The first of June our army did break up from Munich in Bavaria, towards Donauwörth, having left an army behind us in Schwabenland of eight thousand strong, led by Duke Barnard of Weimar, and General Major Ruthven to attend on Ossa; having crossed the Lech again at Rain, we continued our march towards our rendezvous at Donauwörth, where we were appointed to join with the rest of our army; and from thence we continued our march upon Weissenburg, being the pass betwixt Donauwörth and Nuremberg, where on our march we had certainty, that Duke Barnard had defeated a regiment of horse, and taken eight cornets from Ossa, and that Hannibal Count of Hohenems was immediately sent prisoner to Ulm; and Banier was left for a time at Augsburg, for to settle the garrison, where the pledges were left in custody. His Majesty very wisely before this march confirmed his confederacy with the Duke of Württemberg being of great force to advance his Majesty's affairs and the cause, with men, meat and money, being the next neighbour to Ulm.
His Majesty also at this time did give patents to Hugh Hamilton and to John Forbesse, as colonels to levy two regiments of foot on the borders of Switzerland, at which time his Majesty did write a favourable letter unto the Protestnt Cantons in Switzerland, to give no pass through their country unto the Spaniard from Italy, and that for weighty reasons; chiefly calling them to memory, that the house of Austria and Spain were ever great crossers of the liberties of their commonwealth, and most of all, of the liberty of their consciences: which letter was gratiously accepted by the Switzers, and the passage after that was closed up.
Our march continuing to to Fürth, on our way the Bishoprics of Eichstätt and Dillingen were brought under his Majesty's contribution, as also Pappenheim castle was taken in, being the second marshal house belonging to the Empire, not distant above two miles from Weissenburg, where before our coming to Weissenburg, the Duke of Bavaria his forces were retired again, for their safeties unto Ingolstadt, being led by Crats, so that without impediment, our march continued to Fürth on the Pegnitz, besides Nuremberg: where we incamped again on the fields, the seventh of June, and remained there till the Lords of Nuremberg invited his Majesty to their city, where his Majesty was royally entertained, and bountifully offered what in their powers lay, to be given unto his Majesty, either for his army or his Majesty's contentment otherwise: and in this mean time, the Duke of Bavaria his forces were joined with Wallenstein his army at Eger; having used all the diligence he could in helping his foot forwards on horse-back and wagons: and in their by-going the seventh of June, they took in Sulzbach in the over Pfalz, having no garrison in it but burghers, who defended themselves till they made an accord, which was not kept unto them.
The thirty-two Observation.
Here we see again his Majesty's wonderful diligence, wherein doth ever consist the best part of war; for hearing in Bavaria, that Wallenstein was marched with a strong army out of Bohemia towards the over Pfalz; and knowing the Duke of Bavaria had the pass of Rhinesberg free unto the upper Pfalz, he was not able to hinder their conjunction, if Wallenstein his design were on Nuremberg, as it was; his Majesty knew then diligence was to be used for the relief of Nuremberg; and therefore, though about, he hasted his march thither; for his Majesty knew well, that the taking of time in wars was of much importance, especially, knowing the enemies' design being on Nuremberg, which to have, the enemy he knew, would not spare either money or travail; for if they could cut off his Majesty from the help and assistance of this town, it was the best way to defend Bavaria, Schwabenland, and Austria.
Likewise, it was the only means to recover again the Bishopric of Würzburg, and the Dukedom of Franconia, and by that means (if not altogether) yet far they might, drive back again his Majesty of Sweden and his forces, keeping him out of Bavaria; as also out of the Emperor's hereditary lands. This was their cunning enterprise on Nuremberg, and the reasons of it, which his Majesty of Sweden, that heroic and magnanimous King took betimes unto his consideration; having had a wakerife or vigilant eye over the safety and preservation of this city; seeing it stood of so much importance unto his Majesty, and unto the whole Evangelists' confederates, that the enemy should not be master of it. And therefore to prevent the hurt thereof, his Majesty used the greater haste out of Bavaria. For his Majesty knew well, that the opportunity of time was like a swift eagle, which being at one's foot may be taken, but when once he mounts in the air, he laughs at those would catch him, not meaning to return unto them: which moved his Majesty, not to suffer the eagle to mount so high, as to be laughed at, but imbracing opportunity, while he had it, he prevented the enemies' design by taking of time, that augments our experience in warfare; which experience gives us confidence in our behaviours, in the greatest extremity, giving us resolution and courage against our enemies; as also graces our behaviour towards our friends and confederates.
Here then we see the enemies' designs prevented by the diligence, labour, and danger of the most valiant, the Lion of the North, the invincible King of Sweden; who was so diligent or wakerife, that his delight was to try the conclusions of Fortune against his enemies; forcing Fortune to make him her favourite, and sometimes her master, as he was on this expedition, in coming betwixt the enemy and the city of Nuremberg, as a good shepherd goeth betwixt the flock and the corn.
Moreover, here we see also the great wisdom of his Majesty, in making his league and confederacy sure with the Duke of Württemberg, before he could perceive the enemies' strength that were coming against him, taking a catch of time, which being over-seen, could never have been had again; and therefore it was, that his Majesty used the greater celerity in binding up that confederacy, having then his army under the Duke of Württemberg's nose, to force him to conditions, if he had not willingly yielded: where we see, that the power of an army, led by a King, much availeth to bring inferiors to conditions, not being able again to resist a king's power with force. And as his Majesty was wise in making his confederacy with the Duke, so he was diligent in fore-seeing to write to the Republic of Switzerland, to get the passage closed on his enemies behind him; As also we see here his Majesty's care to supply his army, by giving patents to our countrymen, whose fortunes were much to be lamented; for having brought their regiments suddenly together, they were as suddenly scattered: for both the colonels being taken prisoners, they were kept pitifully in bondage for the space of three years, being neglected of their superiors, till they were forced to ransom themselves, and Colonel John Forbesse having afterwards taken service under the King of France, being of short continuance, was much regrated, he being a young cavalier, free and liberal, and of good hope.
To conclude then this observation, it was necessity, that vehement fellow, did bring his Majesty and his army so soon out of Bavaria, being the enemy pressed strong against our friends, he was diverted. Where we see, that necessity in wars admits of no reason, more than in other things; for seldom it suffers to make choice of times. And therefore it is holden as the best teacher, that teacheth all most diligently, even kings as well as mean men, and armies as well as parties, and parties as private men: for it brings ever great celerity and quickness with it, as it did on this our march, for the safety of Nuremberg.