, for a scurvy loss, quit the Crown of Sweden, the great Duke of Saxony having left them first, breaking his oath and promise, in prejudice of the public peace, excluding the Protestants impiously for his own aims, he did prejudice the Gospel, his country, and confederates, and by his evil example: for plain necessity, while a storm should blow over the towns of the upper Circles of the Empire, as Strasbourg, Ulm, Nuremberg & Frankfurt did accept of an unsettled peace, contrary to their minds, in prejudice of the public, losing themselves and the public, for the loss of one day, being without their head, which first brought them together.
Here then we see the great difference of friendship in prosperity and in adversity: for his Majesty of Sweden being at Frankfurt, as a victorious King, he had then, in his prosperity, the conflux of friendship, some seeking his protection, others his friendship and confederacy, others for fear of the dint of his arms, seeking to be neutral, who before were enemies; other kings and potentates, republics and cities sending their ambassadors congratulating his success; yea, and which was more and rare to be seen, his Majesty of Bohemia in person came unto him, to offer him assistance royal, in levying of an army for himself, and was refused, as unwilling other armies should be in Dutchland, to be participant of his glory, but his own. Where we see Fortune's favourite laughed on by the world, but how soon again Fortune begun to frown on his successour, who having got but one buffet, all men would kill him, his friends (nomine tenue) as well as his enemies. Where we see clearly that there is no friend in adversity, except it be a friend in Christ, who will never forsake or leave us. This then is the friendship we should make to league and confederate with, our brethren in Christ, with whom we have unity in Faith, if that we would have our friendship durable and constant: others will change as the wind blows plenty or penury upon us; being but temporary friends (as many of the Dutch are) but our brethren in Christ will never totally leave us, no not in our greatest wants and extremity of fortune. Which should make us choose such, and to live and die with such, fighting for them and their liberties, who will never leave us, though death sever us, but after death, they will prove constant friends to our successors (as the Germans did not to the Chancellor of Sweden) if they succeed unto us in the true and undoubted Faith. And to verify this, I can bear witness, that though the enemy did keep our brethren in Christ, that were in the Pfalz, under ten years bondage; Nevertheless that bondage, nor the tyranny used unto them by their enemies, made them never forget their fidelity and love to their King and Prince; neither yet could their tyranny make them forsake or renounce their faith in Christ, but as they continued true to God, so were they faithful in their love to their King and master; not only to his Majesty, but also showed their love and kindness unto us, being his Majesty's friends, whom they knew to be one in faith with themselves. And therefore they were ever ready and willing to undergo alike danger with us against our common enemies; as doth witness their assistance given to the Scots of Sir James Ramsey's regiment, having conjunctis viribus beaten their enemies on divers occasions.
The King's Majesty of Sweden, though before this time none of the greatest Kings, yet in this war, having begun with a little army of ten thousand strong, in three years time he grew so great; that he was careless of the threatening of the great King of France, having entertained then in readiness four armies at once, his own which he led himself, under which I was still; The Field Marshal Gustavus Horne's army, General Tott's army on the Weser, and the Marquess of Hamilton's army, with whom Banier was joined on the Elbe. These four army's his Majesty commanded alike, and at one time, having the Emperor, the King of Spain, the Catholic League, and the Duke of Bavaria his enemies. And though the Duke of Saxony had an army apart, yet his Majesty would not suffer the King of Bohemia, the Duke of Lüneburg the Landgrave of Hesse, nor the Dukes of Weimar to lead armyies in Dutchland, but as subalterns to his command. And I think he had reason: for if his Majesty of Bohemia had had an army in the fields, it behoved the Swedens to have been subaltern to the Dutch and Scots, who were then strong in the fields, in commanding strangers, as they did their own countrymen. Notwithstanding of all these forces led and commanded by his Majesty of Sweden, we see that the Empire is like a depth without a bottom, that cannot be sounded. For though they lost several battles, their power was so great, that incontinent they made up armies again, one after another, for the space of twenty years together; so that, with difficulty, they made the body of the Empire to stand, though the wings were very near clipped by his Majesty of Sweden; who, in three years time, subdued the most part of the Empire, and with his own little army, in one Winter, freed the Pfalz of the Spanish forces (except Heidelberg alone) on which occasions those of our nation that followed his Majesty, showed both their valour and their love, especially those of my Lord Spence his regiment, seconded well by those of my Lord Rhees' regiment, and Sir James Ramsey's worthy regiment, were well seconded by Colonel Lodowick Leslyes regiment, which formerly were Sir John Hamiltons. These four regiments of foot having followed his Majesty's own person in all occasions, were worthy their deeds should be Registred to all posterity. Other six regiments of Scots, under General Tott, and two of English, being younger in the service than the former four, were also shorter of continuance; whose actions I cannot relate, but by information. Therefore I will be sparing, lest I should derogate from their worth, or oversee myself.
At this time also there were a great many worthy cavaliers of our nation under his Majesty, who, for their long experience and valour, had attained to the honour, not only to be trusted before others with governments, but also were honoured in commanding of strangers, both Dutch and Swedens, whereof some were employed in Dutchland, some in Sweden, some in Liffeland, and some in Prussia; all alike serving their master to his mind, where he liked best to make use of them for the weal and advancement of his service.
Sir Patrick Ruthven, General Major and governor of Ulm, Colonel over Dutch to foot and to horse; Sir Alexander Lesly, General Major and governor over the whole cities, alongst the Baltic Coast; Sir David Drummond, General Major and governor of Stettin, over a regiment of Swedens; Sir John Hepburne, Colonel over the Scots brigade; General Major King, Colonel to horse and foot of Dutch; Colonel Carre, Colonel to foot of Scots; Sir John Ruthven, General Major, Colonel of Dutch; Colonel Robert Monro of Fowles, Colonel to foot and to horse over Dutch; The Earl of Crawford, Colonel to foot over Dutch; Colonel Baily, Colonel to foot over Dutch; Colonel Ramsey, governor of Bad Kreuznach, and commander of Dutch; Colonel Alexander Hamilton, Colonel of Scots; Sir James Ramsey, Colonel of foot over Scots; Sir William Ballentine, Colonel over English; Colonel Dowglas, Colonel of Dutch horsemen; Colonel Hume, Colonel of Dutch horsemen; Colonel Alexander Lesly the younger, Colonel to foot over Dutch; Colonel John Lesly, Colonel to foot over Scots; Colonel William Gunne, Colonel to foot over Dutch; Colonel Kinninmond, Colonel of Swedens; Colonel Hugh Hamilton, Colonel to foot over Dutch; Colonel Finnes Forbesse, and his brother, both Colonels to foot over strangers; Colonel John Forbesse, Colonel to foot over Dutch; Colonel Alexander Forbesse, called the bald, Colonel to foot over Dutch; which all, with the former twelve regiments, were employed severally, upon the Dutch bottom, during his Majesty's time; and since, to the great credit of their nation; as likewise other cavaliers of them were employed in Sweden; such as Colonel Scot, Colonel Seaton, and Colonel Thomson, others also, were employed in his Majesty's service in Prussia; as Sir George Fleetwood, Colonel to foot over English; Francis Ruthven, Colonel to foot over Scots, and William Kunningham, Colonel to foot over Scots, Alexander Gordon, Colonel to foot over Dutch; which officers, with their regiments, after conclusion of the peace made with the Kings Majesty of Poland, were also brought into Dutchland, against the Saxon, and the Emperor. Thus far, en passant, I was bold to infer, to satisfy the curious reader, and his Highness, to whom we all vowed faith and obedience, being formerly led by such a general, as the Lion of the North, the invincible King of Sweden, who did instruct us all, to do his Highness' service, in all respects, to the sacrificing of our lives, until his Highness be avenged of his enemies, and most honourably restored to his country, credit, honours, and former loss. For we know Germany so well, that without guides, we can enter their cities where we know them weakest; having helped to subdue many of them before; as shall be evident, before our expedition come to an end. Where we would wish such a leader as his Highness, or one of the race, come of the Jewel of Europe, his royal mother, for whom and her royal issue, we are obliged and resolved yet to fight, till her throne be established in despite of her enemies.
Here also we see God will not suffer those Christians unpunished, that violate their promise, as was seen on Colonel Grame, whose fault is too common amongst their faction, that hold for a maxim, they are not bound to keep promise or accord unto us; as was seen on Colonel Monro of Fowles his regiment marching out of Stoben; the conditions of their accord being broken unto them, the soldiers were forced to serve, and the officers were made prisoners. If my fortune were once again to command the guards in Memmingen in Bavaria (the Duke's chief residence) though I would not break my word, I would hazard to break my sword, to be avenged on those who keep no promise or oath, being enemies to God and to his truth, as they did witness by their cruelty used at Bamberg; where the Field Marshal being set on unawares, was forced to retire, having sent away his cannon before him, choosing the least of two inconveniences, having thought better to endanger a few men in skirmish, than by standing to hazard the loss of all, and of his cannon. Where we see that it is hard for a brave commander to make a good retreat without cannon, where on the contrary having a little time, with some advantage of ground, it is easy retiring from the fiercest enemy, who may lose himself and his army with pressing too far forwards against cannon.
Likewise there is nothing more able for to make a party of horsmen fortunate, than a reasonable supply of musketeers ever to attend them, for they are ever best together: Moreover, we have here a laudable custom of a brave commander, as his Majesty was, being as careful in maintaining his conquest, as he was fortunate in conquering: for before his Majesty would march from the Rhine towards the Danube, he first established the Rex-chancellor of Sweden at Mainz, leaving unto his care the direction of the army left in the Palatinate to attend the Spaniard, which army was to be led by Palsgrave Christian Brickafield, being at least eight thousand strong.