PALSGRAVE Christian being left by his Majesty to command the army in Bavaria, having left Rain with four companies of Swedens commanded by Colonel Worbran his Major, he broke up with the army towards Eichstätt in Bavaria, and having taken it by accord he continued his march towards Landsberg on the Lech. Where having arrived within half a mile of the town, we quartered for a night, till preparation were made of victuals and furniture convenient for the beleaguering, which being made, the next day we marched towards the town in battle, drawing up within reach of cannon to the walls in the safest part: they thundering with cannon amongst us, our foot army was divided in brigades, and directed to several posts, our horsmen were also divided. Some were commanded out to scour the fields on that side the enemy was to come, others were appointed to remain beside the Infantry, to second us against the out-falling; or otherwise to second us against the relief, that might come to the town. The rest of our horsemen were directed to quarters, having left Ordnance Rutters to bring them intelligence.
The town being beleaguered on all quarters, a bridge was made over the river, where a strong guard of horse and foot were sent to hinder both their supply and escape on that side. Likewise the approaches were begun, and orders were given in haste for making the batteries. And the guards being set both to the cannon, and to those that wrought in the trenches, the colonels were recognoscing about the walls before their several posts. Where at the first, Colonel Fowle was shot through the thigh with a musket, who immediately was sent to Augsburg to be cured.
Before night a second party of horse were sent forth for intelligence, lest any misfortune might befall the first party; whereby we might not be surprised by the enemy being strong together at Munich. Spence his regiment and mine were appointed to attend on the general at his quarter, my lieutenant colonel commanded the guards on the battery and the trenches on our quarter. And the General Major Ruthven his brigade being on the other quarter next the water, there grew a contestation of virtue betwixt the officers of both brigades, who should first with their approaches come to the wall; but those of Ruthven's brigade were forced, notwithstanding of their diligence, to yield the precedency unto us being older blades than themselves: for in effect we were their schoolmasters in discipline, as they could not but acknowledge. So being they were trained up by us from soldiers to be inferior officers, and then for their preferments and advancement they went from us with our favours towards the General Major, such as Captain Gunne, Lieutenant Brumfield, Lieutenant Dumbarre, Lieutenant Macboy, Lieutenant Southerland, Ensign Denune, and divers more, which were preferred under Ruthven's regiment, till in the end they did strive in virtue to go beyond their former leaders. Nevertheless we kept ever that due correspondence together, that wherever we did meet we were but one, not without the envy of others.
This strife amongst us furthered so the victory, that before the next morning, from our battery, where Sinclaire did command, there was a breach shot in the skonce without the town, as also from the General Major his quarter, there were two officers of the enemies killed on the wall, their cannon dismounted, and a great breach made in the wall. So that the enemy perceiving he had two breaches to defend, he tucked a drum, desiring to parley. Which being granted; the accord went on, and they were suffered to march out with their arms, seeing the general had intelligence their army was coming to relieve them, he was glad to grant them any conditions, before he were forced to rise from the town by the enemy, being so near for relief of it.
The enemy being marched out and convoyed away, the General directed General Major Ruthven into the town with a strong party of foot to beset all the posts, and then to take notice of all provision and goods that were in the town; such as corn, wine, artillery, ammunition, horses, and all other goods or cadouks in general, to be used at their pleasure. Which being done, the foot army were directed to their former quarters, to rest ill further orders. The horsemen were directed also to quarters, and then there were quarters made in the town for the General and the Hofstaffe, as also for the colonels of horse and foot, during the General his further pleasure.
Diverse of our foot soldiers were hurt on the batteries and trenches, which got quarters in the town, being allowed to have hirurgians to cure them. And the town was incontinent beset again with four companies of Colonel Hugh Hamilton his regiment, being new levied men out of Switzerland, and his major being an Irishman, commanded the men. But another Dutch Major called Mountague was left to command the garrison. Where those that entered first the town, did make good booty of horses and other goods. But the most part was seized upon by the general persons, taking the benefit unto themselves, though not the pain. Where we did first find missing of our former leader the invincible Gustavus, who not only respected cavaliers of merit, at such times, but also was ready to reward them by his bounty, allowing cadouks unto them, as he did unto Lieutenant Colonel Gunne.
The next day a party of a thousand horse, with eight hundred musketeers, were commanded out toward Munich, to get intelligence of the enemies' designs, getting orders to fall into their quarters, if conveniently they could. But beside their expectation the enemy being together and in readiness in a wood, unawares our party was engaged amongst them, so that with difficulty having lost prisoners, they were forced to retire, and the enemy getting intelligence that the town was given over, to prevent us they continued their march towards Rain on the Lech, to take it in, in compensation of the loss of Landsberg.
The party being retired, and the General understanding the Duke's army had marched on Rain, he broke up with our army, and marched on the other side of the Lech towards Augsburg. And fearing the skonce at Rain and the bridge might be taken by the enemy, he did direct Captain James Lyell with two hundred musketeers as a supply to the skonce, being ordained at his coming thither to take the command of the skonce on him. Who being come, finding Colonel Wornbran there, showing his orders, he was made welcome by the Colonel, being hard pressed by the enemy, and mightily afraid: so that the Captain had no difficulty in getting the command, which he gladly accepted, being more ambitious of credit than of gains, directly opposit to the Colonels humour.
The army having come in time for the relief, our horsemen were left on the side of the river next to Donauwörth, except my Cousin Fowles his regiment, which marched over the bridge with the Infantry, being ordained the first night's watch to second the foot. And immediately after our over-going there were five hundred musketeers of supply sent unto the town, in despite of the Duke's army. And then we begun to make up our batteries, and to run our lines of approach towards the town, advancing our redoubts and batteries, as our approaches were advanced.
The second night our batteries being ready, there were mutual interchanges of cannonading amongst us, where Ensign Murray was shot dead with the cannon, his thigh bone being broken, who was much lamented, being a dainty soldier and expert, full of courage to his very end.
On Sunday in the afternoon the enemy having heard certainty of his Majesty's death, they drew up their whole army, horse, foot and cannon before the town; and rejoicing at the news, they gave three salvos of cannon, musket, and pistol. Which we not understanding, made us admire the more. Nevertheless, the General resolved to get some prisoners of them, to cause to make an out-fall the next morning: and to that effect, five hundred commanded musketeers were sent under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Lesly, who had orders to fall out before day upon the enemy. Which he did; and beating them from their posts, there were above threescore killed, and thirty taken prisoners; which revealed the reason of their salvo. As also by them it was found, the army had been broken up at midnight, and crossed the Danube, having made over a ship-bridge, thinking with expedition to haste unto Saxony, to supply the Imperialists, that were retiring after their defeat at Lützen unto Bohemia.
Notwithstanding of the advantage we had to prosecute the enemy, being divided by the river, our General would not suffer to pursue them, though General Major Ruthven with the whole officers offered to do good service. The General fearing they might be brought to fight through despair, he would not permit to follow them, but choosed rather to lose a golden opportunity.
Within three days afterwards we marched towards Augsburg, where we lay two months in open Fields, in the extremity of cold, without houses or buildings, which undid the army being idle without hostile employment, our generals giving time to our enemies to gather strenth to beat us again out of the country, which formerly we had subdued by his Majesty's valour and good conduct.
During this time I remained on my muster place at Webling Cloister, giving out patents to my officers, and money to recrue and strengthen their companies. But the enemy having taken-in the pass and town of Landsberg, which was given over upon accord by Colonel Hugh Hamilton, who was prisoner, and kept almost three years; so the enemy getting the pass unto Schwabenland, they marched towards Menning, and from thence to Brandenburg on the Eller, and chased me over the Danube,being forced to quit a good muster place, we retired unto Augsburg, having set the Danube betwixt us and the enemy; where, on our march unfortunately my horse fell on my leg, and being six weeks under cure I continued still with the army, on all occasions commanding on horse-back, being unable to travel afoot.
The next day after our coming to Augsburg, General Bannier did break up with the army to march towards Ulm on the Danube, there to join with the Field Marshal Gustavus Horne, who was to come with a strong party of horse, foot, and artillery from Alsace, with whom was come Major Sidserfe, and the whole musketeers of Sir James Ramsey his regiment; who being valourous and expert old soldiers, they were commanded on all exploits of importance, being conducted and led by a discret cavalier their Major.
The enemy, before our joining with the Field Marshal, had taken in Landsberg, Kaufbeuren, Kempten and Menning where their army did lie, while as we joined with the Field Marshal at Ulm. Palsgrave Christian being directed to command the army on the Rhine, General Bawtishen having left them voluntarily to go for his wedding unto Denmark.
General Bannier being also sickly, not yet fully cured of his hurt, that he did get at Nuremberg, he was directed to the Stift Magdeburg to collect new forces there to join with the Duke of Lüneburg and the Saxon, who all this time, after his Majesty's death, were pursuing hard the Imperialists conjunctis viribus, assisting the Duke of Weimar and the Swedens army. At which time the Rex-chancellour Oxenstern made offer, after his Majesty's death, to the Duke of Saxony, to be made and chosen director of the armies; who was neither willing to accept it himself, nor yet willingly would condescend to be directed by any other; so that their division did by time fully ruin the army, and almost lost the good cause, few or none looking to the weal of the public, but all pleasing their own fancies, suffering the enemy to take advantage, every one looking to their particular commodities, which did occasion the meeting at Hailbrun.
The forty-one Observation.
After his Majesty's departure unto Saxony, our brigade, which formerly on all occasions followed his Majesty, being often the guard of his person, as at his crossing the Rhine and at Munich, were left behind; which then we thought very hard, as if thereby we had been lost, which may be was the means of our safety; for as some flying from danger meet with death, others do find protection in the very jaws of mischief, and some others in their sleep are cast into fortune's lap, while as others, for all their industry, cannot purchase one smile from her. We see then, that man is but merely the ball of time, being tossed too and fro is governed by a power that must be obeyed: and we know there is a providence ordering all things, as it pleaseth him, for which no man is able to find or give a reason: we must therefore believe St. Jerome, saying, Providentia Dei omnia gubernantur, & quae putatur poena, medicina est.
In vain then we murmur at the things that must be, and in vain we mourn for what we cannot remedy. Therefore let this be our chief comfort, that we are always in the hands of a royal protector: what ever then befalls us, we must be contented, not strugling against power.
We see also there is nothing more dangerous for commanders in wars, then to be thought once by their fellows, officers and soldiers to be greedy of the evil of gain: which opinion once received by inferiors, may mightily cross the fortunes of their leaders: for when officers and soldiers conceive an evil opinion of their leaders, no eloquence is able to make them think well of them thereafter; for, a supreme officer being once remarked to keep the means of those that served them, they are without doubt thereafter despised by their followers. And therefore he is never worthy the name of a glorious commander, that doth not prefer the virtue of liberality before the love of perishing gold; otherwise in his teeth he will be as well despised by the common soldiers, as by his betters; for a brave commander ought never to make an idol of the moneys which should satisfy soldiers, but he should rather look unto that which may follow, to wit, his overthrow, or at least his contempt. Therefore I would advise cavaliers, that command and lead others, to entertain the affection of those that have served bravely and truly, lest being unjustly disdained, they might turn their arms the contrary way.
We see also the emulation of virtue betwixt friends commendable, in striving who should force the enemy first unto a parley; where the diligence and valour of Major Sinclaire is praiseworthy, who feared nothing but discredit; where we see, that the enticement to great travail and pains is glory and honour. And we see, all arts and sciences are attained unto with diligent exercise; So that it is not time, or number of years that makes a brave soldier, but the continual meditation of exercise and practise; For soldiers should be frequented in running, not to run away, as some do, but on the contrary, that with the greatest celerity they may prosecute their enemies, taking time in overtaking their flying enemies, and that they may the better relieve their friends, for more come to be good soldiers by use then by nature. Here also I did see our General following Guischardin his counsel, that wished to make a silver bridge to let pass our enemies, but if the enemy on his retreat would grow careless and amuse himself once on booty, then it were a fit time to meddle with him being laden with booty.
After his Majesty's death we see the alteration of time did give greater advantage unto our enemies; for while as our army lay idle the whole winter at Augsburg, the enemy was gathering his forces, and we losing time neglected our duty, having lost our head and leader, when we ought rather to have followed our enemies with fire, sword, spoil and slaughter till we had subdued them, than to have suffered the enemy before our noses to have taken from us that, which we by his Majesty's good conduct had conquered before, So that we see it is vicissitude that maintains the world: and as one scale is not always in depression, nor the other lifted ever higher; even so, like unto the alternate wave of the beam, we were at this time with both our army kept ever in the play of motion.