His Majesty returning from Rothenbach with the Queen's Majesty, they marched with the army towards Dinkelsbühl, where they did lie three days; during which time I was glad, looking for no life, to have been eased by the help of good and learned physicians. There I was left, the army continuing their march upon Nördlingen, making all the expedition and haste was possible, to relieve Rain on the Lech being beleagured by the Duke of Bavaria his forces, and his Majesty coming to the Lech, he received news, the town was given over, and the bridge being cast off, his Majesty was hindered the passage, whereupon his Majesty directed back the Queen to Donauwörth, and incontinent begun to prepare for the beleaguering of Rain again, the bridge being repaired, he set over his army, the thirtieth of September, and incontinent begun his approaches, the Imperialists at first played hard with cannon and musket till night, that his Majesty's batteries were ready.
The first of October early in the morning the mist was so thick, that his Majesty approached very near the walls, and that orderly the batteries being ready, the cannon planted in the mist, by nine of the clock his Majesty saluted the town with a salvo of musket and cannon, where incontinent the feeble, bearish commanders entered in accord, which was granted unto them, so that his Majesty, by the assistance of God, got this town again in two hours' time, after the batteries were ready, and that contrary to his Majesty's expectation, who did not expect the getting of it in less then six days.
The Duke's foot soldiers were suffered to march out without arms, and the horsmen without their horses, and his Majesty being offended with the Dutch colonel called Metzfell, notwitstanding of the recovery of the town, he was brought before a council of wars at Neuburg on the Danube, being accused, he had given over the town without any necessity, making his accord contrary to his officers' wills, which they having testified against him, by a sentence of the council of war he was beheaded the eighth of October; and those officers of his regiment, which subscribed the accord, were ordained to carry no charge under his Majesty's army; and the officers, which withstood the accord, were assoiled from the sentence, as faithful servants to their master.
The said day, after the execution, his Majesty returned with the army, towards Rain from Newburg, where again his Majesty divided the army, and having beset Augsburg, Rain and Donauwörth well, he took the yellow and blue brigade with himself, leaving our brigade after long advisement, and the rest of the army under the command of Palsgrave Christian, Von Brickfeld, and General Major Ruthven to attend on the Duke's forces, and to maintain Schwabenland with the passes, which we had already in Bavaria. His Majesty then taking leave of our brigade, in view of the whole army thanked us for our former service, and in particular he expressed his affection unto me, and to Lieutenant Colonel Mustein: showing he was grieved to leave us behind, yet, in respect of the long march he had unto Saxony, and considering the weakness of both our regiments, that were weakned by the toil of war, and the dint of the enemies' armies, and therefore in consideration of their former good service, he had ordained muster places for us, the best in Schwabenland, for to strengthen our regiments, against his return, and withal, commanded us to see it done, as we would expect his favour: and then calling on Palsgrave Christian, to whom he had given command over us and the army, recommending us particularly unto him, desired him to give us contentment of the moneys were then resting unto us, and that out of the first money was to be received at Augsburg.
Having after that taken leave of the whole army, his Majesty returned to Donauwörth, where the Queen did attend his coming, being making ready for the march unto Saxony. As soon as his Majesty had dined at Donauwörth with the Queen, going to his Coach, I took leave of his Majesty and the Queen, in presence of General Banier, Palsgrave Christian, Sir Patrcik Ruthven and divers other worthy cavaliers, being the most doleful parting I ever suffered, having been still both I and our regiment with his Majesty, on all service of importance, since his Majesty's upbreaking from Stettin in Pomerania, till this parting at Donauwörth on the Danube, the eleventh of October. 1632.
His Majesty having that night lain at Nördlingen, from thence the next day he directed the Queens Majesty with the foot brigades to march on Dinkelsbühl, and from thence to Rotenberg, his Majesty then with a party went for Nuremberg, and before his coming, Kniphowsen with some forces was marched to take in Lauf from the enemy, who at first defended themselves well; But in the end they were compelled to come forth and be at his pleasure, and were all made prisoners. By midday his Majesty hearing there were not far from Nuremberg some Imperialists seen, so soon as his Majesty had gotten sure intelligence of them, he broke up with seventeen troops of horse and some foot, and marched on Enschbrooke, whence the Imperialists had gone but a little before, his Majesty lying there that night, getting intelligence again of some Crabbats that did lie on the castle Richell, showing there were some six hundred Imperialists coming to relieve Lauf, hearing of his Majesty's being there, they retired towards Bavaria, yet his Majesty following them in the night falls on them, and cuts off three hundred, where fifty were prisoners and two cornets taken from them, with a great deal of booty; his Majesty then turning back continued his march towards Saxony, having left all behind him in Franconia and Schwabenland in good order, his Majesty in all haste to relieve the Duke of Saxony and his country, went from Nuremberg to Schweinfurt, and from thence over Thuringia Wald, where he joined his forces with Duke Barnard of Weimar, and then continued the march towards Arnstadt, where they lay still two days, to refresh the army wearied with hard marching; and from Arnstadt he marched to the general rendezvous, being then appointed at Erfurt, the army being then eighteen thousand strong, under whom there was no other Scots regiment, but Colonel Lodowick Lesly his regiment.
His Majesty having made a speech to the Counsel of Erfurt, he left the Queen's Majesty there and blessed her, and then marched from thence on Boodestawde, from whence Pappenheim with the Leguisticall army had but passed a few days before, and his Majesty having quartered the army in the Ampt Freeburg, he commanded Duke Barnard of Weimar, with fifteen hundred horse to fall on the enemies' rear or hinder troops: But Pappenheim having in haste passed over the Saale towards Moosburg, the Duke could have no advantage of him, but retired again to his Majesty's army.
His Majesty understanding the Imperialists had sent thirty musketeers towards Naumburg, to get in the rest of the money, they had promised unto Tilly the year before; his Majesty incontinent commanded some forces with Colonel Brandesten to see if they could get in Naumburg, who having come before it, the twenty ninth of October before day, desired to make up the ports in his Majesty's name of Sweden, those who had the watch at the port answered it behoved them first to show their commanders of it, otherwise they could not answer for it, which they understanding, unwilling to stay so long, taking a short resolution, with axes and hammers they cut down the port and entered perforce, finding at another port a wicket open, they enter also, and incontinent they bring the town in subjection, the Imperialists then in the town were in danger, if the inhabitants had not interceded for them to spare them, who did get quarters; soon after six hundred Imperialist horsmen came before the town, led by Colonel Breda, who desired to make quarters in the town, but beyond their expectation having perceived the Swedens horse-watch before the ports, altering their resolution, incontinent they retired back towards Weissenfels.
The thirtieth of October, betimes in the morning his Majesty sets over the Saale, with the horsemen at the dorp Altenburg, directing the infantry to pass at the bridge, where before mid-day the whole army were come to Naumburg, and marching by on this side of it, they lay that day, and two days after that in the fields before Jacob's port, on the street that goeth to Leipzig.
After this his Majesty being advertised, that Wallenstein with his army was marching on Weissenfels, showing himself as if he meant to stand and fight; incontinent his Majesty entrenched his army about Naumburg with skonces and redoubts, and set two bridges over the Saale, where on all occasions he could transport the Infantry over such a water, and being ready, then he threw off all bridges from thence over the Unstrut till Freyburg, whereby they should not be helpful unto the enemy. Whereupon the Duke of Friedland Wallenstein changing resolution, the town and castle of Weissenfels being in his power to use them for his advantage, he plundering both town and castle the fourth of November, marched with his army towards Lützen, two miles from Leipzig, and incamped there.
The thirty-ninth Observation.
IN the discharge of the former duty we see his Majesty was troubled with a double care; the one for his Queen, the other for his army; being diligent in bringing both forwards, as also careful to put them both in assurance; for having left the Queen at Donauwörth, he marched on Rain to subdue his enemies. Where we see, that it behoved him first to put his impedimenta in assurance, teaching thereby cavaliers, that followed him in time of service, to quit their wives, whereby their care might be the better employed in discharging the points of their calling; which shows us, that such impediments at such times were better away than present: for our nature is ever to grieve much for the loss of things we love. Therefore our care that are soldiers having wives should be to settle them, where they should not be impedimenta unto us, in discharging of our duties before our enemy, to the end we might the better be freed of this double care, his Majesty was subject unto at this time, which no question troubled his Majesty's resolutions more than anything else.
The tragical end of this Dutch Colonel Metzlaffe, should teach all cavaliers, to whom strengths are concredited, not to give over without great necessity; especially being made foreseen of a relief to come. And the greatest blame, that was imputed unto him, was his too much neglect of the duties of his calling, being too careful to entertain comradeship night and day, the fruit whereof in the end was ignominy, with the loss of life and credit. Which should teach all men to avoid such a beastly life, dishonouring the noble profession of arms.
We see then no law or justice is more strict or more summary, than the discipline military; where the articles we are sworn unto, are our laws, which being transgressed, we are subject to the punishment: and if our laws were not strict, and our punishment sharp, it were impossible to keep us in obedience. But I am sorry, that for the most part we abstain more for fear of punishment, than for obedience to God and the law. This censure though hard from me, the truth is still the same, though man were silent.
On this march towards Saxony, all things succeeded to his Majesty's desire, as presages of his ensuing victory; seeing Fortune smiled on him, during his life time, being Fortunes fellow, he was still encouraged to the combat, though weakest: for magnanimity and the virtue of true humility were both cohabitant in him. For as he had courage with a weak army to rencounter a stronger; Even so he humbled himself before God, acknowledging before the people, he was but dust and ashes, like unto other men. And therfore he wished the people they should not trust or repose anything in him, but to put their trust and confidence in God, saying, he was but a servant: and though the Lord would be pleased to take him away from amongst them, yet, he doubted not, but the Lord would raise up others more powerful than he, to defend the good cause he had begun, till at last it were brought to a good end.
These speeches, and much more to this purpose, his Majesty out of humility uttered on this march; and as his Majesty was humble, so his courtesy to all men that loved him, was the gem of his crown, especially honouring and respecting ever his queen, as the glory of her sex, his royal Majesty being truly endued with such true splendour of noble worth, that he ever seemed like unto the sun, that shineth alike on the peasant in the field, as it doth on the emperor in his Throne. And when his Majesty departed from us at Rain on the Lech, then our sun on earth went away unto another horizon, leaving us eclipsed, through the want of our leader; so that in the rest of our warfare we had none to depend on, but on God alone, the only sure anchor for a troubled soul to rest on.
To conclude then this observation, having followed the Lion of the North thus far unto the Battle of Lützen, though I was not at the battle, yet for my love to my master, and to discharge the duty I owe unto my country, I will relate the true manner of this battle in short, being the end of the second part of my expedition, under his Majesty of Sweden, of never dying memory, leaving the third part of the expedition to a fitter opportunity; except so far as we marched before we were sworn to the evangelist Stends, under the conduct of Palsgrave Christian Brickerfeild in Bavaria, and afterward under the Field-marshal Gustavus Horne in Schwabenland.