AFTER this last days service, his Majesty having intrenched his army before the Imperial leaguer, and finding them unwilling to hazard the combat, as also the scarcity of victuals growing so great on both sides; his Majesty resolved to beset Nuremberg with four regiments, Fowles his regiment being one, General Major Kniphowsen had the command over the Swedens, and General Major Salammers-dorffe had command over the burghers; and the Rex-chancellor Oxesterne was appointed by his Majesty to have the direction of all.
His Majesty leaving Nuremberg in this manner, in the night he sent away his great cannon with a convoy towards Neustadt, and before day the whole drums had orders to beat, first afore troop gathering, and then a march, so that we were in readiness standing in battle before the enemies' leaguer by day; where we stood till mid-day, and then the whole army was commanded to make a quarter turn to the right hand, making our front before, to be our left flank, whereon our colours and small ordnance did march, and our right wing being our van, we marched off, in view of the enemy, Duke Bernard of Weimar with a thousand horse, and five hundred musketeers, commanded by my Lieuenant Colonel John Sinclaire, who was appointed to march in the rear, for making our retreat good, which in a manner was needless, seeing our enemy lacked courage to follow us, but suffered us to depart in peace.
At night we drew up in battle a mile from the enemies' leaguer, where we encamped setting forth strong watches of horse, and musketeers on the passes betwixt us and the enemy, and our rear-guard betwixt us and them, and our own guards, without our brigades, so having quietly passed over the night, the next morning we marched to Neustadt, being the fifteenth of September, where we resolved to stay a few days, attending what the Imperial army would undertake, having still an eye in our neck-pole.
We got intelligence, that the Duke of Friedland Wallenstein, and the Duke of Bavaria did break up with their army's, taking their march through Fürth, towards Boocke, and then to Forchheim, burning off all the dorps, that lay nearest Nuremberg; being all the valiant deedes, they had done the whole summer: and the fourteenth of September, being quite gone, divers burghers and soldiers of the Nurembergers with the country boors in all haste ran unto their leaguer, where they found a thousand wagons, besides those were burnt, which they transported to Nuremberg, together with a great quantity of Iron, above ten thousand centners of weight, and a great quantity of meal, corn and flesh, which all in fourteen days was not brought unto the town after their going, whereat many did wonder.
The enemy also left behind them many sick and wounded soldiers uncured; amongst whom all that time death was very frequent, as well of men, as of beasts, for thousands of horse and cattle were lost. Likewise, in the Swedens leaguer, about the city were fallen above four thousand horse and cattle, and within the city were also many dead.
As Wallenstein was come to Forchheim, he directed General Major Galasse with some horse and foot, unto the Vogtland, who in his march by Nuremberg, did deal very slightly with Lauf, Greifenberg, Welden, and Archbrucke, which he took in; and Greifenberg he burnt, and in the rest he caused to cut off divers burghers and soldiers, making many poor men with plundering, and cruel exactions of money, and from thence, in Vogtland, towards Egger, and further, till he joined with Holke, being both as Simeon and Levi, continuing their march towards the Elbe, taking in Chemnitz, Freiberg, Meissen, and divers other parts, exacting great contribution, and borneshets, or compositions, pressing an infinite deal of money out of the Duke of Saxony's hereditary lands; using great and extraordinary enormities over the whole lands belonging to the Saxon, by reason the Duke's army lay then far off in Silesia, not being possible for him to relieve his own country; Wallenstein also, from Forchheim marched towards Saxony; and the Duke of Bavaria, to quench the fire, that was already kindled there by the Swedens; marched to Bavaria.
The Imperial army thus separated, his Majesty lay still at Neustadt, till such time, as he saw their several intentions, and then disposing of his army accordingly.
First, the Marquess of Hamilton was graciously dismissed by his Majesty, taking his journey from thence towards France unto Britain and having taken leave of his Majesty at Neustadt, his Excellence was most honourably conveyed by the whole officers his countrymen, that served the Swedens, who having taken leave of his Excellence, a mile from the leaguer, they returned, and his Excellence, accompanied with Sir James Hamilton of Priestfield, Colonel Sir James Ramsey, called the Fair Colonel, and Sir John Hepburne Colonel, having taken good night of all their noble comrades they continued their journey unto Britain; and we returned to prepare ourselves for a march, and a separation; which immediately the next day did follow; his Majesty having given orders to call in all safeguards, and the next morning to be in readiness to march.
The thirty-seventh Observation.
The separation of these two mighty armies was wonderful, without shot of cannon, musket, or pistol, the like we can hardly find in any history.
We see then here, that when the foundation of man's actions is laid sure by virtue, the building hardly can fail, especially when we lay our chief dependance on God, and our cause being good, the lawful means used (as was done here by the Lion of the North, the Invincible King of Sweden) in defence of Nuremberg, the liberty of Dutch-land, and freedom of Christ's Gospel, then I say, the event must needs be answerable to the ground laid, to wit, the freedom of this city, and the preservation of his Majesty's army, both which we see by this separation, where the enemy had not the heart to pursue us, having Gustavus and his fortunes with us; Notwithstanding of their powerful and mighty army; which the Papists themselves did set and esteem to be threescore thousand men, being then of opinion, that that summer they were able to over-swim the whole Empire, and all their enemies; yet, with all their bragging, they durst never present themselves in the fields, with one cornet, colour, or regiment before Gustavus, being terrified at his presence, which did prove their valour was not correspondent to their power in arms, otherwise they had given us greater reason to have esteemed better of their conduct, so that we see, there is neither wisdom, force, or power of counsel, that can prevail against that cause the Lord defends; and who can think those could prosper better, who formerly pressed by their cruelty to have subverted the truth of religion; by banishing the gospel, and ministers of it, forcing commons against conscience, either to forsake their country and possessions, or to renounce the truth they professed, persecuting those that would not conform themselves to their devilish traditions; what wonder then, those generals could not prosper against the truth, or against him that took the defence, both of truth and people, against the tyranny of the house of Austria, and their cruel generals, that were not only cruel to their enemies, but also to their servants and soldiers, whom they left bleeding behind them in their leaguer, destitute of all comfort; not so much as once to cause to dress their wounds, that they received honourably for their safeties? Truly I dare be bold to say, the Lord will not suffer the negligence and inhumane cruelty of such commanders to be unpunished, that left unchristianly those poor soldiers, which were bold to open their breasts to receive wounds, for the safety of those that had no compassion on them in their extremities. O cruelty of all cruelties! when we see a valiant soldier naked, hungry, or pined, with his wounds bleeding for our sakes, and then to leave them destitute of help, to the mercy of their enemies, especially, when we are not compelled to leave them! This fault of all faults in a commander or soldier, in my mind, is most unpardonable, which is too common. Therefore, I conclude, such persons to be unworthy command, that prefer anything before the health of those, who were willing to give their lives for the safety of their commanders.
Sith then we see, that the greatest part of human happiness doth consist in virtue, let him that would prove wise, fix his eyes and mind to judge other men's actions, to the end he may grow the more circumspect and prudent, pressing to do good by continuance of time, if he but observe the varieties of chances incident unto all estates, from the crown to the lowest cottage, in the end, through their examples, he may learn to better himself, and become wise in his profession: for a diligent servant to such a master as Gustavus was, might in a few years time observe many things belonging to the knowledge of a commander, though I grant, never attain unto the perfection of his calling; for the accidents of wars being infinite, the knowledge of them can never be limited. But we must always be learning of new things, till we become more prudent, though not perfectly wise in our calling, being infinite; and though many think a man may be wise, and not courageous, seeing the wise foresees all dangers; truly I will think, he that is circumspect and wise in this kind, may be called a stout commander: for to a wise man, we say, nothing comes wrong; and he that cannot be surprised in this kind, must needs be both wise and stout.
To conclude then this observation, out of the separation of the Marquess and his countrymen, at our leave-takings, and at the parting of Colonel Lodowick Lesly, and his regiment from Spence his regiment, going with Duke Barnard unto Saxony from us; which separation was like to the separation death makes betwixt friends and the soul of man, being sorry that those who had lived so long together in amity and friendship, as also in mutual dangers, in weal & in woe, & fearing we should not meet again; the splendour of our former mirth was obnubilated with a cloud of grief & sorrow; which vanished and dissolved in mutual tears of love, severing from others, as our Saviour did from his disciples, in love and amity; wishing one another the mutual enterchange of our affections, as soldiers and not as complimenting courtiers, in the way of love and courtesy, we wished again and again, being loath to depart from others, the accomplishment of all happiness here, and of eternal glory else-where.