Percy's Reliques - GLOSSARY



A', au: all.

A deid of nicht: in dead of night.

A Twyde: of Tweed.

Abacke: back.

Abone, aboon: above.

Aboven ous: above us.

Abowght: about.

Abraide: abroad.

Abye: suffer, to pay for.

Acton: a kind of armour made of taffaty, or leather quilted. Fr. 'Hacqueton.'

Advoutry, advouterous: adultery,adulterous.

Aff: off.

Afore: before.

Aft: oft.

Agayne: against.

Agoe: gone.

Ahte: ought.

Aik: oak.

Ain, awin, awne: own.

Aith: oath.

Al: albeit, although

Alate: of late.

Alemaigne: Germany.

Alyes: probable corruption of algates, always.

Al gife: although.

An: and.

Ancient, ancyent: flag, standard.

Ane, one: an, a.

Angel: gold coin worth 10s.

Ann, if: even, if.

Ant: and.

Aplyght, aplyht, al aplyht: quite complete.

Aquoy: coy, shy.

Aras, arros: arrows.

Arcir: archer.

Argabushe: harquebusse, musket.

Ase: as.

Assinde: assigned.

Assoyl'd, assoyled: absolved.

Astate: estate; a great portion.

Astonied: astonished, stunned

Astound: confounded, stunned.

Ath, athe, o'th': of the.

Attowre: out over, over and above.

Auld: old.

Aureat: golden.

Austerne: stern, austere.

Avoyd: void, vacate.

Avowe: vow.

Awa': away.

Axed: asked.

Ayance: against.

Aye: ever; also, ah! alas!

Azein, agein: against.

Azont: beyond; azont the ingle: beyond the fire.[ 1]


Ba': ball.

Bacheleere: knight.

Bairn, bairne child.

Baith: bathe, both.

Baile, bale: evil, hurt, mischief, misery.

Bairded: bearded.

Bairn, bearn: child

Balow: hush! lullaby!

Balys bete: better our bales, i.e. remedy our evils.

Ban: curse, banning, cursing.

Band: bond, covenant.

Banderolls: streamers, little flags.

Bane: bone.

Bar: bare.

Bar hed: bare-head, or perhaps bared.

Barn, (A-Sax. Beorn): chief, man.

Barrow-hog: Gelded hog.

Base court: the lower court of a castle.

Basnete, basnite, basnyte, basso-net, bassonette: helmet.

Battes: heavy sticks, clubs.

Baud: bold.

Bauzen's skinne: dressed sheep or badger leather. Bauzon mittens.

Bayard: a noted blind horse in the old romances.

Be, by; be that, by that time.

Bearn: see Bairn.

Bearing arow: an arrow that carries well. Perhaps bearing, or birring, i, e. whizzing.

Bed: bade.

Bede: offer, engage.

Bedeene: immediately, continuously?

Bedone: wrought, made up.

Bedight: bedecked.

Bedyls: beadles.

Beere: bier.

Beette: did beat.

Befall: befallen.

Befoir: before.

Beforn: before.

Begylde: beguiled, deceived.

Beheard: heard.

Behests: commands, injunctions.

Behove: behoof.

Belive: immediately, presently

Belyfe: See belive.

Ben: bene: been; be, are;

Ben: within doors, the inner room.

Bende-bow: bent bow.

Bene, bean: an expression of contempt.

Benison: blessing.

Bent: long grass, wild fields.

Benyngne, benigne: benign, kind.

Beoth: be, are.

Bereth: beareth. Ber the prys: bear the prize. Berys: beareth.

Berne: See Barne

Bernes: barns.

Beseeme: become.

Beshradde: cut into shreds.

Beshrewe me! a weak imprecation.

Besmirche: to soil, discolour.

Besprent: besprinkled.

Beste: beest: art.

Bested: abode.

Bestis: beasts.

Bet: better.

Bett: did beat.

Beth: be, are.

Bewray: to discover, betray.

Bi mi leaut?: by my loyalty.

Bickarte, bicker'd: skirmished.[ 2]

Bille: promise in writing, confirmed by an oath.

Birk: birch-tree.

Blan, blanne, did blin: linger, stop.

Blaw: blow.

Blaze: emblazon, display.

Blee: complexion, colour.

Bleid, blede: bleed.

Blent: ceased; blended.

Blink: glimpse of light.

Blinkan, blinkand: twinkling.

Blinking: squinting.

Blinks: twinkles, sparkles.

Blinne: cease, give over.

Blist: blessed.

Blive: belive, immediately.

Bloomed: beset with bloom.

Blude: blood.

Bluid, bluidy: blood, bloody.

Blyth, blithe: sprightly, joyous.

Blyth: joy, sprightliness.

Blyve: See Belive.

Boare: bare.

Bode: abode, stayed.

Boist: boisteris: boast, boasters.

Boke: book.

Bollys: bowls.

Boltes: shafts, arrows.

Bomen: bowmen.

Bonnie, bonny: bonnye, comely.

Bookesman: clerk, secretary.

Boon, boone: favour, request, petition.

Boot, boote: gain, advantage, help.

Bore: born.

Borowe: to redeem by a pledge.

Borowed: warranted, pledged.

Borrowe, borowe: pledge, surety.

Bot, but: both, besides,moreover.

Bot: without; Bot dreid: i.e. certainly.

Bote: See Boote.

Bougil, bougill: bugle, horn.

Bounde, bowynd, bowned: prepared, got ready. also: went.

Bowndes: bounds.

Bower, bowre: arched room, dwelling.

Bowre woman: chamber maid.

Bowre window: chamber window.

Bowys: bows.

Brade: braid: broad.

Brae: the brow or side of a hill. Braes of Yarrow: hilly banks of the Yarrow.

Braid: broad.

Braifly: bravely.

Brakes: tufts of fern.

Brand: sword.

Brast: burst.

Braw: brave.

Brayd: arose, hastened.

Brayd attowre the bent: hastened over the field.

Brayde: drew out, unsheathed.

Bred, brede: broad.

Breech: breeches.

Breeden bale: breed mischief.

Breere, brere: briar.

Breng, bryng: bring.

Brenn: to burn. Brenand drake: the fire-drake, burning embers.

Brether: brethren.

Bridal, bride-ale: nuptial feast.

Brigue, brigg: bridge.

Brimme: public, universally known.

Britled: carved.

Broad arrow: a broad-headed arrow.

Brocht: brought.

Brodinge: pricking.

Brooche: a spit, bodkin, ornamental trinket, clasp.

Brook: enjoy

Brooke: bear, endure.

Brouche: See Brooche.

Brouke her with winne: enjoy her with pleasure.

Browd: broad.

Brozt: brought.

Bryttlynge, brytlyng: cutting up, quartering, carving.

Buen, bueth: been, be, are.

Bugle: hunting horn.

Buik: book.

Burgens: buds, young shoots.

Burn: bourne, brook.

Bushment: ambush, snare.

Busk: dress, deck. Busk and bown: make yourselves ready and go.

Buske: Idem.

Busket, buskt: dressed.

But: without. Butt.[ 3]

But if: unless.

But let: without hindrance.

Buttes: buts to shoot at.

By thre: of three.

Bydys, bides: abides.

Bye: buy, pay for; also, abye: suffer for.

Byears: biers.

Byll, bill: ancient battle-axe, halbert.

Byn, bine, bin: been, be, are.

Byrcke: birch-tree, or wood.

Byre: a cow-house.

Byste, beest: art.


Ca': call

Cadgilly: merrily, cheerfully.

Cale: callyd, called.

Caliver: a kind of musket.

Caitiff: a slave.

Camscho: stern, grim.

Can, 'gan, began: began to cry.

Can curtesye: understand good manners.

Canna: cannot.

Cannes: wooden cups, bowls.

Cantabanqui: ballad-singers.

Cantles: pieces, corners.

Canty: cheerful, chatty.

Capul, capull: a poor horse.

Care-bed: bed of care.

Carle: a churl, clown. Also: old man.

Carline: the feminine of Carle.

Carlish: churlish, discourteous.

Carpe: to speak, recite, censure.

Carpe off care: complain thro' care.

Carping: reciting.

Cast: mean, intend.

Cau: call.

Cauld: cold.

Cawte and kene: cautious and active.

Caytiffe: caitif, slave, wretch

Certes: certainly.

Cetiwall: the herb valerian.

Chanteclere: the cock.

Chap: knock.

Chayme: Cain.

Chays: chase.

Che (Somerset): I.

Check: to rate at.

Check: to stop.

Cheis: choose.

Chevaliers: knights

Cheveran: upper part of the scutcheon in heraldry.

Chield: fellow.

Child: knight.

Chill (Som.): I will.

Chould (Som.), I would.

Christentie, Christentye, Christiant?: Christendom.

Church-ale: a wake; feast in commemoration of the dedication of a Church.

Churl: clown, villain, vassal.

Chyf, chyfe: chief.

Chylded: was delivered.

Chylder: children.

Claiths: clothes.

Clattered: beat so as to rattle.

Clawde: clawed, tore, scratched.

Clead: clothed.

Cleading: clothing.

Cleaped: called, named.

Cled: clad.

Clepe: call.

Clerke: scholar, clergymen.

Cliding: clothing.

Clim: contraction of Clement.

Clough: a broken cliff.

Clowch: clutch, grasp.

Coate: cot, cottage.

Cockers: short boots worn by shepherds.

Cog: to lye, to cheat.

Cokeney: cook, Lat. coquinator,

Cold: could, knew.

Cold be: was.

Cold rost: nothing to the purpose.

Coleyne, Collayne: Cologne steel.

Com: came.

Comen, commyn: come.

Con: can, 'gan, began.

Con fare: went, passed.

Con thanks: with thanks.

Con springe: sprung.

Confetered: confederated.

Coote: coat.

Cop: head, the top of anything.

Cordiwin, cordwayne: Cordovan leather.

Corsiare: courser, steed.

Cost: coast, side.

Cote: cot, cottage; coat.

Cotydyallye: daily, every day.

Coulde, could, cold: could.

Could bare: bare.

Could creep: crept.

Could his good: knew what was good for him; could live upon his own.

Could say: said.

Could weip: wept.

Counsail: secret.

Countie: count, earl.

Coupe, coup: pen for poultry.

Courtnalls: courtiers.

Couth: could.

Couthen: knew.

Covetise: covetousness.

Coyntrie: Coventry.

Cramasie: crimson.

Crancky: merry, exulting.

Cranion: skull.

Crech: crutches.

Credence: belief.

Crevis: crevice, chink.

Crinkle: run in and out, wrinkle;

Cristes corse: Christ's curse.

Croft: inclosure near a house.

Croiz: cross.

Crompling: twisted, knotty.

Crook: twist, distort; make lame.

Crouneth: crown ye.

Crowch: crutch.

Crowt: pucker up.

Cryance: belief; fear.

Cule: cool.

Cure: care, heed, regard.


Dale: deal. Bot give I deal: unless I deal.

Dampned: damned, condemned.

Dan: ancient title of respect.

Dank: moist, damp.

Danske: Denmark.

Darh: there.

Darr'd: hit.

Dart: hit.

Daukin: diminutive of David.

Daunger hault: coyness holdeth.

Dawes: days.

Dealan, deland: dealing.

Deare day: pleasant day.

Deas, deis: the high table in a hall

De, dy, dey, die.

Dede is do: deed is done.

Dee: die.

Deed: dead.

Deemed: doomed, judged.

Deepe-fette: deep fetched.

Deere: hurt, mischief.

Deerly: preciously, richly.

Deerly dight: richly dressed.

Deid: dead.

Deid-bell: passing-bell.

Deill: dally?

Deimpt: deemed, esteemed.

Deip, depe: deep.

Deir, dear: hurt, trouble, disturb.

Dele: deal.

Dell: narrow valley.

Dell: part, deal.

Delt: dealt.

Demains, demesnes: estates.

Deme: judge.

Denay: deny.

Dent: a dint, blow.

Deol, dole: grief.

Depured: purified, run clear.

Deray: ruin, confusion.

Dere, dear: hurt.

Derked: darkened.

Dern: secret. I' dern: in secret.

Descreeve, descrive, descrye: describe.

Devyz: devise, bequeathment by will.

Deze, deye: die.

Dight, dicht: decked, dressed out, done.

Dill: still, calm, mitigate.

Dill, dole: grief, pain. Dill I drye: pain I suffer. Dill was dight: grief was upon him.

Din, dinne: noise, bustle.

Dine: dinner.

Ding: knock, beat.

Dint: stroke, blow.

Dis: this.

Discust: discussed.

Disna: does not.

Distrere: horse rode by a knight in the turnament.

Dites: ditties.

Dochter: daughter.

Dois, doys: does.

Dol, dole: grief.

Dolefulle dumps: heaviness of heart.

Dolorus: dolorous.

Don: down.

Dosend: dosing, drowsy.

Doth, dothe: doeth, do.

Doublet: inner garment.

Doubt: fear.

Doubteous: doubtful.

Doughte, dougheti, doughetie, dowghtye: doughty, formidable.

Doughtiness of dent: sturdiness of blows.

Dounae: am not able; cannot take the trouble.

Doute: doubt; fear.

Doutted: doubted; feared.

Douzty: doughty.

Dozter: daughter.

Doz-trogh: dough-trough.

Drake: See Brenand Drake.

Drap, drapping: drop, dropping.

Dre: suffer.

Dreid, dreede, drede: dread.

Dreips: drips, drops.

Dreiry: dreary.

Drovyers: drovers, cattle-drivers.

Drowe: drew.

Drye: suffer.

Dryghnes: dryness.

Dryng: drink.

Dryvars: See Drovyers.

Duble dyse: double (false) dice.

Dude, dudest: did, didst.

Dughtie: doughty.

Dule, duel, dol, dole: grief, sorrow.

Dwellan, dwelland: dwelling.

Dyan, dyand: dying.

Dyce, dice: chequer-work.

Dyd, dyde: did.

Dyght, diht, dreesed: put on, put.

Dyht: to dispose, order.

Dyne: dinner.

Dynte: dint, blow, stroke.

Dysgysynge: disguising, masking.

Dystrayne: distress.

Dyzt: See Dight.


Eame: uncle.

Eard: earth.

Earn: to curdle, make cheese.

Eathe: easy.

Eather: either.

Ech, eche, eiche, elke: each.

Ee, eie: eye.

Een: eyes.

Een: evening.

Effund: pour forth.

Eftsoon: in a short time.

Egge: to urge on.

Eike: each.

Eiked: added, enlarged.

Ein: even.

Eir, evir: e'er, ever.

Eke: also.

Eldern: elder.

Ellumynynge: embellishing.

Eldridge: wild, hideous, ghostly; lonesome, inhabited by spectres.[ 4]

Elvish: peevish, fantastical.

Elke: each.

Eme: kinsman, uncle.

Endyed: dyed.

Enharpid: hooked, or edged with mortal dread.

Enkankered: cankered.

Enouch: enough.

Ensue: follow.

Entendement: understanding.

Ententifly: to the intent, purposely.

Envye: malice, ill-will, injury.

Er, ere: before; are.

Ere: ear.

Erst: heretofore.

Etermynable: interminable, unlimited.

Ettled: aimed.

Evanished: vanished.

Everiche: every, each.

Everych-one: every one.

Evir-alake: ever alack!.

Ew-bughts: pens for milch-ewes.

Eyn, eyne: eye, eyes.

Ezar: azure.


Fa': fall.

Fach: feche, fetch.

Fader, fatheris: father, father's.

Fadge: a thick loaf of bread; a coarse heap of stuf; a clumsy woman.

Fae: foe.

Fain: glad, pleased, fond.

Faine of feir: of a fair and healthy look; perhaps, free from fear.

Falds: thou foldest.

Fallan, falland: falling.

Fals: false; falleth.

Falser: deceiver, hypocrite.

Falsing: dealing in falsehood.

Fang: seize, carry off.

Fannes: instruments for winnowing corn.

Farden: fared, flashed.

Fare: pass, go, travel.

Fare: the price of a passage; shot, reckoning.

Farley: wonder.

Fa's: thou fallest.

Faulcone, fawkon: falcon.

Fauzt, faucht: fought.

Faw'n: fallen.

Fay, faye: faith.

Fayere: fair.

Faytors: deceivers, cheats.

Fe: reward, bribe, property.

Feare, fere, feire: mate.

Feat: nice, neat.

Featously: neatly, dextrously.

Feere, fere: mate, companion.

Feil, fele: many.

Feir, fere: fear; also demeanour.

Feiztyng: fighting.

Feire: mate. See Feare.

Felay, felawe, feloy: fellow.

Fell: hide.

Fell, fele: furious.

Fend: defend.

Fendys pray: from being the prey of the fiends.

Fere, fear: companion, wife.

Ferliet: wondered, marvelled.

Ferly: wonder, wondrously.

Fersly: fiercely.

Fesante, fesaunt: pheasant.

Fet, fette: fetched.

Fetteled: prepared, addressed.

Fey: predestined to some fatality.

Fie: beasts, cattle.

Filde: field.

Fillan', filland: filling.

Find frost: find mischance, or disaster.

Firth, frith: a wood, an arm of the sea.

Fit: foot, feet.

Fit, fitt, fyt, fytte: a part or division of a song.[ 5]

Flayne: flayed.

Fles: fleece.

Fleyke: a large kind of hurdle: a hovel made of fleyks where cows are milked.

Flindars: pieces, splinters.

Flowan: flowing.

Flyte: contend with words, scold.

Fond, fonde: contrive, endeavour.

Fonde: found

Foo: foes.

For: on account of.

Forbode: commandment.

Force: No force, no matter.

Forced: regarded, heeded.

Forefend: prevent, defend, avert.

For-foght: over-fought.

Foregoe: quit, give up.

For-wearied: over wearied.

Formare: former.

Fors. I do not fors: I don't care.

Forsede: regarded, heeded.

Forst: heeded, regarded.

Forst: forced, compelled.

Forthy: therefore.

Forthynketh: repenteth, vexeth, troubleth.

Forwatcht: over-watched, kept awake.

Fosters of the fe: foresters of the king's demesnes.

Fou, fow: full, drunk.

Fowarde, vawarde: the van.

Fowkin: cant word for a fart.

Fox't: drunk.

Frae: from. Fro

Frae thay begin: from the beginning.

Freake, freke, freeke, freyke: man, human being; also: whim, maggot.

Fre-bore: free-born.

Freckys: persons.

Freers, fryars: friars, monks.

Freits: ill omens, ill luck. Terror.

Freyke, humour, freak, caprice.

Freyned: asked.

Frie, fre, free: noble.

Fruward: forward.

Furth: forth.

Fuyson, foyson: plenty; substance.

Fyers: fierce.

Fykill: fickle.

Fyled, fyling: defiled, defiling.

Fyll: fell.

Fyr: fire.

Fyzt: fight.


Ga, gais: go, goes.

Gae, gaes: go, goes.

Gaed, gade: went.

Gaberlunzie, gaberlunze: wallet.

Gaberlunzie-man: a wallet-man, beggar.

Gadlings, gadelyngs: idlers.

Gadryng: gathering.

Gae: gave.

Gair, geer: dress.

Gair: grass.

Galliard: a sprightly dance.

Gane, gan: began.

Gane: gone.

Gang: go.

Ganyde: gained.

Gap: entrance to the lists.

Gar: to make, cause, &c.

Garde, gart, garred: made; also Garde.

Garre, garr: See Gar.

Gargeyld: the spout of a gutter.

Garland: the ring within which the mark was set to be shot at.

Gayed: made gay their clothes.

Gear, geere, gair, geir, geire: See Gair.

Gederede ys host: gathered his host.

Geere will sway: this matter will turn out; affair will terminate.

Gef, gere: give.

Geid: gave.

Gerte: pierced.

Gest: act, feat, story, history.

Getinge, getting: plunder, booty.

Geve, gevend: give, given.

Gi, gie, gien: give, given.

Gibed: jeered.

Gie: give.

Giff, Gife: if.

Gillore: plenty.

Gimp, jimp: neat, slender.

Gin, an: if.

Gin, gyn: engine, contrivance.

Gins: begins.

Gip: an interjection of contempt.

Girt: pierced.

Give: See Giff.

Give owre: surrender.

Glave, glaive: sword.

Glede: a red-hot coal.

Glen: narrow valley.

Glent: glanced, slipped.

Glie, glee: joy.

Glist: glistered.

Glose: set a false gloss.

Glowr: stare, or frown.

Gloze: canting, dissimulation.

God before: God be thy guide[ 6].

Goddes: goddess.

Gode, godness: good, goodness.

Gone: go.

Good: a good deal.

Good-e'ens: good evenings.

Gorget: the dress of the neck.

Gowd, gould: gold.

Gorreled-bellyed: pot-bellied.

Gowan: the yellow crowfoot.

Graine: scarlet.

Graithed, (gowden): was caparisoned with gold.

Gramercye: I thank you. Fr. Grand mercie.

Graunge: granary, a lone house.

Graythed: decked, put on.

Grea-hondes: grey-hounds.

Grece: a step, flight of steps.

Gree, gre: prize, victory.

Greece: fat. Fr. graisse.

Greened: grew green.

Greet: weep.

Grennyng: grinning.

Gresse: grass.

Gret, grat: great; grieved, swoln.

Greves: groves, bushes.

Grippel: griping, miserly.

Groundwa: groundwall.

Growende, growynd: ground.

Grownes: grounds.

Growte: small beer, or ale.[ 7]

Grype: griffin.

Grysely groned: dreadfully groaned.

Gude, guid, geud: good.

Guerdon: reward.

Gule: red.

Gybe: jest, joke.

Gyle: guile.

Gyn: engine, contrivance.

Gyrd: girded, lashed; gyrdyl: girdle.

Gyse, guise: form, fashion.


Ha, hae: have.

Ha': hall.

Habbe ase he brew: have as he brews.

Habergeon: lesser coat of mail.

Hable: able.

Haggis: sheep's stomach stuffed.

Hail, hale: whole, altogether.

Halched, halsed: saluted, embraced.

Halesome: wholesome, healthy.

Halt: holdeth.

Halyde, Haylde: hauled.

Hame, hamward: home, homeward.

Handbow: the long bow.

Hare . . . swerdes: their swords.

Haried, harried, haryed, harowed: robbed, pillaged, plundered.

Harlocke, charlocke: wild rape.

Harnisine: harness, armour.

Hartly lust: hearty desire.

Harwos: harrows.

Hastarddis: rash fellows, upstarts.

Hauld: to hold.

Hauss-bane: the neck-bone.

Hav: have.

Haves: effects, substance, riches.

Haviour: behaviour.

Hawberk: coat of mail.

Hawkin: diminutive of Harry.

Haylle: advantage, profit.

He, hee, hye: high.

He, hye: to hye, hasten.

Heal: hail.

Hear, heare: here.

Heare, heares: hair, hairs.

Heathenness: the heathen part of the world.

Hech, hach, hatch: small door; also, Hach-borde: side of a ship.

Hecht to lay thee law: promised, engaged to lay thee low.

Hed, hede: head.

Hede: he would; heed.

Hee's: he shall; he has.

Heere: hear.

Heicht: height.

Heiding-hill: place of execution.

Heil, hele: health.

Heir, here: hear.

Helen: heal.

Helpeth: help ye.

Hem: them.

Hend: kind, gentle.

Henne: hence.

Hent, hente: held, pulled, received.

Heo: they.

Hepps and Haws: fruits of the briar, and the hawthorn.

Her, hare: their.

Here: their; hear; hair.

Herkneth: hearken ye.

Hert, hertis: heart, hearts.

Hes: has.

Hest: hast.

Hest: command, injunction.

Het: hot.

Hether: hither.

Hett, hight: bid, call, command.

Hench: rock, or steep hill.

Hevede, hevedest: had, hadst.

Heveriche, hevenriche: heavenly.

Hewkes: heralds' coats.

Hewyne in two: hewn in two.

Hewyng, hewynge: hewing, hacking.

Hey-day guise: frolic; sportive.

Heynd, hend: gentle, obliging.

Heyze: high.

Heyd: hied.

Hi, hie: he.

Hicht, a-hicht: on height.

Hie, hye, he, hee: high.

Hie dames to wail: hasten ladies to wail.

Hight: promised, engaged; named.

Hillys: hills.

Hilt: taken off, flayed.

Hinch-boys: pages of honour.

Hinde, hend: gentle.

Hinde, hind: behind.

Hings: hangs.

Hinney: honey.

Hip, hep: berries of the dog-rose.

Hir: her. Hirsel: herself.

Hit: it; Hit be write: it be written.

Hode: hood, cap.

Holden: hold.

Hole, holl whole.

Hollen: holly.

Holtes: woods, groves. Holtis hair: hoar hills.

Holy: wholly.

Holy-roode: holy cross.

Hom, hem: them.

Honde: hand. Honden wrynge: hands wring.

Hondridth, hondred: hundred.

Honge: hang, hung.

Hontyng: hunting.

Hoo, ho: interjection of stopping.

Hooly: slowly.

Hop-halt: limping; halting.

Hose: stockings.

Hount: hunt.

Houzle: give the sacrament.

Hoved: heaved, hovered, tarried.

Howeres, howers: hours.

Huerte: heart.

Huggle: hug, clasp.

Hye, hyest: high, highest.

Hyghte: on high, aloud.

Hynd attowre: behind, over, about.

Hip-halt: lame in the hip.

Hys: his; is.

Hyt, hytt: it.

Hyznes: highness.


I-fere: together.

I-feth: in faith.

I-lore: lost.

I-strike: stricken.

I-trowe: verily.

I ween: verily.

I wisse: verily.

I wot: verily.

I-wys, I-wis: verily.

I clipped: called.

Ich: I.

Ich biqueth: I bequeath.

Iff: if

Ild: I would.

Ile: I will.

Ilfardly: ill-favouredly, uglily.

Ilk, this ilk: this same.

Ilka: each, every one.

Ilke, every ilke: every one.

Ilk one: each one.

Im: him.

Impe: a demon.

In fere, I fere: together.

Ingle: fire.

Inogh: enough.

Into: in.

Intres: entrance, admittance.

Io forth: halloo!

Ireful: angry, furious.

Is: his.

Ise: I shall.

Its ne'er: it shall never.

I-tuned: tuned.

Iye: eye.


Janglers: telltales; wranglers.

Jenkin: diminutive of John.

Jimp: slender.

Jo: sweetheart, friend.

Jogelers: jugglers.

Jow, joll: jowl.

Juncates: a sweet-meat.

Jupe: upper garment; petticoat.


Kall: call.

Kame: comb.

Kameing: combing.

Kan: can.

Kantle: piece, corner.

Karls: churls; karlis of kynde: churls by nature.

Kauk: chalk.

Kauld: called.

Keel: saddle.

Keepe: care, heed.

Keipand: keeping.

Kempe: soldier, warrior.

Kemperye man: fighting-man.[ 8]

Kempt: combed.

Kems: combs.

Ken: know. Kenst, kend: know, knew.

Kene: keen.

Kepers: those that watch by the corpse.

Kever-cheves: handkerchiefs.

Kexis: dried stalks of hemlocks.

Kid, kyd, kithed: made known.

Kilted: tucked up.

Kind: nature. Kynde.

Kirk: church.

Kirk-wa: church-wall.

Kirm, kirn: churn.

Kirtle: a petticoat, woman's gown.[ 9]

Kists: chests.

Kit: cut.

Kith (kithe) and kin: acquaintance and kindred.

Knave: servant.

Knellan, knelland: kneeling.

Knicht: knight.

Knight's fee: such a portion of land as required the possessor to serve with man and horse.

Knowles: little hills.

Knyled: knelt.

Kowarde: coward.

Kowe: cow.

Kuntrey: country.

Kurteis: courteous.

Kyne, kine: cows.

Kyrtel, kyrtill, kyrtell: See kirtle.

Kythe: appear, make appear, show.

Kythed: appeared.


Lacke: want.

Laide unto her: imputed to her.

Laith: loth.

Laithly: loathsome, hideous.

Lamb's wool: cant phrase for ale and roasted apples.

Lane, lain: lone; her lane: by herself.

Lang: long.

Langsome: tedious.

Lap: leaped.

Largesse: gift, liberality.

Lasse: less.

Latte: let, hinder.

Lauch: laugh.

Launde: lawn.

Layden: laid.

Laye: low.

Lay-land: land not ploughed.

Lay-lands: lands in general.

Layne: lien; laid.

Layne: lain. See Leane.

Leal, leel, leil: loyal, honest, true.

Leane: conceal, hide; lye?.

Leanyde: leaned.

Learnd: learned, taught.

Lease: lying, falsehood. Wythouten lease: verily.

Leasynge: lying, falsehood.

Leaute: loyalty.

Lee, lea: the field, pasture.

Lee: lie.

Leech, leeche, physician.

Leechinge: doctoring, medicinal care.

Leeke: phrase of contempt.

Leer: look.

Leese: lose.

Leeve London: dear London.

Leeveth: believeth.

Lefe, leve, leeve, leffe: dear.

Leid: lyed.

Leir, lere: learn.

Leive: leave.

Leman, lemman, leiman, leaman: lover, mistress.

Lenger: longer.

Lengeth in: resideth in.

Lere: face, complexion.

Lerned: learned.

Lesynge: lying, falsehood.

Let, lett, latte, hinder: slacken.

Lettest: hinderest, detainest.

Lettyng: hindrance, without delay.

Leuch, leugh: laughed. Lugh.

Lever: rather.

Leves and bowes: leaves and boughs.

Lewd: ignorant, scandalous.

Leyke: like, play.

Leyre, lere: learning, lore.

Libbard: leopard.

Libbard's bane: an herb.

Lichtly: lightly, easily, nimbly; also: to undervalue.

Lie, lee: field.

Liege-men: vassals, subjects.

Lig, ligge: lie.

Lightly: easily.

Lightsome: cheerful, sprightly.

Liked: pleased.

Limitacioune: a certain precinct allowed to a limitour.

Limitours: friars licensed to beg within certain limits.

Linde: lime tree; trees in general.

Lingell: hempen thread rubbed with rosin, for mending shoes.

Lire: flesh, complexion.

Lith, lithe, lythe: attend, listen.

Lither: idle, worthless, wicked.

Liver: deliver.

Liverance: deliverance (money, or a pledge for delivering you up).

Lodlye: loathsome.

Lo'e, Loed: love, loved.

Logeying: lodging.

Loke: lock of wool.

Longes: belongs.

Loo: halloo!

Looset, losed: loosed.

Lope: leaped.

Lore: lesson, doctrine, learning.

Lore: lost.

Lorrel: a sorry, worthless person.

Losel: idem.

Lothly: See Lodlye.[ 10]

Loud and still: at all times.

Lought, lowe, lugh: laughed.

Loun, loon: rascal.

Lounge: lung.

Lourd, lour: See Lever.

Louted, lowtede: bowed.

Lowe: little hill.

Lowns: blazes.

Lowte, lout: bow, do obeisance.

Lude, luid, luivt: loved.

Luef: love.

Lues, luve: loves, love.

Luiks: looks.

Lurden, lurdeyne: sluggard, drone.

Lyan, lyand: lying.

Lyard: grey; a grey horse.

Lynde: See Linde.

Lys: lies.

Lystenyth: listen.

Lyth, lythe: easy, gentle, pliant.

Lyven na more: live no more.

Lyzt, lizt: light.


Maden: made.

Mahound, Mahowne: Mahomet.

Mair: more, most.

Mait: might.

Majeste, maist, mayeste: may'st.

Making: verses, versifying.

Makys, maks: mates.[ 11]

Manchet: fine bread.

Male: coat of mail.

Mane: man.

Mane, maining: moan, moaning.

Mangonel: an engine used for discharging great stones, arrows, &c.

March-perti: in the parts lying upon the Marches.

March-pine, march-pane: a kind of biscuit.

Margarite: a pearl,

Mark: a coin, in value 13s. 4d.

Mark him to the Trinit?, commit himself to God, by making the sign of the cross.

Marrow: equal, mate, husband.

Mart: marred, hurt, damaged.

Mast, maste: may'st.

Masterye, mayestry: trial of skill.

Mauger, maugre: spite of; ill-will.

Maun, mun: must.

Mavis: a thrush.

Mawt: malt.

Mayd, mayde: maid.

Maye, may: idem.

Mayne: force, strength; mane.

Maze: a labyrinth.[ 12]

Me: men. Me con: men began.

Me-thunch, thuncketh: methinks.

Mean: moderate, middle-sized.

Meany: retinue, train, company.

Mease: soften, reduce, mitigate.

Meaten, mete: measured.

Meed, meede: reward, mood.

Meit, meet: fit, proper.

Mell: honey; also: meddle, mingle.

Menivere: a species of fur.

Mense the faugh: measure the battle.

Menzie, meaney: See Meaney.

Merches: marches.

Messager: messenger.

Met, meit: See Mete.

Meyn?: See Meany.

Micht: might.

Mickle: much, great. Mykel.

Midge: a small insect.

Minged: mentioned.

Minny: mother.

Minstral: minstrel.

Minstrelsie: music.

Mirke, mirkie: dark, black.

Mirry, meri: merry.

Miscreants: unbelievers.

Misdoubt: suspect, doubt.

Miskaryed: miscarried.

Misken: mistake; let a thing alone.

Mister: to need.

Mither: mother.

Mo, moe: more.

Mode: mood.

Moiening: by means of.

Mold: mould, ground.

Mome: a dull, stupid fellow.

Monand: moaning, bemoaning.

Mone: moon.

Mounyn day: Monday.

More, mure: moor, heath, also, wild hill;

Morne: to mourn; to-morrow, in the morning.

Mornyng: mourning.

Morrownynges: mornings.

Mort: death of the deer.

Mosses: swampy grounds.

Most: must.

Mote, mought: might.

Mote I thee: might I thrive.

Mou: mouth.

Mought, mot: See Mote.

Mowe: may; mouth.

Muchele bost: great boast.

Mude: mood.

Mulne: mill.

Mun, maun: must.

Mure: See Muir

Murne, murnt, murning: mourn, etc.

Muse: amuse; wonder.

Musis: muses.

Myghtte: mighty.

Mycull, mekyl: See Mickle.

Myne-ye-ple: many plies, or folds.

Myrry: merry.

Mysuryd: misused, applied badly.


Na, nae: no, none.

Naithing: nothing.

Nams: names.

Nane: none.

Nappy: strong (of ale).

Nar, nare: nor, than.

Natheless: nevertheless.

Nat: not.

Ne, nee: nigh.

Near, ner, nere: never.

Neat: oxen, cows, large cattle.

Neatherd: keeper of cattle.

Neatresse: female ditto.

Neigh him neare: approach him near.

Neir, nere: never.

Neir, nere: near.

Nere: we were; were it not for.

Nest, nyest: next, nearest.

Newfangle: fond of novelty.

Nicht: night.

Nicked him of naye: refused him.

Nipt: pinched.

Noble: a coin, in value 6s. 8d.

Nobl?s, nobless: nobleness.

Nollys, noddles: heads.

Nom: took.

Nome: name.

Non: none.

None: noon.

Nonce: purpose; Nonys. For the nonce: for the occasion.

Norland: northern.

Norse: Norway.

North-Gales, North Wales.

Nou: now.

Nourice: nurse.

Nout, nocht: nought; not.

Nowght: nought.

Nowls: noddles, heads.

Noye: annoy?

Nozt, nought.

Nurtured: educated, bred up.

Nye, ny: nigh.

Nyzt: night.


O gin: O if.

Obraid: upbraid.

Ocht: ought.

Oferlyng: superior, paramount.

On: one, an.

One: on.

Onloft: aloft.

Ony: any.

Onys: once.

Onfowghten, unfoughten: un-fought.

Or, ere: before, even.

Or, eir: before, ever.

Orisons: prayers.

Ost, aste, oast: host.

Ou, oure: you, your; our.

Out alas!: exclamation of grief.

Out-brayde: drew out, unsheathed.

Out-horn: summoning to arms.

Out ower: quite over; over.

Outowre: out over.

Outrake: an out ride, or expedition.

Oware off none: hour of noon.

Owches: bosses, or buttons of gold.

Owene, awen, oune, ain: own.

Owre, owr: over.

Owre-word: last word; burden of a song.

Owt, owte: out.


Pa: the river Po.

Packing: false-dealing.

Pall, Palle: kind of rich cloth; robe of state.

Palmer: a pilgrim.

Paramour: lover, mistress.

Pard?, perde, perdie: verily; Par Dieu.

Paregall: equal.

Partake: participate, assign to.

Parti: party, a part.

Pattering: murmuring, mumbling.

Pauky: shrewd, cunning; insolent.

Paves, pavice: a large shield.

Pavilliane: tent, pavillion.

Pay: liking, satisfaction.

Paynim: pagan.

Pearlins: coarse sort of bone-lace.

Pece: piece, sc. of cannon.

Peere, pere: peer, equal.

Peering: peeping, looking narrowly.

Peerless: without equal.

Pees, pese, peysse: peace.

Pele: a baker's peel.

Penon: lance-banner.

Pentarchye of tenses: five tenses.

Perchmine: parchment.

Perelous, parlous: perilous.

Perfay: verily.

Perfight: perfect.

Perill: danger.

Perkin: diminutive of Peter.

Perlese: peerless.

Persit, pearced: pierced.

Perte: part.

Pertyd: parted.

Petye: pity.

Peyn: pain.

Philomene: the nightingale.

Pibrocks: Highland war-tunes.

Piece: a little.

Plaine: complain.

Plaining: complaining.

Play-feres: play fellows.

Playand: playing.

Pleasance: pleasure.

Plein, playn: complain.

Plett: platted.

Plowmell: wooden hammer fixed to the plough.

Plyzt: plight.

Poll-cat: cant word for whore.

Pollys, powlls, polls: head.

Pompal: pompous.

Popingay: parrot.

Porcupig: porcupine.

Portres: porteress.

Posset: drink.

Poterner: pocket, pouch.

Poudered: sprinkled over (heraldic).

Pow, pou, pow'd: pull, pulled.

Powlls: See Pollys.

Pownes: pounds.

Preas, prese: press.

Prece: idem. Preced, presed: pressed.

Prest: ready.

Prestly, prestlye: readily, quickly.

Pricked: spurred on, hasted.

Prickes: the mark to shoot at.

Pricke-wand: wand to shoot at.

Priefe: prove.

Priving: proving, testing.

Prove: proof.

Prow?s: prowess, valour.

Prude: pride; proud.

Prycke: the mark.

Pryme: day-break.

Puing: pulling.

Puissant: strong, powerful.

Pulde: pulled.

Purchased: procured.

Purfel: ornament of embroidery.

Purfelled: embroidered

Purvayed: provided.

Pyght, pight: pitched.


Quadrant: four-square.

Quail: shrink.

Quat: quitted.

Quaint: cunning; fantastical.

Quarry: slaughtered game.

Quay, quhey: young heifer.

Quean: sorry, base woman.

Quel: cruel, murderous.

Quelch: a blow.

Quell: subdue; kill.

Quere, quire: choir. Quirister: chorister.

Quest: inquest.

Quha: who.

Quhair: where

Quhan, whan: when.

Quhaneer: whenever.

Quahar: where.

Quhat: what.

Quhatten: what.

Quhen: when.

Quhy: why.

Quick: alive, living.

Quillets: quibbles.

Quitt: requite.

Quyle: while.

Quyt: quite.

Quyte: requited.

Qwyknit: quickened, restored to life.


Rade: rode.

Rae: roe.

Raik: to go apace. Raik on raw: go fast in a row.

Raine: reign.

Raise: rose.

Ranted: were merry.

Rashing: the stroke made by a wild boar with his fangs.

Raught: reached, gained, obtained.

Rayne, reane: rain.

Raysse: race.

Razt, raught, bereft.

Reachles: careless.

Reade, rede: advise; guess.

Rea'me, reame: realm.

Reas: raise.

Reave: bereave.

Reckt: regarded.

Rede, redde: read.

Rede: advise, advice; guess.

Redresse: care, labour.

Reke, smoke.

Refe, reve, reeve: bailiff.

Reft: bereft.

Register: officer of the public register.

Reid: See Rede.

Reid, rede: reed, red.

Reid-roan: red-roan.

Reius: deprive of.

Rekeles, recklesse: regardless, rash.

Remeid: remedy.

Renisht: shining?

Renn: to run.

Renyed: refused.

Rescous: rescues.

Reve: See Reeve.

Revers: robbers, pirates, rovers.

Rew, rewe: take pity, regret. Rue.

Rewth: ruth.

Riall, ryall: royal.

Richt: right.

Ride: make an inroad.

Riddle: to advise?

Rin, renn: run.

Rise: shoot, bush, shrub.

Rive: rife, abounding.

Roche: rock.

Roke, reek: steam.

Ronne: ran. Roone: run.

Roo: roe.

Rood, Roode: cross, crucifix.

Rood-loft: place in the church where the images are set up.

Roast: roost.

Roufe: roof.

Route: go about, travel.

Routhe, ruth: pity.

Row, rowd: roll, rolled.

Rowght, rout: strife.

Rowned, rownyd: whispered.

Rowyndd: round.

Rudd: red, ruddy; complexion.

Rude, rood: cross.

Ruell-bones: coloured rings of bone.

Rues, ruethe: pitieth; regretteth.

Rugged: pulled with violence.

Rushy: covered with rushes.

Ruthe, ruth: pity, woe.

Ruthfull: rueful, woeful.

Ryde: See Ride.

Rydere: ranger.

Rynde: rent.

Ryschys: rushes.

Rywe: rue.

Ryzt: right.


Sa, sae: so.

Safer: sapphire.

Saft: soft.

Saif: safe; save. Savely: safely.

Saim: same.

Sair: sore.

Saisede: seized.

Sall: shall.

Sap: essay, attempt.

Sair: sore.

Sar: See Sair.

Sark, sarke: shirt.

Sat, sete: set.

Saut: salt.

Savyde: saved.

Saw, say: speech, discourse.

Say: essay, attempt.

Say us no harme: say no ill of us.

Sayne: say.

Scant: scarce; scantiness.

Scath, scathe: hurt, injury.

Schall: shall.

Schapped: swapped?

Schatered: shattered.

Schaw: show.

Schene: sheen, shining; brightness.

Schip: ship.

Schiples: shiftless.

Scho, sche: she.

Schone: shone.

Schoote: shot, let go.

Schowte, schowtte: shout.

Schrill: shrill.

Schuke: shook.

Sclab: table-book of slates to write on.

Scomfit: discomfit.

Scot: tax, revenue; shot, reckoning.

Se: sea.

Se, sene, seying: see, seen, seeing.

Sed: said.

Seely: silly, simple.

Seething: boiling.

Seik, seke: seek.

Sek: sack.

Sel, sell: self.

Selven: self.

Selver, siller: silver.

Sely: silly.

Sen: since.

Sene: seen.

Seneschall: steward.

Senvy: mustard-seed.

Sertayne, sertenlye: certain, certainly.

Setywall: See Cetywall.

Seve: seven.

Sey: a kind of woollen stuff.

Sey yow: say to, tell you.

Seyd: saw.

Shaw: show.

Shaws: little woods.

Shave: been shaven.

Shear: entirely.

Shee's: she shall.

Sheeld-bone: the blade-bone.

Sheele: she'll, she will.

Sheene, shene: shining.

Sheeve, shive: a great slice of bread.

Sheip: sheep.

Sheits, shetes: sheets.

Shent: shamed, disgraced, abused.

Shepenes, shipens: cow or sheep pens.

Shimmered: glittered.

Sho, scho: she.

Shoen, shone: shoes.

Shoke: shookest.

Shold, sholde: should.

Shope: shaped; betook.

Shorte: shorten.

Shote: shot.

Shread: cut into small pieces.

Shreeven, shriven: confessed her sins.

Shreward: a male shrew.

Shrift: confession.

Shrive: confess; hear confession.

Shroggs: shrubs, thorns, briars.

Shulde: should.

Shullen: shall.

Shunted: shunned.

Shurtyng: recreation, diversion.

Shyars: shires.

Shynand: shining.

Sib, kin; akin, related.

Sic, sich, sick: such.

Sich: sigh.

Sick-like: such-like.

Side: long.

Sied: saw.

Sigh-clout: a clout to strain milk through.

Sighan, sighand: sighing.

Sik, sike: such.

Siker: surely, certainly.

Siller: silver.

Sindle: seldom.

Sith, sithe: since.

Sitteth: sit ye.

Skaith, scath: harm, mischief.

Skalk: malicious? squinting?.

Skinker: one that serves drink.

Skinkled: glittered.

Skomfit: discomfit.

Skott: shot, reckoning.

Slade: a breadth of greensward between plow-lands or woods.

Slaited: whetted; wiped.

Slattered: slit, broke into splinters.

Slaw: slew.

Sle, slea, slee: slay.

Slean, slone: slain.

Sleip, slepe: sleep.

Slo, sloe: slay.

Slode, slit: split.

Slone: slain.

Sloughe: slew.

Smithers: smothers.

Sna', snaw: snow.

Soldain, soldan, sowdan: sultan.

Soll, soulle, sowle: soul.

Sond: a present, a sending.

Sone, soan: soon.

Sonn: son, sun.

Sooth: truth, true.

Soothly: truly.

Sort: company.

Soth, soth, south, soothe: See sooth.

Soth-Ynglonde: South England.

Sould, schuld: should.

Souling: victualling.

Sowdan: See Soldain.

Sowden, sowdain: idem.

Sowne: sound.

Sowre, soare: sour, sore.

Sowter: shoemaker.

Soy: silk.

Spack, spak, spaik: spake.

Spec: idem.

Speered, sparred, i.e. fastened, shut.[ 13]

Speik: speak.

Speir: spear. Speer

Speir, speer, speere, spere, speare, spire: ask, inquire.[ 14]

Spence, spens: expense.

Spendyd: grasped.

Spere, speere: spear.

Spill, spille: spoil, destroy, harm.

Spillan, spilland: spilling.

Spilt: spoilt.

Spindles and whorles: instrument used for spinning in Scotland.[ 15]

Spole: shoulder; armpit.

Sporeles: spurless, without spurs.

Sprent, sprente: spurted, sprung out.

Spurging: froth that purges out.

Spurn, spurne: a kick.

Spyde: spied.

Spylt: spoiled, destroyed.

Spyt, spyte: spite.

Squelsh: a blow or bang.

Stabille: establish?

Stalwart, stalworth: stout.

Stalworthlye: stoutly.

Stane, stean: stone.

Stark: stiff; entirely.

Startopes: buskins, or half-boots.

Stead, stede: place.

Stean: stone.

Steedye: steady.

Steid, stede: steed.

Steir: stir.

Stel, stele, steill: steel.

Sterne: stern; stars.

Sterris: stars.

Stert, sterte: start.

Steven: time, voice.

Still: quiet, silent.

Stint: stop, stopped.

Stonders, stonderes: standers-by.

Stonde, stound, stounde, stownde: time, space, hour, moment; while.

Stoup of weir: a pillar of war.

Stour, stower, stowre: fight, stir, disturbance.

Stown: stolen.

Stowre: strong, robust, fierce.

Stra, strae: straw.

Streight: straight.

Strekene: stricken, struck.

Stret: street.

Strick: strict.

Strife: strain, or measure.

Strike: stricken.

Stroke: struck.

Stude, stuid: stood.

Styntyde, stinted: stayed, stopped.

Styrande stagge: many a stirring, travelling journey.

Styrt: start.

Suar: sure.

Sum: some.

Summere: a sumpter horse.

Sumpters: horses that carry burdens.

Sune: soon.

Suore bi ys chin: swore by his chin.

Surcease: cease.

Suthe, swith: soon, quickly.

Swa, sa: so.

Swaird: greensward.

Swapte, swapped, swopede: struck violently; exchanged blows.

Swarvde, swarved: climbed,

Swat, swatte, swotte: did sweat.

Swear, sware, sweare: swear; oath.

Sweard, swearde, swerd: sword.

Sweare, swearing, oath.

Sweaven: a dream.

Sweere, swire: neck.

Sweit, swete: sweet.

Swepyl: the swinging part of a flail.

Sweven: See Sweaven.

Swith: quickly, instantly.

Swyke: sigh.

Swynkers: labourers.

Swyppyng: striking fast.

Swyving: whoring.

Sych: such.

Syd: side.

Syde shear, sydis shear: on all sides.

Syn, Syne: then, afterwards.

Syns: since.

Syshemell: Ishmael.

Syth: since.

Syzt: sight.



Taiken: token, sign.

Taine, tane: taken.

Take: taken.

Talents: golden head ornaments?

Tane: one.

Tarbox: liniment box carried by shepherds.

Targe: target, shield.

Te: to; te make: to make.

Te he!: interjection of laughing.

Teene, tene: sorrow, grief, wrath.

Teir, tere: tear.

Teenefu': indignant, wrathful, furious.

Tent: heed.

Termagaunt: the god of Sarazens.[ 16]

Terry: diminutive of Thierry, Theodoricus, Didericus, Terence.

Tester: a coin.

Tha: them.

Thah: though.

Thair: their.

Thame: them.

Than: then.

Thare, thair, theire, ther, thore: there.

The: thee.

The: they. The wear: they were.

The, thee: thrive; So mote I thee: so may I thrive. See Chaucer, 'Canterb. Tales,' i. 308.

The God: i.e. The high God.

Thend: the end.

Ther: their.

Ther-for: therefore.

Therto: thereto.

Thes: these.

Thewes: manners; limbs.

Theyther-ward: thitherward.

Thie: thy. Thowe: thou. Thi sone: thy son.

Thii: they.

Thilke: this.

Thir: this, these.

Thir towmonds: these twelve months.

Thirtti thousant: thirty thousand.

Tho: then, those, the.

Thocht: thought.

Thole, tholed: suffer, suffered.

Thouse: thou art.

Thoust: thou shalt, or shouldest.

Thrall: captive; captivity.

Thrang: throng, close.

Thrawis: throes.

Thre, thrie: three.

Threape: to argue, assert positively.

Thrie, thre: three.

Thrif, threven: thrive.

Thrilled: twirled, turned round.

Thritt?: thirty.

Thronge: hastened.

Thropes: villages.

Thruch, throuch: through.

Thud: noise of a fall.

Tibbe: diminutive of Isabel (Scottish)

Tift: puff of wind.

Tild down: pitched.

Till: to; when.

Till: unto, entice.

Timkin: diminutive of Timothy.

Tine: lose.

Tint: lost.

Tirl: twirl, turn around.

Tirl at the pin: unlatch the door.

To: too; two.

Ton, tone: the one.

Too-fall: twilight.[ 17]

Tor: a tower; pointed rock on hill.

Toun, toune: town.

Tow: to let down with a rope.

Tow, towe, twa: two.

Towmoond: twelve-month, year.

Towyn: town.

Traiterye: treason: treachery.

Trenchant: cutting.

Tres hardie: thrice-hardy.

Treytory, traitory: treachery.

Trichard: treacherous.

Tricthen, trick, deceive.

Tride: tried.

Trie, tre: tree.

Triest furth: draw forth to an assignation.

Trifulcate: three forked, three-pointed.

Trim: exact.

Trichard: treacherousr.

Troth: truth, faith, fidelity.

Trough, trouth: troth.

Trow: think, believe, trust, conceive, also: verily.

Trowthe: troth.

Tru: true.

Trumped: boasted, told lies.

Trumps: wooden trumpets.

Tuik, tuke: took.

Tuke gude keip: kept a close eye upon her.

Tul: till, to.

Turn: an occasion.

Turnes a crab, at the fire: roasts a crab.

Tush: interjection of contempt, or impatience.

Twa: two.

Twatling: small, piddling.

Twayne: two.

Twin'd: parted, separated.

Twirtle twist: thoroughly twisted.


Uch: each.

Ugsome: shocking, horrible.

Unbethought: for bethought.

Unctuous: fat, clammy, oily.

Undermeles: afternoons.

Undight: undecked, undressed.

Unkempt: uncombed.

Unmacklye: mis-shapen.

Unmufit: undisturbed, unconfounded

Unseeled: opened; a term in falconry.

Unsett steven: unappointed time, unexpectedly.

Unsonsie: unlucky, unfortutnate.

Untyll: unto, against.

Ure: use.

Uthers: others.


Vair, (Somerset): fair.

Valzient: valiant.

Vaporing: hectoring.

Vazen, (Somerset): faiths.

Venu: approach, coming.

Vices: devices; screws; turning pins; swivels; spindle of a press?

Vilane: rascally.

Vive, (Somerset): five.

Voyded: quitted, left.

Vriers, (Somerset): friars; "Vicars".


Wa': way, wall.

Wad, walde, wold: would.

Wadded: of a light blue colour?[ 18]

Wae, waefu': woe, woeful.

Wae worth: woe betide.

Waine: waggon.

Walker: a fuller of cloth.

Wallowit: faded, withered.

Walter: roll along; wallow.

Walter: welter.

Waly: interjection of grief.

Wame, wem: womb.

Wan: gone; came; deficient; black, gloomy.

Wan neir: drew near.

Wane: one.

Wanrufe: uneasy.

War, wae: aware.

War ant wys: wary and wise.

Ward: watch, sentinel.

Warde: advise, forewarn.

Warke: work.

Warld, warldis: world, worlds.

Waryd: accursed.

Waryson: reward.

Wassel: drinking, good cheer.

Wat: wet; knew.

Wat, wot: know, am aware.

Wate, weete, wete, witte, wot, wote, wotte: know.

Wate: blamed.

Wax: to grow, become.

Wayde: waved.

Wayward: froward, perverse.

Weal: wail.

Wea1e: welfare.

Weale, weel, weil, wele: well.

Weare-in: drive in gently.

Wearifu': wearisome, tiresome.

Weazon: the throat

Wedous: widows.

Weede: clothing, dress.

Weel: well; we will.

Weene: think.

Weet: wet.

Weet: See Wate.

Weid, wede, weed, See Weede.

Weil, wepe: weep.

Weinde, wende, went, weende, weened: thought.

We?rd: wizard, witch.

Wel-away: interjection of grief.

Wel of pit?: source of pity.

Weldynge: ruling.

Welkin: the sky.

Well-away: exclamation of pity.

Wem: hurt.

Weme: womb, belly; hollow.

Wend, wende, wenden: go.

Wende: thought.

Wene, ween: think.

Wer: were.

Wereth: defendeth.

Werke: work.

Werre, weir, warris: war, wars.

Werryed: worried.

Wes: was.

Westlin, westlings, western: whistling.

Wha: who.

Whair: where.

Whan: when.

Whang: a large slice.

Wheder: whither.

Wheelyng: wheeling.

Whig: sour whey, butter-milk.

While: until.

Whilk: which.

Whit: jot.

Whittles: knives.

Whoard: hoard.

Whorles: See Spindles.

Whos: whose.

Whyllys: whilst.

Wi': with.

Wight: human being, man or woman.

Wight: strong, lusty.

Wightlye: vigorously.

Wightye, wighty: strong, active.

Wield-worm: serpent.

Wildings: wild apples.

Wilfulle: wandering, erring.

Will: shall.

Win: get, gain.

Windar: a kind of hawk.

Windling: winding.

Winnae: will not.

Winsome: agreeable, engaging.

Wiss, wis: know; wist: knew.

Wit, weet: know, understand.

Withouten, withoughten: without.

Wo, woo: woe.

Wobster, webster: weaver.

Wode, wod: mad, furious.

Wode-ward: towards the wood.

Woe: woeful, sorrowful.

Woe-begone: lost in grief.

Woe-man: a sorrowful man.

Woe-worth: woe be to thee.

Wolde: would.

Woll: wool.

Won: wont, usage.

Won'd, wonn'd: dwelt.

Wonde, wound: winded.

Wonders: wonderous.

Wondersly, wonderly: wondrously.

Wone: one.

Wonne: dwell.

Wood, wode: mad, furious.

Woodweele, wodewale: the golden ouzle, a bird of the


Wood-wroth: furiously enraged.

Worshipfully friended: of worshipful friends.

Worthe: worthy.

Wot, wote: know, think.

Wouche: mischief, evil.

Wow: vow; woe!

Wracke: ruin, destruction.

Wrang: wrung.

Wreake: pursue revengefully.

Wreke: wreak, revenge.

Wrench: wretchedness.

Wright: write.

Wringe: contended with violence.

Writhe: writhed, twisted.

Wroken: revenged.

Wronge: wrong.

Wrouzt: wrought.

Wull: will.

Wyld: wild deer.

Wyght: strong, lusty.

Wyghtye, ditto.

Wynde, wende: go.

Wynne, win: joy.

Wynnen: win, gain.

Wyste: knew.

Wyt, wit, weet: know.

Wyte: blame.


Y: I.

Y singe: I sing.

Y-beare: bear.

Y-boren: borne.

Y-built: built.

Y-cleped: named, called.

Y-con'd: taught, instructed.

Y-core: chosen.

Y-fere: together.

Y-founde: found.

Y-mad, made.

Y-picking, picking, culling.

Y-slaw, slain.

Y-wonne: won.

Y-were: were.

Y-wis: verily.

Y-wrought, wrought.

Y-wys: truly, verily.

Y-zote: molten, melted.

Yae: each.

Yalping: yelping.

Yaned: yawned.

Yate: gate.

Yave: gave.

Ych, ycha: yche: ilka: each.

Ycholde, yef: I should, if.

Ychon, ychone: each one.

Ychulle: I shall.

Ychyseled: cut with the chisel.

Ydle: idle.

Ye feth, y-feth: in faith.

Yearded: buried.

Yebent, y-bent: bent.

Yede, yode: went.

Yee: eye.

Yeldyde: yielded.

Yenoughe, ynoughe: enough.

Yerrarchy: hierarchy.

Yere, yeere: year, years.

Yerle, yerlle: earl.

Yerly: early.

Yese: ye shall.

Yestreen: yester-evening.

Yf: if.

Yfere: together.

Ygnoraunce: ignorance.

Ylke, ilk: same.

Yll: ill.

Ylythe: listen.

Yn: in;

Yn-house, at home.

Yngglishe, Ynglysshe: English.

Ynglonde: England.

Yode: went.

Youe: you.

Ys: is; his; in his.

Ystonge: stung.

Yt: it.

Yth: in the.


Z: y, g, and s.

Zacring bell, (Somerset): Sacring bell, a little bell rung to give notice of the elevation of the host.

ze: you, ye, thee; zee're: ye are.

zede: yede: went.

Zee, zeene: see, seen.

zees: ye shall.

zef: yef: if.

zeir: year.

zellow: yellow.

zeme: take care of.

zent: through.

zestrene: yester-e'en.

zit, zet: yet.

zonder: yonder.

zang: young.

Zonne: son.

zou: you; zour: your.

zoud: you would.

zour-lane, your-lane: alone, by yoursef.

zouth: youth.

zule, yule: Christmas.

zung, zonge: young.

*** The printers have usually substituted the letter z to express the character yogh which occurs in old MSS.: but we are not to suppose that this was ever pronounced as our modern z; it had rather the force of y (and perhaps of gh) being no other than the Saxon letter yogh, which both the Scots and English have in many instances changed into y, as yard, year, young, &c.


1. In the west of Scotland, at this present time, in many cottages, they pile their peats and turfs upon stones in the middle of the room.

2. Mr. Lambe also interprets "BICKERING," by rattling, e.g.

"And on that slee Ulysses head
Sad curses down does BICKER."
??????????????? -- Transl. of Ovid.

3. "BUT o' house" means the outer part of the house, outer room, viz. that part of the house into which you first enter, suppose from the street. "BEN o' house" is the inner room, or more retired part of the house. The daughter did not lie out of doors. The cottagers often desire their landlords to build them a BUT and a BEN.--Mr. LAMBE.

4. In the ballad of SIR CAWLINE, we have 'Eldridge hill,' 'Eldridge knight,' 'Eldridge Sworde,'-- So Gawin Douglas calls the Cyclops, the 'ELRICHE BRETHIR,' i.e. brethren . (b.ii. p. 91, l. 16.), and in his Prologue to b. vii. (p. 202, l. 3.), he thus describes the night-owl:

"Laithely of forme, with crukit camscho beik,
Ugsome to here was his wyld ELRISCHE shriek."

??????????? In Bannatyne's MS. Poems, (fol. 35, in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh) is a whimsical rhapsody of a deceased old woman, travelling in the other world; in which

"Scho wanderit, and zeid by, to an ELRICHE well."

??????????? In the Glossary to G. Douglas, ELRICHE, &c. is explained by "wild, hideous: Lat. truximmanis;" but it seems to imply somewhat more, as in Allan Ramsay Glossaries.

5. FITTS, i.e. "divisions or parts in music," are alluded to in Troilus and Cressida, act 3, sc.1. See Mr. Steevens's note.

6. So in Shakspeare's King Henry V. act 3, sc. Viii., the King says;

"My army's but a weak and sickly guard;
Yet GOD BEFORE, tell him we will come on."

7. GROWTE is a kind of fare much used by Danish sailors, being boiled groats (i.e. hulled oats), or else shelled barley, boiled up very thick, and butter added to it. (Mr. Lambe.)

8. "Germanis Camp., Exercitum, aut Locum ubi Exercitus castrametatur, significant: inde ipsis Vir Castrensis et Militaris kemffer, et kempher, et kemper, et kimber, et kamper, pro varietate dialectorum, vocatur; Vocabulum hoc nostro sermone nondum penitus exolevit; Norfolcienses enim plebeio et proletario sermone dicunt, 'He is a kemper old man,' i.e. 'Senex vegetus est;' hic Cimbris suum nomen; 'kimber enim homo bellicosus, pugil, robustus miles &c. significat.'" Sheringham de Anglor. gentis orig. p. 57. Rectius autem lazius (apud eundem, p. 49.) "Cimbros a bello quod kamff, et Saxonice kamp nuncupatos crediderim; ende bellatores viri Die Kempffer, Die Kemper."

9. Bale, in his Actes of English Votaries, (2d Part, fol. 53) uses the word Kyrtle, to signify a monk's frock. He says Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury, when he was dying, sent "to Clunyake, in France, for the KYRTLE of holy Hugh, the abbot there," &c.

10. The adverbial terminations -SOME and -LY, were applied indifferently by our old writers: thus, as we have lothly for loathsome above; so we have ugsome, in a sense not very remote from ugly, in Lord SURREY's version of ?neid II. viz.

"In every place the ugsome sightes I saw." P. 29.

11. As the words MAKE and MATE were, in some cases, used promiscuously by ancient writers, so the words CAKE and CATE seem to have been applied with the same indiferency: this will illustrate that common English proverb, "To turn cat (i.e. CATE) in pan." A PAN-CAKE is in Northamptonshire still called a PAN-CATE.

12. On the top of Catharine-hill, Winchester (the usual play-place of the school), was a very perplexed and winding path, running in a very small space over a great deal of ground, called a miz-maze. The senior boys obliged the juniors to tread it, to prevent the figure from being lost, as I am informed by an ingenious correspondent.

13. So in an old "Treatyse agaynst Pestilence," &c. 4to. Empryntedby Wynkyn de Worde:" we are exhorted to "SPERE [i.e. shut or bar] the wyndowes ayenst the south." fol. 5.

14. So CHAUCER, in his Rhyme of Sir Thopas:

--"He soughte north and south,

And oft he SPIRED with his mouth."

i.e. 'inquired.' Not SPIED, as in the Canterbury Tales, vol. ii. p. 234.

15. The ROCK, SPINDLES, and WHORLES, are very much used in Scotland and the northern parts of Northumberland at this time. The thread for shoe-makers, and even some linen-webs, and all the twine of which the Tweed salmon-nets are made, are spun upon SPINDLES. They are said to make a more even and smooth thread than spinning-wheels.

16. The old French Romancers, who had corrupted TERMAGANT into TERVAGANT, couple it with the name of MAHOMET as constantly as ours; thus in the old 'Roman de Blanchardin,

"Cy guerpison tuit Apolin,
Et Mahomet et

??????????? Hence Fontaine, with great humour, in his Tale, intituled, La Fianc?e du Roy de Garbe, says,

"Et reniant Mahom, Jupin, et TERVAGANT,
Avec maint autre Dieu non morns extravagant."
Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscript. tom. xx. 4to. p. 352.

??????????? As Termagant is evidently of Anglo-Saxon derivation, and can only be explained from the elements of that language, its being corrupted by the old French Romancers proves that they borrowed some things from ours.

17. "Toofall of the night," seems to be an image drawn from a suspended canopy, so let fall as to cover what is below.-- (Mr. Lambe.)

18. Taylor, in his 'History of Gavel-kind,' ?p. 49, says, "Bright; from word Brith, which signifies their wadde-colour; this was a light blue."-- Minshew's Dictionary.



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