A commander ought not be ignorant of the circumstances belonging to the quartering of an army, therefore for the better information of the younger sort, who have not seen such marches as I have been at, with his Majesty of worthy memory, who quartered his army summer or winter, according as the occasion or nearness of his enemy did offer, where many times the whole winter's night, the army, horse, foot and artillery, being without fire, did stand in battle order by their arms in the fields, having placed their artillery apart, with a guard to attend them, their baggage also being behind them apart, and well guarded, and a main guard being commanded out apart before the army, of horse and foot; And the armies' being near one another, all officers were commanded to abide on their several charges, as they were commanded on the march, to lead brigades, troops or divisions; The commanded men being also apart next unto the enemy, with their officers by them, which all being orderly quartered in this first manner, they entertained one another with such dainties as the time afforded, passing the night with variety of merry jests and discourses till day, that either drum or trumpet did invite them unto earnest.
The second form of our quartering was in the fields not being near an enemy, where we quartered a little more commodiously for our ease, being commonly drawn up by four or five of the clock in the afternoon, near some town or village, in some fair meadow by water, if it could be had in the summer, and in the winter being quartered, we drew near the side of some wood, both for fire, and for build or shelter; The army drew up in battle by brigades, as they marched, where behind the place the brigades drew up unto, at a reasonable distance, their quarters were marked out severally according as they stood in battle, and before the brigades removed from their arms, their guards were first commanded out, every brigade's guard being placed at a distance of four-score paces from their colours, where they were appointed to watch, and the watch being set, sentries were put to the colours, and then the pike-men were ordained to fix their pikes fast in the ground as they stood in battle, the musketeers also were ordained in dry weather to set up their muskets in order in even front, with their colours, but when it rained, they were commanded to keep them carefully dry by themselves, which all orderly done they were suffered part and part to go, and provide themselves of straw and fire, providing also many times well for their officers kitchens beside.
The artillery and ammunition wagons being also drawn up a part, and well guarded, their horses were sent to grass for good quarters, then the baggage and wagons as they came up did draw up orderly behind their own regiments, and their horses being sent to grass, the officers' tents were set up orderly at a distance before their colours, and then cooks went to dress meat and all being returned to quarters before supper, the whole drums of the army did beat before their several brigades, inviting all to public prayers, which were never forgotten; And after prayers the majors of the regiments did give out orders for that night to the sergeants, and for up-breaking the next morning, and then all went to meat first, and next to rest, and the whole horsemen were drawn up in this fashion, and parties were sent out of their quarters to batter the streets, two or three mile off, the whole night, lest we should be surprised by an enemy without intelligence.
The next morning drums having called all to arms,the brigade,that had the van,marched out first in a new ground,and drew up,the brigade, that had the van the day before, marched out, drawing up on their left hand having fallen back one degree from the van, and then the rest of the brigades drew out orderly, one after another, till the left hand of the foot army were closed up, and then they went to prayers, and the prayers ended, they marched, the baggage marching after, being drawn up in order, as the brigades or regiments did march, so did they. The artillery marched with the brigades, in part, and the rest marched before the army with their convoys, and guard of musketeers, which were changed every two days, being commanded men out of all regiments proportionally, having officers, commanded them accordingly. Thus much of quartering in the fields.
The third manner of quartering, an enemy being afar off, and we near towns, only in cold weather, quarterings were given for the Hofstaffe (being the king or general and their followers) and the principal officers of the army, including his majesty's household, whose quarters were first appointed by the general quarter-master in the towns, and next to the Hofstaffe the colonels, that commanded brigades, were quartered, and next to them, the colonels of regiments,their officers and soldiers: a great part, and the best ofthe quarters ordained for the officers belonging to the artillery, their horses and servants. The artillery and baggage standing without the town, those who quartered within the town, had allowance of free meat and drink, and no more; sometimes without towns we had quarters given to brigades apart in dorps, rendezvous being appointed for us, the next morning to draw upon for to join with the army, and while as we quartered in dorps being drawn up without the dorp, first we sighted the passes, and the guards placed in the fields on the venues, lest the enemy unawares might enter the quarters, the sentries duly set, our colours were conveyed with a troop to their lodging or quarter, their furriers' shuts leading them aright till the colours were quartered and guarded, then the rest shown unto their quarter, men were appointed to go meet the baggage to lead them to their quarters. Orders given, every man entertained another, as they had best reason, and all being settled, parties of horse were sent forth to scour the fields for intelligence, and lest they might be trapped by the enemy, a second party was sent out after them, both getting orders, how far to ride, and upon what streets, being commanded where to halt, and forage, as also being admonished to have still a party on horsback to advertise the rest from being surprised, which done, Ordnance-rutters of every brigade were left to wait on the general, at his quarter, for orders; the general rendezvous for the horse being appointed, where to meet when ever they got orders.
The fourth manner of quartering an army is in a fast leaguer, as at Stettin, Schwedt, Brandenburg, Werben, Donauwörth, Augsburg, Ingolstadt, Nuremberg, which manner of quartering is most troublesome both for officers and soldiers, who having builded receptacles for themselves, their charges and travels bestowed in vain, many times they leave their houses to their enemies; yet the form is commendable, being under an army that is well paid, where all things may be had for money, and then the leaguer being kept clean, and in good order, it represents a common-wealth or a city defensible against all encumbrances which may occur, except it please the Lord to wag his hand, and then no counsel or strength can avail against Him who is the God of Hosts. The use cavaliers, or commanders have to make of this sort of quartering is, that in case they happen to have command themselves, they may learn through this practise to command others, as also through foresight they may timely take themselves to this kind of defensive war, till they be able to come into the fields,as his Majesty of worthy memory did, being forced to retire by the power of his enemies to the former Leaguers, wherein there was discipline and good practice to be observed by cavaliers, where the King's Majesty was made to dwell as the meanest soldier, being alike subject to the inconvenience as others, which might happen, of air, sickness, infection, or of watching. Thus far then for the quartering of an army.