230. TRIAL AND IMPRISONMENT OF EDMUND BONNER.
And thus much hitherto having discoursed touching the manifold troubles and tumults raised up on every side against King Edward by his unkind and unnatural subjects, and yet, notwithstanding, the gracious goodness of the Lord ever giving him the victory; now let us return again to Bonner, bishop of London, where we left him before, that is, in his own house, where he was by the council commanded to remain, as is above signified.
And now, forasmuch as we have to enter into the story of the said Bonner, for the better understanding of the whole order thereof, it shall be requisite to rip up and declare the matter, with the circumstances and occasions thereof, from the first beginning of King Edward's time. Where is to be understood, that King Edward, in the first year of his reign, A. D. 1547, the first day of September, for the order of his visitations, directed out certain commissioners, as Sir Anthony Cook, and Sir John Godsalve, knights, John Godsalve and Christopher Nevinson, doctors of the law, and John Madew, doctor of divinity; who, sitting in Paul's church upon their commission, the day and year aforesaid, there being present at the same time, Edmund, bishop of London, John Royston, Polydore Virgil, Peter Van, and others of the said cathedral church, after the sermon made, and the commission being read, ministered an oath unto the said bishop of London, to renounce and deny the bishop of Rome with his usurped authority, and to swear obedience unto the king, according to the effect and form of the statute made in the thirty-first year of King Henry the Eighth; also, that he should present and redress all and singular such things as were needful within the said church to be reformed.
Whereupon the said bishop humbly and instantly desired them that he might see their commission, only for this purpose and intent, (as he said,) that he might the better fulfil and put in execution the things wherein he was charged by them or their commission: unto whom the commissioners, answering, said, they would deliberate more upon the matter. And so they called the other ministers of the said church before them, and ministered the like oath unto them, as they did to the bishop before. To whom moreover, there and then, certain interrogatories and articles of inquisition were read by Peter Lilly the public notary. Which done, after their oaths taken, the said commissioners delivered unto the bishop aforesaid, certain injunctions, as well in print as written, and homilies set forth by the king; all which things the said bishop received, under the words of this protestation, as followeth
"I do receive these injunctions and homilies with this protestation, that I will observe them, if they be not contrary and repugnant to God's law and the statutes and ordinances of the church."
And immediately he added, with an oath, that he never read the said homilies and injunctions. The which protestation being made in manner and form aforesaid, the said Edmund Bonner bishop of London instantly desired and required Peter Lilly, the registrar aforesaid, there and then to register and enact the same. And so the said commissioners, delivering the injunctions and homilies to Master Bellassere, archdeacon of Colchester, and Gilbert Bourn, archdeacon of London, Essex, and Middlesex; and enjoining them, in most effectuous manner, under pains therein contained, to put the same in speedy execution, and also reserving other new injunctions to be ministered afterwards, as well to the bishop, as to the archdeacons aforesaid, according as they should see cause, &c., did so continue the said visitation till three of the clock the same day in the afternoon.
At the which hour and place assigned, the commissioners being set, and the canons and priests of the said church appearing before them, and being examined upon virtue of their oath, for their doctrine and conversation of life, first one John Painter, one of the canons of the said cathedral church, there and then openly confessed, that he, viciously and carnally, had often the company of a certain married man's wife, whose name he denied to declare: in the which crime divers other canons and priests of the aforesaid church, confessed in like manner, and could not deny themselves to be culpable.
And then, after the commissioners aforesaid had delivered to Master Royston, prebendary, and to the proctor of the dean and of the chapter of the said cathedral church of St. Paul, the king's injunctions, and the book of homilies, enjoining them to see the execution thereof, under pain therein specified, they prorogued their said visitation until seven of the clock the next day following.
By this visitation, above specified, it appears, gentle reader, first how Bonner made his protestation after the receiving of the king's injunctions, and also how he required the same to be put in public record. Furthermore, thou hast to note the unchaste life and conversation of these popish votaries and priests of Paul's. Now, what followed after this protestation of the bishop made, remaineth further, in the sequel of the story, to be declared; wherein, first thou shalt understand that the said bishop, shortly after his protestation, whether for fear, or for conscience, repenting himself, went unto the king, where he submitted himself, and recanting his former protestation, craved pardon of the king for his inordinate demeanour toward his Grace's commissioners, in the former visitation: which pardon, notwithstanding it was granted unto him by the king for the acknowledging of his fault, yet for the evil example of the fact, it was thought good that he should be committed to the Fleet, as by the tenor of the council's letter sent to the commissioners may appear; which, together with the form also of the bishop's protestation and of his recantation, here under followeth.
"To our very loving friends, Sir Anthony Cook, knight, and the rest of the commissioners for the visitation at London, in haste.
"After our hearty commendation: This shall be to signify unto you, that we have received your letters, and in the same enclosed the copy of the protestation made by the bishop of London in the time of your visitation at Paul's: your wise proceedings wherein, and advertisements from you, we take in very thankful part towards us. And because the said bishop, who, being here before us, hath acknowledged his indiscreet demeanour, did at that time, at Paul's, require the registrar of your visitation to make record and entry of his protestation, and now, upon better consideration of his duty, maketh means to have the same revoked, as shall appear unto you by the true copy of his writings enclosed, the original whereof, remaining with us, he hath subscribed; we pray you to cause the registrar to make entry of this his revocation, according to the tenor of this his said writing: further signifying unto you, that in respect of his offence, and the evil ensample that might thereupon ensue, we have thought meet to send him to the prison of the Fleet, whither he hath been conveyed by Master Vice-chamberlain. And whereas sundry things for the king's Majesty's service do now occur here, which require the present attendance of you, Sir John Godsalve, as well for your office of the signet, as of the prothonotaryship, we pray you that, leaving the execution of the visitation to the rest of your colleagues, you make your repair hither with convenient diligence. Thus fare you right heartily well.
"From Hampton Court, the 12th of September 1547.
"Your assured loving friends,
William Saint John,
The form of Bonner's recantation.
"Whereas I, Edmund, bishop of London, at such time as I received the king's Majesty's injunctions and homilies of my most dread sovereign lord, at the hands of his Highness's visitors, did unadvisedly make such protestation as now, upon better consideration of my duty of obedience, and of the evil example that might ensue unto others thereof, appeareth to me neither reasonable, nor such as might well stand with the duty of an humble subject: forasmuch as the same protestation, at my request, was then, by the registrar of that visitation, enacted and put in record, I have thought it my duty not only to declare before your Lordships, that I do now, upon better consideration of my duty, renounce and revoke my said protestation; but also most humbly beseech your Lordships, that this my revocation of the same may be likewise put in the same records, for a perpetual memory of the truth; most humbly beseeching your good Lordships, both to take order that it may take effect, and also that my former and unadvised doings may be, by your good mediations, pardoned by the king's Majesty.
The registers of these affairs of Bonner's remain in the hands of Peter Lilly, then being registrar to the aforesaid commissioners.
Thus far thou hast heard, loving reader, first the popish protestation of Bonner; then how he, calling himself home again, solemnly recanted the same, requiring further the said his revocation to be committed to public record, for a perpetual remembrance. Also, how he, upon his humble submission, received his pardon of the king, and yet, for example' sake, was commanded to the Fleet; where he nevertheless did not long continue, but, according to the effect of the king's pardon before granted, was restored both to house and living again; which was in the first year of the king, A. D. 1547.
After this ye have heard also, in the story above, in the second year, and a great part of the third year of the king, how he demeaned himself, although not most forward in advancing the king's proceedings, yet in such sort, as no great advantage by any law could be taken against him, both in swearing his obedience to the king, and so receiving his injunctions; also in confessing his assent and consent touching the state of religion then; and, furthermore, in directing out his letters, according to the archbishop of Canterbury's precepts, to Cloney his sumner, to the bishop of Westminster, and to other bishops, for abolishing of images, for abrogation of the mass, for Bibles to be set up, and for ministering in both kinds, with such other like matters of reformation; till at length he, hearing of the death of the lord admiral, the lord protector's brother, and after that of the stirring and rising of the king's subjects in sundry tumults against the king, began somewhat, as he durst, to draw back and slack his pastoral diligence, so that in many places of his diocese, and in London, the people not only were negligent in resorting to Divine service, but also did frequent and haunt foreign rites of masses, and other orders than in this realm were appointed; and he also himself, contrary to his wonted manner, upon principal feasts refused in his own person to execute. Whereupon he, being suspected and complained of, and convented before the king's council, (as ye heard before,) after sharp admonitions and reproofs, had certain private injunctions to him enjoined.
"1. That he should personally preach within three weeks after at Paul's Cross.
"2. That according as his predecessors were wont to celebrate mass, he at such wonted times should execute and administer the communion.
"3. That he should call before him and correct more diligently such transgressors as absented themselves from the order of service, and ministration of the Lord's board, appointed then in churches by the king's ordinance.
"4. That he should see more carefully and vigilantly to the punishment of adulterers and fornicators.
"5. That he, in the mean while, should be resident within his own house during the time while he should make his sermon at Paul's above mentioned, which was A. D. 1549."
In the which sermon certain special points were prefixed unto him, whereupon he should treat; which here in order follow, and are these:
Special points and articles to be treated of by Bonner, bishop of London, in his sermon.
"1. That all such as rebel against their prince, get unto them damnation, and those that resist the higher power, resist the ordinances of God; and he that dieth therefore in rebellion, by the word of God is utterly damned, and so loseth both body and soul. And therefore those rebels in Devonshire and Cornwall, in Norfolk, or elsewhere, who take upon them to assemble a power and force against their king and prince, against the laws and statutes of the realm, and go about to subvert the state and order of the commonwealth, not only do deserve therefore death as traitors and rebels, but do accumulate to themselves eternal damnation, even to be in the burning fire of hell with Lucifer, the father and first author of pride, disobedience, and rebellion, what pretences soever they have, and what masses or holy water soever they pretend, or go about to make among themselves; as Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, for rebellion against Moses, were swallowed down alive into hell, although they pretended to sacrifice unto God.
"2. Likewise, in the order of the church, and extern rites and ceremonies of Divine service, forasmuch as God requireth humility of heart, innocency of living, knowledge of him, charity and love towards our neighbours, and obedience to his word and to his ministers and superior powers, these we must bring to all our prayers, to all our service; and this is that sacrifice which Christ requireth, and these be those that make all things pleasant unto God. The extern rites and ceremonies be but exercises of our religion, and appointable by superior powers; in choosing whereof we must obey the magistrates; which things also we do see ever have been and shall be (as the time and place is) diverse, and yet all hath pleased God so long as these before spoken inward things be there. If any man shall use the old rites, and thereby disobey the superior power, the devotion of his ceremonies is made naught by his disobedience: so that which else (so long as the law did so stand) might be good, by pride and disobedience now is made naught: as Saul's sacrifice, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and Aaron's two children were. But whoso joineth to devotion obedience, he winneth the garland. For else it is a zeal, sed non secundum scientiam; a will, desire, zeal, and devotion, but not after wisdom; that is, a foolish devotion, which can require no thanks or praise. And yet again, where ye obey, ye must have devotion, for God requireth the heart more than the outward doings; and, therefore, he that taketh the communion, or saith or heareth the service appointed by the king's Majesty, must bring devotion and inward prayers with him, or else his prayers are but vain, lacking that which God requireth, that is, the heart and mind to pray to him.
"3. Further, ye shall, for example, on Sunday come seventh night, after the aforesaid date, celebrate the communion at Paul's church.
"4. Ye shall also set forth in your sermon, that. our authority of royal power is (as of truth it is) of no less authority and force in this our young age, than is or was that of any our predecessors, though the same were much older, as may appear by example of Josias, and other young kings, in Scripture; and therefore all our subjects to be no less bound to obedience of our precepts, laws, and statutes, than if we were of thirty or forty years of age."
The delivery of these injunctions and articles unto the bishop, (with the time of his appointed preaching,) was soon after known abroad among the citizens, and other the commons within the city of London, so that every man expected the time thereof, wishing to hear the same; which time being once come, the bishop, according to the tenor of the injunctions, publicly preached at the Cross of Paul's the first day of Septemiber. Howbeit, as hypocrisy never lurketh so secretly in the hearts of the wicked, but that, at one time or other, God, in his most righteous judgment, maketh it open unto the world; so, at this present, was that long, coloured, perverse obstinacy, and the infestered hatred of this double-faced dissembler against the king's godly proceedings, most plainly manifested by his disobedient demeanour in this his sermon. For, whereas he was commanded to treat only upon such special points as were mentioned in his articles, he yet, both besides the council's commandment, and to the withdrawing of the minds of the common people, as much as in him lay, from the right and true understanding of the holy sacrament, ministered in the holy communion then set forth by the authority of the king's Majesty, (according to the true sense of the Holy Scripture,) did spend most part of his sermon about the gross, carnal, and papistical presence of Christ's body and blood in the sacrament of the altar; and also, contrary thereunto, did not only slenderly touch the rest of his articles, but, of a rebellious and wilful carelessness, did utterly leave out unspoken the whole last article, concerning the as effectual and as lawful authority of the king's Highness during his young age, as if he were thirty or forty years old; notwithstanding the same (because it was the traitorous opinion of the popish rebels) was, by special commandment, chiefly appointed him to treat upon.
This contemptuous and disobedient dealing, as it greatly offended most of the king's faithful and loving subjects there present, so did it much mislike the minds, and was far from the good expectation, as well of that faithful and godly preacher Master John Hooper, afterwards bishop of Worcester and Gloucester, and lastly, a most constant martyr for the gospel of Christ, and also of Master Hugh Latimer, bachelor of divinity: and therefore they, well weighing the foulness of the fact, and their bounden allegiances unto their prince, did thereupon exhibit unto the king's Highness, under both their names, a bill of complaint or denunciation against the said bishop, in form following:
"In most humble wise show unto your Majesty Hugh Latimer and John Hooper, that whereas of late, as we be certainly informed from your Majesty, by the hand of the right high and noble Prince Edward, duke of Somerset, governor of your royal person, and protector of all your Highness's realms, dominions, and subjects, and the rest of your privy council, there were certain injunctions given to the bishop of London that now is, with articles to be insinuated and preached unto your subjects at a certain day limited, the which injunctions and articles did only tend to the honour of God, and the better instruction of your Highness's people to obedience, and hatred of rebellion and mutiny, wherewith of late this your Majesty's realm hath been marvellously vexed, to the danger of your Highness's person, and the state of the whole realm; and, therefore, a thing at this time most necessary to be taught unto the people, that they might know their duty unto your Majesty, and unto Almighty God; and especially to acknowledge your Majesty in these years and age to be a perfect high and sovereign lord and king, and supreme head, whose laws, proclamations, and commandments we are bound to obey, as well as any prince's subjects are bound to obey the laws, proclamations, and commandments of their natural and sovereign lord, notwithstanding that nature hath not yet given unto your person such age as, we trust, she shall, nor so many years, which we wish to be so many as any prince ever had, the which years do not make you king or prince, but the right of your birth, and lawful succession whatsoever it be, so that we all must as well acknowledge your Majesty to be our king and prince, at these years, as if you were at the age of thirty or forty years, and your laws and statutes no less to be feared and obeyed, than if your Highness were fifty or a hundred years old (the which thing not only is most certainly true, but also at this time most necessarily to be taught, especially when divers rebels have openly declared, that they would not obey your Highness's laws, nor acknowledge the statutes made by your Majesty to be available, till you come to the age of twenty years): and this not only being so, but the same thing being commanded by your said Majesty, amongst other injunctions and articles given in writing to the said Edmund Bonner, to be preached in his last sermon, as by the same injunctions may appear, of the which the true copy we have, when need is, to be showed: yet all this notwithstanding, the said Bonner, of what zeal or mind we cannot tell, whether favouring the opinion of the said rebels, or contemning your Highness's commandment declared unto him, hath not only left out to declare the said article, which we most and chiefly expected and looked for, but also, in all the rest of his sermon, did not so fully and apertly declare the said injunctions and articles, as to our judgment did appear they ought to have been declared, and was of no light ground looked for, entreating of others far distant and diverse from the articles upon the which he was commanded to entreat, and such as most should move and stir up the people to disorder and dissension; willingly leaving out those things which should have made quiet and obedience. Wherefore, not moved of any malice, grudge, envy, or evil will to the person of the bishop, but constrained by the love and zeal which we bear towards your Highness, and of our duty and allegiance to your Majesty, whose honour and safety, with tranquillity, quietness, and good governance of this your realm, we do most desire, and for the discharge of our most bounden duties, to avoid all the dangers that might ensue of the concealment thereof, we most humbly do declare the same to your Highness, to the intent that your Majesty, by the advice aforesaid, may, if it please your Highness, at this our humble denunciation, call the said bishop to answer to the premises, the which we are ready to avow and prove; and then your Highness may take further order herein, as to your princely wisdom shall seem most convenient, whose long life and most prosperous government God Almighty long continue, for the which we shall pray during our lives."
The king's Majesty having thus, by the information of these two credible persons, perfect intelligence of the contemptuous and perverse negligence of this bishop, in not accomplishing his Highness's commandment given him by injunction, thought it most necessary, with all convenient speed, (for the avoiding of further inconveniences,) to look more severely unto the due punishment of such dangerous, rebellious obstinacy; and, therefore, by the advice of the lord protector, and the rest of his honourable council, immediately he directed forth his commission under his broad seal unto the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Rochester, and to other grave and trusty personages and councillors, appointing and authorizing all them, or certain of them, by virtue of the same, to call before them, as well the bishop of London, as also the aforesaid denouncers, and upon due examination and proof of the premises, or any other matter otherwise to be objected, further to proceed against him summarily et de plano, according to law and justice,either to suspension, excommunication, committing to prison, or deprivation (if the quality of the offence so required): or otherwise, to use any other censure ecclesiastical, which, for the better hearing and determining of that cause, might to their wisdoms seem more pertinent, as appeareth more amply by the tenor of the commission here ensuing.
"Edward the Sixth, &c. To the most reverend father in God, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, metropolitan and primate of England, the right reverend father in God, Nicholas bishop of Rochester, our trusty and right well-beloved councillors, Sir William Peter and Sir Thomas Smith, knights, our two principal secretaries, and William May, doctor of the law civil, and dean of Paul's, greeting: It is come to our knowledge, that where we, by the advice of our most entirely beloved uncle Edward, duke of Somerset, governor of our person, and protector of all our realms, dominions, and subjects, and the rest of our privy council, did give to the right reverend father in God Edmund, bishop of London, upon certain complaints before made unto us, and other great considerations, certain injunctions to be followed, done, and executed; and, in a sermon appointed to him to preach by us with certain articles, and for the more sure knowledge, keeping, and observing, did exhibit the same in writing unto him by the hands of our said uncle, in the fulfilling of our council: all this notwithstanding, the said bishop hath, in contempt of us, (as it may appear,) overslipped and not observed certain of the said things so by us enjoined, and others so perversely and negligently done, that the things minded of us to reformation, and for a good quiet of our subjects and our whole realm, be converted, by the wilful negligence or perversity of him, to a great occasion of slander, tumult, and grudge amongst our people, as it hath been denounced to us in writing by certain honest and discreet persons, and otherwise called. The which things if they be so, we, tendering the health, quietness, good order, and government of our people, have not thought convenient to be let past unpunished and unreformed, and therefore, by the advice aforesaid, have appointed you five, four, or three, upon whose fidelities, wisdoms, dexterities, and circumspections, we have full confidence, to call before you as well the denouncers of the said faults, as also the said bishop; and, with due examinations and process, according to the law and justice, to hear the said matter, and all other matters, of what kind, nature, or condition soever they shall be, that shall be objected against the said bishop, summarily, et de plano or otherwise, as to your discretions shall be thought most meet, with full power and authority to suspend, excommunicate, commit to prison, or deprive the said bishop, if the offence shall so appear to merit, or to use any other censure ecclesiastical, which, for the better hearing and determining of the cause shall he requisite and appertain: any law, statute, or act to the contrary notwithstanding. In witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents.
"Witness ourself at Westminster, the eighth of September, in the third year of our reign.
The commission, being sealed with the king's broad seal, was by his Highness's council forthwith delivered at the court unto Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, and the rest of the commissioners mentioned in the same, being there all together present; who, upon the receipt thereof, determined, by virtue of the same, to sit at the archbishop's house at Lambeth, the Wednesday then next ensuing, which was the tenth day of that present month of September, and therefore appointed the bishop of London to be summoned to appear before them, as at that time and place. The manner of whose behaviour at his appearance, because it both declareth the froward nature and stubborn condition of the person, and also what estimation and authority he thought the commissioners to be of, I thought it not unmeet first, before I enter into the process, somewhat to note and describe unto you.
At his first entry into the place within the archbishop's house at Lambeth, where the archbishop and others of the commissioners sat, he passed forth directly by them with his cap upon his head, (making as though he saw them not,) until one plucked him by the sleeve, willing him to do reverence unto the commissioners: whereat he laughingly turned himself, and spake unto the archbishop on this wise: "What, my Lord! are you here? by my troth I saw you not." "No," said the archbishop, "you would not see." "Well," quoth he, "you sent for me: have you any thing to say to me?" "Yea," said the commissioners, "we have here authority from the king's Highness to call you to an account for your sermon you made lately at Paul's Cross, for that you did not there publish to the people the article which you were commanded then to preach upon." At which words the bishop, either for that he did not greatly delight to hear of this matter, or else because he would make his friends believe that he was called to account only for his opinion in religion, (as afterwards in the sequel of this process it more plainly appeareth,) began to turn his talk unto other matters, and said unto the archbishop, "In good faith, my Lord, I would one thing were had in more reverence than it is." "What is it?" said the archbishop. "The blessed mass," quoth he: "you have written very well of the sacrament; I marvel you do no more honour it." The archbishop of Canterbury, therewith perceiving his subtlety, and seeing his gross blindness, to commend that which was utterly contrary to his opinion, said unto him again: "If you think it well, it is because you understand it not." The other then, adding unto his former gross ignorance an obstinate impudency, answered, "I think I understand it better than you that wrote it." Unto which words the archbishop replied, "Truly I will easily make a child that is but ten years old to understand therein as much as you. But what is this to the matter?"
Moreover, at what time as they began to enter the judicial prosecuting of their commission, and had called forth the denouncers to propound such matter as they had to object against him, he, hearing them speak, fell to scorning and taunting of them, saying to the one, that he spake like a goose; and to the other, that he spake like a woodcock; utterly denying their accusations to be true. Whereupon the archbishop seeing his peevish malice against the denouncers, asked him, if he would not believe them, whether he would credit the people there present? and therewithal (because many of them were also at the bishop's sermon at Paul's) he stood up and read the article of the king's authority during his young age; saying unto them, "How say you, my Masters! did my Lord of London preach this article?" whereunto they answered, "No, no." At which words the bishop turning himself about, deriding said, "Will you believe this fond people?"
Besides this, at all his appearings he used many irreverent, uncomely, obstinate, and froward words and behaviours towards the commissioners and others, (in defacing their authority with the terms of pretended commissioners, pretended witnesses, and unjust, unlawful, and pretended proceedings, with recusation of some, and terming others daws, woodcocks, fools, and such like,) which I will here omit, for they do more manifestly appear in the sequel of the story in the time and place as they happened; adding yet this much by the way, that although such stoutness of heart and will, if it had been in a cause true and rightful, might have perchance seemed, in some men's judgment, to be somewhat sufferable, yet, to say the truth, in what case soever it be, being immoderate, as this shall appear, it beseemed no wise man, and therefore much less one of his calling. For, if his cause had been good, why did he not take the wrong patiently and meekly, as the true canon law of the gospel doth teach him? If it were (as it was indeed) naught and wrong, whereto served so bold sturdy stoutness, but to show the impudency of the person, and to make the case worse, which was bad enough before? But belike he was disposed to declare, if need were, what he was able to do in the law, in shifting off the matter by subtle dilatories, and frivolous cavilling about the law. And if that would not help, yet with facing and bracing, and railing upon the denouncers with furious words, and irreverent behaviour toward the king's commissioners, he thought to countenance out the matter before the people, that something might seem yet to be in him, whatsoever was in the cause. For to conclude, for all his crafty cautels and tergiversations alleged out of the law, yet neither his cause could be so defended, nor his behaviour so excused, but that he was therefore both justly imprisoned, and also, in the end, most lawfully deprived; as by the sequel of this process may well appear, the manner whereof is as followeth.
The first action or session against Bonner, before the king's commissioners.
Upon Wednesday, the tenth day of September, in the year of our Lord 1549, and in the third year of the reign of King Edward the Sixth, Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, metropolitan and primate of all England, associated with Nicholas Ridley, then bishop of Rochester, Sir William Peter, knight, one of the king's two principal secretaries, and Master William May, doctor of the civil law, and dean of Paul's, by virtue of the king's commission, sat judicially upon the examination of Edmund Bonner, bishop of London, within the archbishop's chamber of presence, at his house in Lambeth, before whom there then also personally appeared the said bishop. At which time the commissioners, first showing forth their commission, requested Sir William Peter, that he would openly publish and read the same. That done, the archbishop, in the name of the rest, declared unto the bishop, that a grievous complaint had been heretofore made and exhibited against him in writing, unto the king's Majesty and his most honourable council, and that therefore his Highness, with their advice, had committed the examination thereof unto him, and other his colleagues there present; as also, unto Sir Thomas Smith, knight, the other of his Majesty's two principal secretaries, though then absent: and therewithal showed also forth a bill of complaint, exhibited unto the king by Hugh Latimer and John Hooper, ministers; which they likewise requested Sir William Peter to read.
These things ended, the bishop, like a subtle lawyer, having most like some secret intelligence before of these matters, (whatsoever he pretended to the contrary,) pulled out of his bosom a solemn protestation ready written, which he then exhibited unto the commissioners, requesting that the same might he there openly read.
This protestation being read, he requested the commissioners that he might have the bill of complaint delivered him; which when he had well perused, he said, that the same was very general, and so general as that he could not directly answer thereunto. Whereunto the archbishop answered, that the special cause of the complaint against him was, for that he had transgressed the king's commandment, given unto him by his council, in that he, in his late sermon made at Paul's Cross, did not set forth unto the people the king's Highness's royal power in his minority, according to the tenor of the article delivered unto him by them for that purpose; and for proof thereof called forth Hugh Latimer and John Hooper, preachers, who before that time had put up the bill of complaint unto the king against him.
Upon whom when the bishop had earnestly looked, and well beheld them, he said, "As for this merchant Latimer, I know him very well, and have borne with him, and winked at his doings a great while, but I have more to say to him hereafter. But as touching this other merchant Hooper, I have not seen him before, howbeit I have heard much of his naughty preaching." And then, turning himself again unto the archbishop, (of purpose, most like, to make his friends think that he was not called thither to answer for his contemptuous disobedience, but for matters of religion,) said unto him, "Ah, my lord! now I see that the cause of my trouble is not for the matter that you pretend against me, but it is for that I did preach and set forth in my late sermon the true presence of the most blessed body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ to be in the sacrament of the altar. For as for these my accusers, as they be evil, infamed, notorious, and crimiminous persons, so are they manifest and notable heretics and seducers of the people, especially touching the sacrament of the altar; and most of all this Hooper. For whereas, in my late sermon at Paul's Cross, I preached, that in the blessed sacrament of the altar, after the words of consecration, there is the true body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, the selfsame in substance that was hanged and shed upon the cross, he, the same day at afternoon, having a great rabblement with him of his damnable sect, openly in the pulpit, within my diocese, did preach erroneously to the people against it; and maliciously inveighing against my sermon, denied the verity and presence of Christ's true body and blood to be in the same sacrament, and also falsely and untruly interpreted and expounded my words. And especially, where I preached and affirmed the very true body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ to be in the said sacrament, the selfsame in substance that was hanged and shed upon the cross, he, like an ass, (as he is an ass indeed,) falsely changed and turned the word 'that' into 'as,' like an ass, saying, that I had said as it hanged, as it was shed upon the cross."
The archbishop hereupon, perceiving the bishop's drift, and hearing him talk so much of the presence of Christ's body and blood in the sacrament, said unto him, "My Lord of London! ye speak much of a presence in the sacrament; what presence is there, and of what presence do you mean?" Wherewith the bishop, being somewhat stirred and moved in his mind, (as appeared by his choleric countenance,) spake again to the archbishop very earnestly, and said, "What presence, my Lord? I say and believe that there is the very true presence of the body and blood of Christ. What believe you, and how do you believe, my Lord?" Upon which words the archbishop, because he saw his answer dark and subtle, and minding somewhat to nip the gross absurdities of the papists, asked him further, whether he were there, face, nose, mouth, eyes, arms, and lips, with other lineaments of his body? Whereat the bishop shaking his head, said, "Oh! I am right sorry to hear your Grace speak these words;" and therewith boldly urged the archbishop to show his mind therein; who wisely weighing the fond presumption of the party, with the place and occasion of their assembly, refused then so to do, saying, that their being there at that time was, not to dispute of those matters, but to prosecute their commission committed to them by their prince; and therefore willed him to answer them unto such things as were objected against him.
Whereupon, under his protestation, he required to have a copy both of the commission, and also of the denunciation given unto him, with time to answer thereto; which the commissioners willingly granted, assigning him there to appear again before them upon Friday then next following, at eight o'clock before noon; and then to answer the tenor of the denunciation. And so, for that day, (he complaining somewhat of the shortness of his time to answer,) they all together departed.
The second appearance of Bonner in the chapel of Lambeth, before the archbishop and other four commissioners, the bishop of Rochester, secretary Peter, secretary Smith, and the dean of Paul's.
Upon Friday, the thirteenth of September afore-named, four commissioners, associated then also with Sir Thomas Smith, knight, the other of the king's two principal secretaries, and joint commissioner with them, sat judicially in the archbishop's chapel, within his house at Lambeth; before whom (according to their former assignment) there and then appeared the bishop of London. To whom the archbishop, in the name of the rest, first said, "My Lord of London! the last time you were before us, we laid certain articles and matter to your charge touching your disobedience to the kings Majesty, and you have this day to make your answer thereunto: wherefore now show us what you have to say for your defence."
Whereto the bishop, first asking the archbishop if he had all said and done, and he again saying "Yea," made this answer: "My Lord, the last day that I appeared before you, I remember there sat in the kings Majesty's commission, your Grace, you my Lord of Rochester, you Master Secretary Peter, and you Master Dean of Paul's; hut now, I perceive, there sitteth also Master Secretary Smith, who, because he sat not at the beginning, nor took there the commission upon him, ought not so to do: for by the law, they that begin, must continue the commission." Whereupon the archbishop first answered, that he was no lawyer, and therefore could not certainly show what the law willeth in that case; "But," saith he,"if the law be so indeed, surely I take it to be an unreasonable law." "Well," said the bishop, "there be here that know the law, and yet I say not this to the intent to stand or stick much in this point with you, but to tell it you as it were by the way; for I have here mine answer ready."
Then said Master Secretary Peter to the bishop, "My Lord! in good sooth I must say unto you, that although I have professed the law, yet, by discontinuance and disuse thereof, and having been occupied a long time in other matters from study of the law, I have perhaps forgotten what the law will do precisely in this point. But, admit the law were so as you say, yet yourself know, my Lord, that this is our certain rule in law, quad consuetudo eat juris interpres optimus: and I am sure you will not, and cannot deny, but that the custom is commonly in this realm in all judgments and commissions used to the contrary; and, in very deed, we all together at the court, having the commission presented unto us, took it upon us; and therefore, for you to stick in such trifling matters, you shall rather in my judgment hurt yourself and your matter, than otherwise."
"Truly, Master Secretary!" said the bishop, "I have also of long while been disused in the study of law, but having occasion, partly by reason of this matter, to turn my books, I find the law to be as I say; and yet, as I said, I tell you hereof but by the way, not minding to stick much with you in that point."
At which words, Master Secretary Smith said also unto the bishop, "Well, my Lord of London! as cunning as you make yourself in the law, there be here that know the law as well as you: and for my part I have studied the law too, and I promise you these be but quiddities and quirks invented to delay matters, but our commission is to proceed summarily, and straitforwardly, and to cut off such frivolous allegations."
"Well," said the bishop again, "look well on your commission, and you shall find therein these words, 'To proceed according to the law and justice;' and I ask both law and justice at your hands."
Then Master Secretary Peter willed him to stand no more thereupon, but to proceed unto his answer: whereupon he took forth a writing, wherein was contained his answer to the denunciation exhibited the day before by Latimer and Hooper, and delivering it untothe archbishop, said, that it was of his own hand-writing, and for lack of sufficient time written so hastily and coarsely, that it could scarcely be read by any other, and therefore he desired to read it himself; and so taking it again, read it openly, the copy whereof here followeth:
"I Edmund, bishop of London, concerning Hugh Latimer, and John Hooper, the pretended denunciators of this matter here now before you, and for answer unto the unlawful, untrue, and uncharitable, pretended denunciation of them, lately indeed, contrary to justice and good reason, exhibited here and read before you, under protestation heretofore made by me, and read unto you, remaining in the acts of this court, unto which I refer me, and have the same here again for repeated and rehearsed to all purposes agreeable to the law, do, for my necessary defence and help, allege and say as followeth:
"I. First, I do allege and say, that the said Hugh Latimer, and John Hooper, or either of them, were not, nor now are, to be admitted in any wise, by virtue of this or any other commission, as denunciators against me their bishop; especially, for that they and either of them have, as well before the time of their pretended denunciation, and also then and since, been and be, vile and infamed, notorious,criminous persons, and also open and manifest notable heretics, especially concerning the sacrament of the catholic church, and namely concerning the blessed sacrament of the altar; by reason of which their heresies, they were and be, by the order of the said catholic church, here in this realm of England, justly and duly excommunicated and accursed, and have divided themselves thereby from the unity and integrity of Christ's catholic church; and for such persons they have been and are named, reputed, and taken openly, notoriously, and commonly, amongst the catholic people of this realm of England, and especially of this city of London; familiarly haunting and conversant with sacramentaries, and openly known condemned heretics, and favourers and abettors of the same, and their detestable and pestilent doctrine and heresy.
"II. Item, That the said John Hooper, amongst other his poisoned and venomous doctrine, and amongst other his erroneous, detestable, and abominable errors and heresies taught and spread abroad here within this realm, infecting and poisoning the king's subjects therewith, hath, before the time of the said pretended denunciation, damnably and detestably made divers erroneous and heretical books, especially one, entitled, A Declaration of Christ, and of his Office, printed (as he falsely surmiseth) in Zurich, by Augustine Friars, wherein he, in many places, heretically and damnably denieth the true presence of Christ's body in the blessed sacrament of the altar, and also, in effect, denieth the verity of Christ's blessed body upon the cross, calling it 'mathematical,' and excluding thereby the true and very substance thereof.
"III. Item, The said John Hooper doth persevere, and continueth still, in his said poisoned and wicked venomous doctrine, in all points maintaining and defending the same, and every part thereof, all the ways he can, especially against the presence of Christ's blessed body in the sacrament of the altar; and his said books, especially the said Declaration of Christ and of his Office, he doth yet allow and maintain as good and catholic, whereas indeed it is heretical, wicked, and damnable: the contents of which doctrine and book so entitled, the said Latimer, especially touching the heresy against the verity of Christ's body, and his true presence in the sacrament of the altar, hath heard, taught, read, preached, believed, holden, maintained, and kept; and so, at this present, doth yet believe, hold, maintain, and keep; contrary to the faith of Christ's catholic church, and the unity of the same observed amongst all true Christian people; incurring thereby heresy, excommunication, and schism, to the loss both of their souls, and of their believers'.
"IV. Item, That the said Latimer and Hooper, and either of them, being of these vile and detestable qualities, and consequently, by the ordinance of the catholic church of Christ, as well of this realm, as also throughout all Christendom, being so excommunicated and cast out thereby from the said church, are not to this pretended denunciation against me their bishop, nor to any judicial act, to be admitted, nor yet to be accompanied withal, or answered unto; but are, by Scripture, and the order of Christ's catholic church here in this realm, utterly and truly to be excluded, avoided, detested, eschewed, and abhorred, in all manner of wise, of all faithful and true Christian people, fearing God, and desiring the advancement of the truth.
"V. Item, That whereas the said Latimer and Hooper, in their said pretended denunciation, amongst other things, do untruly deduce that they have made their said pretended denunciation, not moved of any malice or evil will, but for the good tranquillity and governance of this realm, which, as they pretend in their gay and glorious proem, they would seem to have a great care and solicitude of, whereas in very deed they, and such as they are, by sundry ways, and especially by their corrupt doctrine, and heretical, naughty preaching, and infecting of the king's Majesty's people, have disturbed and greatly inquieted the good tranquillity and governance of this realm, as evidently and notoriously it is well known; the truth is, that this their saying is evidently and plainly false; for notorious it is, and lawfully shall be proved, that the said Hooper, conspiring with the said Latimer, and other heretics of their factious sect and damnable opinion, did, the first day of September last past, after that I, the said bishop of London, had made the sermon at Paul's Cross, assemble maliciously, uncharitably, and unlawfully, a great rabblement of such as himself is, within my diocese and jurisdiction, and, under the colour of reading, did openly and manifestly rail and inveigh against me the said bishop, for my said sermon; not for such matter, pretence, or cause, as is falsely and untruly surmised in the said pretended denunciation, but only and chiefly for that I, the said bishop, as became a Christian man, and especially him that had and hath cure and charge of his flock, faithfully and truly to teach them, did, taking occasion of the communion not frequented nor reverenced, but neglected and contemned, confess and declare my faith and belief openly before my audience, touching the blessed sacrament of the altar, ministered in the same communion, affirming, as the catholic church affirmeth and teacheth, that in the blessed sacrament of the altar there is the very true body of our Saviour Christ, the selfsame in substance that hanged upon the cross,and the very true blood of our Saviour Christ, the selfsame in substance that was shed upon the cross. Against which affirmation and assertion, being catholic and true, the said John Hooper (albeit now colourably, and falsely, and foolishly, he pretendeth another matter more plausible in his opinion and judgment in sundry places of the city and suburbs of London) hath since that time maliciously inveighed and taught, learning and teaching his audience heretically (being many in number, and assembling in great routs) to reprove, contemn, and despise the said blessed sacrament of the altar, and not to have a true and faithful belief of it, as hitherto always the catholic church hath ever had, the said William Latimer, and the rabblement of his complices, conspiring and agreeing in points therein, and inducing others to do the same; not making any such pretence at all (as they, in their said pretended denunciation, do falsely surmise and deduce); but only and chiefly offended for my said assertion, and affirmation of the verity of Christ's body and blood in the sacrament of the altar.
"Item, That whereas the said Hugh Latimer and John Hooper, in their said pretended denunciation, do further deduce, and falsely surmise, that I, the said bishop of London, had delivered to me from the king's Majesty, by the hands of the lord protector's Grace, and the rest of the king's Majesty's council, certain injunctions with articles to be insinuated and preached to the king's Majesty's subjects, at a certain day limited, and after such sort, form, and manner, as is in the said pretended denunciation surmised untruly and deduced: it is notorious and evident, as well by the tenor and continue of that writing which was to me, the said bishop of London, delivered by the hands of Sir Thomas Smith, knight, one of the two principal secretaries to the king's Majesty, as otherwise, that the said surmise, in such sort and fashion as it is deduced and made, is not true in this behalf, referring me to the tenor of the said writing, which neither was signed with the king's Majesty's hand, nor sealed with any his Majesty's seal or signet, nor yet subscribed by any of the said council, or delivered after such sort as is alleged and pretended, as more evidently hereafter shall appear, and sufficiently be proved, for my lawful necessary defence in this behalf.
"VI. Item, That in case any such injunctions, with articles after such form and fashion, had been so delivered unto me as is surmised and pretended, yet false and untrue it is that I, the said bishop, either left out, or refused to declare the same for any such cause or causes falsely and untruly surmised in the said pretended denunciation, or else so perversely and negligently did, as likewise in the said pretended denunciation is deduced; which thing may well appear in the discourse of my said sermon, where, in substance and effect, I declared faithfully and truly these points specially following; that is to wit, that all such as rebel against their prince, get unto them damnation, and those that refuse the higher power resist the ordinance of God; and he that dieth therefore in rebellion, is by the word of God utterly damned, and so loseth both body and soul, alleging for this purpose the 13th chapter of St. Paul to the Romans, and it at large declaring unto the audience. Furthermore, speaking of the rebels in Devonshire, Cornwall, Norfolk, and elsewhere within this realm; standing in doubt whether I might put them in the place of those that put trust in themselves and despised all others, or in the place of both, doing as they did; forgetting God, not duly considering the king's Majesty, their supreme head next and immediately under God; forgetting their wives, their children, their kinsfolk, their alliance, acquaintance, and friends, yea, themselves, and their native country, and most unnaturally rebelling against their sovereign lord and king, whom, by God's law they were bound to love, serve, and faithfully obey; I did, to the best of my power, dissuade rebellion, and exhort the audience unto true obedience being thus commanded: And all rebellion being, in like manner, forbidden, under pain of eternal damnation, all these rebels in Cornwall, Devonshire, Norfolk, or elsewhere, who take upon them to assemble a power or force against their king and prince, against the laws and statutes of the realm, and went about to subvert the order of the commonwealth, did not only deserve therefore death, as rebels and traitors, but also did accumulate unto themselves eternal damnation, even to be in the burning fire of hell, with Lucifer, the father and first author of pride, disobedience, and rebellion.
"And here I did ask, who had induced the said rebels thus to do? To which I answered by another question, demanding who moved and induced Eve to take the apple and break her obedience against God's commandment? who moved also and induced Cain to kill his brother Abel? yea, who moved Judas the apostle to betray his Master, Christ? Was it not the devil? Yes truly, and he it is (said I) that of his great malice and hatred to men and good order hath moved and induced these rebels to do this unnatural rebellion against their prince and sovereign lord. Whereupon I asked, what pretences they had, and, answering thereto, said, that amongst others they had masses and holy water; upon which I, exclaiming against them, said, Good Lord! is not this a marvellous thing, to palliate,colour, excuse, and maintain rebellion and inobedience, to pretend mass or holy water? as who saith that these things had been instituted and ordained to defend, maintain, and excuse rebellion, treason, and inobedience; which I told the audience they could not do. And thereupon I brought four texts of Scripture to prove this thing that I said, alleging Numbers xvi.; 1 Kings xx.; Leviticus x., and the fourth, that myself added also, St. Luke xiii., setting them forth the best I could, as one not much exercised in preaching, but restrained therefrom. And here I concluded, that whatsoever pretences these rebels had of masses, holy water, or such other, it could not in any wise excuse or defend their rebellion and inobedience, referring myself herein to the indifferent hearers in the said audience.
"And here, pulling out a writing, sent from the king's Majesty's privy council unto me, touching the victory against the said rebels, which for brevity of time my memory would not serve to declare without book, I did rehearse it in writing word by word; in doing whereof it well appeared, that I did not favour the opinion of the said rebels, or maintain their enterprise, but contrariwise did detest them and all their doings, declaring obedience to be better than sacrifice; and that in disobedience and rebellion nothing could or did please Almighty God. Further, taking occasion of the proud Pharisee and the humble Publican ascending into the temple to pray, and noting the outward and extern doing of them both, with the success thereof, I declared to the audience touching the order of the church and the extern rites and ceremonies of the divine service, that forasmuch as God requireth humility of heart, innocency of living, knowledge of him, charity and love to our neighbour, and obedience to his word, to his ministers, and to the superior powers, we must bring all these things to all our prayers, to all our service; and that this is the sacrifice that Christ requireth, and that these be the things that make all other things pleasant to Almighty God: further saying, that the extern rites are but exercises of religion, and appointed by superior powers, and that in the choosing thereof we must obey the magistrates, and that we also do see that those things ever have been, and shall be, diverse, as the time and place is; and yet all hath pleased God, so long as humility of heart, innocency of living, knowing of God, charity and love to our neighbour, with obedience to God's word, God's ministers, and the superior powers, are concurrent and present therewith.
"VII. Moreover, I then said, that if any man should use rites, and disobey thereby the superior powers, the devotion of his ceremony was made evil by his disobedience; insomuch that that which (standing the law) might be good, was, by pride, disobedience, and rebellion, made evil and unprofitable; putting example in the fact of Saul, reserving the fat sheep for sacrifice; and in Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and also in Nadab and Abihu, Aaron's two children, and in the Galileans, whose blood Pilate did mix with their sacrifices. And thereupon I told the audience that they must do herein especially two things: the first, they must join to and with their devotion faithful obedience, and then they shall win the garland, and otherwise have a zeal, sed non secundum scientiam, deserving no thank or praise of God; and also they must, with and to their obedience, join devotion, knowing that God more doth require and consider the heart, than the outward doing. And thereupon I exhorted the audience, that when they came to take the communion, or to hear or say the service, appointed by the king's Majesty, they must bring devotion and inward prayer with them, or else their prayers shall be but vain, as wanting and lacking that thing which God requireth, that is, the heart and mind to pray to him. And herein, because I marvelled that the communion was no more frequented now-a-days, and lamenting the irreverent coming to it and using of it; fearing that it proceeded of an evil opinion and belief touching the sacrament of the altar, ministered and distributed at the same communion; and to the intent to make the people have better opinion of it than they seemed to have, I did faithfully, truly, and plainly declare my belief of the said sacrament, wherewith the said Latimer and Hooper, with their complices, were so much offended and aggrieved.
"VIII. Item, That whereas the said Hugh Latimer and John Hooper do further, in the said pretended denunciation, untruly and uncharitably deduce and allege, that I, in my said sermon, did treat of such things as most should move and stir up the people to disorder and dissension, it doth hereby evidently and clearly appear, that either the said pretended denunciators do take and esteem a declaration faithfully made of the loyal obedience of subjects to the king's Majesty, the supreme and sovereign lord, and the great peril and danger of rebellion committed by subjects against their king and prince and sovereign lord, to be a moving, provoking, and stirring-up of people to discord and dissension: or else that the affirmation and assertion catholic of the verity of Christ's body and blood in the blessed sacrament of the altar, set forth by me as afore, doth effect and work such disorder and dissension. For evident it is to all those which indifferently heard my said sermon, that I (grounding myself upon Scripture, and taking occasion of the Sunday then occurrent) did speak specially and earnestly of these two things, without taxing of any man specially by name, or other circumstance, to slander them thereby; and I did both set forth the obedience and duty of all subjects generally to their king, and specially, of subjects of this realm to the king's Majesty that now is, whose minority to all people of this realm is more than manifest, and is also apparent or evidently known to all the whole world beside. And also, I did then declare and lay open the imminent danger and great peril of rebellion in subjects against the high powers and authority, and also specially of the rebellion late committed by them of Devonshire, Cornwall, Norfolk, and elsewhere, against the king's Majesty that now is, which I would not have done, except I both had believed that all the king's subjects without exception were bound to obey the king's Majesty, even as he now is, was, and shall be, during his life, which our Lord long preserve to all our comforts and wealth! and also that the rebellion of late so committed against his Majesty was damnable, and utterly detestable and condemned by God's law: and herein I refer me to the indifferent hearers of this my sermon, wishing that this Latimer and Hooper, with all the rest of these new preachers, did mean as faithfully, truly, obediently, and catholicly, as I always have done, towards the king's Majesty, his honour, authority, royal power, and surety of his person and realm; and did not more move, encourage, and stir the king's Majesty's subjects to sedition, tumult, and inobedience, by their erroneous doctrine and teaching, than I did at any time encourage, move, or stir any of them in any wise, or give occasion to any of the same.
"IX. Item, Whereas the said Hugh Latimer and John Hooper do falsely surmise in their pretended denunciation, that it was of no light ground looked for, that I, the said bishop of London, should more apertly have declared the injunctions and articles aforesaid, and that it did so appear unto their judgments; I do say, that their judgments are corrupted and only set to slander and picking of quarrels in this behalf, being well assured and so credibly informed, that all the worshipful and honest catholic persons of my said audience were fully satisfied, both as touching obedience to the king's Majesty in his tender age and minority, and also touching the penalty and great peril of punishments of the rebellion so lately committed against the said Majesty by the aforesaid rebels. And, moreover, I do say, that before my lord protector's Grace, and the rest of the king's Majesty's most honourable council then present, I made my excuse, and alleged many impediments for my not preaching at the Cross; and did not further promise but to do the best I could, which of my fidelity and conscience I did; not omitting any thing of purpose or evil will, that might be to the satisfaction of all people, both good and bad, in every condition and point; specially, in this behalf, collecting and gathering together, with all diligent study, all that might make, in my judgment and opinion, for the better setting forth of the same."
Thus have you Bonner's answer to the denunciation aforesaid: wherein first he alleged, or rather shamelessly and slanderously cavilled:
"That those his denouncers were vile, infamed, and notorious criminous persons, and also open and manifest heretics, as well against the rest of the sacraments of the church, as chiefly against the sacrament of the altar; and were for the same, by the orders of the church, excommunicated and accursed, and were so taken of all the catholics of this realm, and especially by Hooper; who, besides other his poisoned doctrine and heresy amongst the people, had also, before the time of the denunciation, made divers erroneous and heretical books against the true presence of Christ's body in the sacrament of the altar, and did also continue in the same, allowing and maintaining it as good and catholic: which books and doctrine (chiefly against the sacrament of the altar) Hugh Latimer had, and then likewise. did allow, believe, and teach, to the loss of both their own souls, and also of their believers'; and therefore were not now, nor ought at any time, to be admitted either in this their denunciation against him, or in any other judicial act; and that the rather also, because that although they pretend, in their denunciation, that they made not the same of any malice or evil will towards him, but for the good tranquillity and quiet governance of this realm, yet was it notoriously known, that as well the same day at afternoon in which he the said bishop preached at the Cross of Paul's, as also at sundry other times, they two, conspiring with others of their faction, did maliciously and unlawfully within his diocese assemble together a great rabblement of such as themselves were, and there, under the colour of reading, did openly rail and inveigh against him, not for any the causes pretended in their denunciation, but because he had in his sermon declared, (as the catholic church taught,) that in the sacrament of the altar there was the very true body and blood of Christ, the same in substance that was hanged and shed upon the cross."
Then, after these vain and frivolous allegations against the denouncers, he cometh and answereth to the substance of their denunciation, and saith:
"That where they, in the same, do falsely surmise, that there were delivered unto him from the king's Majesty, by the hands of the lord protector and the rest of his Highness's council, certain injunctions and articles to be published and declared unto the people at a day limited in the same, their information, in such sort as it was deduced, was most false and untrue, for that the articles delivered unto him by Sir Thomas Smith, one of the king's secretaries, were neither signed with the king's own hand, nor sealed with his Highness's seal or signet, nor yet subscribed by any of his council," &c.
Where mark, I beseech you, the subtlety of a disloyal papist, who, because the articles were not sealed by the king and his council, would make them therefore not to be of any such force as that the breach thereof should cause him to incur the danger of contemptuous disobedience. But admit they were not signed nor sealed, (of which thing, by the way, in the denunciation there is no mention yea or nay,) yet it is manifest by the second bill of articles ministered unto him by the commissioners, in the fourth act of his process, that, at such time as he was before the council, those articles were, by the commandment of the lord protector, openly there read unto him by one of the secretaries, and, after addition of the article concerning the king's lawful power and authority during his young years, were also delivered unto him by the hands of the lord protector, in the presence of the rest of the council; who, thus receiving them, promised there faithfully to accomplish all the contents thereof. After which, they were again delivered unto secretary Smith, to amend such things therein as the lord protector and the rest of the council had there appointed: which being accordingly done, (as the bishop himself at the last receipt thereof confessed,) they were finally delivered unto him by the secretary; and therefore was this but a poor shift. Now after this, he maketh a supposition:
"That in case it were true, that the injunctions were delivered him according to their information, yet was it untrue that he did omit or refuse to declare the same for any such causes as they had alleged against him; and that did well appear in the discourse of his sermon, which tended principally (as he said) to the disallowing and condemnation of all rebels, and chiefly of the rebels in Norfolk, Suffolk, Devonshire, and Cornwall, or elsewhere within this realm of England, who, forgetting their allegiance and duty unto their prince, assigned to them by God's word as their supreme head, their natural love and care for their country, wives, children, and kinsfolk, did both deserve death bodily as traitors, and also accumulate unto themselves damnation of body and soul eternally, with Satan the father and first mover of all rebellion and disobedience. And herewithal further exclaiming against the pretences of those rebels, who, amongst other things, pretended the mass and holy water, with such like, which were never ordained for the purpose, to colour and maintain rebellion, (as, he said, he then proved out of Numbers xvi., 1 Kings xx., Leviticus x., Luke xiii., and Acts vi., in the best manner that he could, as one not exercised greatly in preaching, but restrained therefrom,) but having humility of heart, innocency of living, knowledge of God, love to our neighbours, with obedience to God's word, ministers, and superior powers concurrent with them, they, being external rites and ceremonies of the church, were exercises of religion, and appointable by superior powers; and yet that which (standing the law) might be good, was by pride and disobedience made evil and unprofitable."
And here he further said:
"Because he saw the people slack in coming to the communion and divine service, set forth by the king's Majesty, and to the intent he would make them have a better opinion of the sacrament than he thought they had, he then faithfully did declare his belief therein. Wherewith his denouncers being offended, they uncharitably and untruly deduced, in their pretended denunciation, that in his sermon he did treat of such things as most should stir up unto dissension and tumult; whereby it appeared unto him, that his denouncers either took his catholic assertion of the verity of Christ's body and blood in the sacrament of the altar, or else his faithful declaration made of the obedience of subjects unto the king's Majesty their supreme and sovereign lord, with the peril and danger of rebellion committed against him, to be the cause of disorder and dissension; for that (saith he) of these two points he chiefly spake, and especially of obedience to the king, whose minority was more than manifestly known, as well amongst the people of this realm, as elsewhere, throughout the world besides: which he would not have done except he had believed that both all his subjects were bounden to obey him, even as he then was and should be during his life; and also that the rebellion of late committed against him was detestable, and condemned by God's word: and therefore he wished that his two denouncers, with all the rest of the new preachers, did mean as faithfully, obediently, and catholicly, towards the king's honour, royal power, and surety of person, as he did; and had not more moved the people to tumults and disobedience by their erroneous doctrine and teaching, than he had at any time given any occasion thereunto."
Then finally he concluded and said thus:
"That where his denouncers surmise, that it was of no light ground looked for, as it appeared in their judgments, that he should more apertly have declared the contents of the injunctions and articles than he did, that their judgments were in that behalf corrupted, and set to slander and picking of quarrels; for he was well assured, and credibly informed, that all his honest and catholic audience were fully satisfied, both touching their obedience to the king's Majesty in his tender age, and also concerning the great penalty and peril that the late rebels incurred by their disobedience. And besides that, when he was before the lord protector and the rest of the council, after he had made his excuse, and alleged many impediments for his not preaching at the Cross, he did not then further promise but to do the best he could; which he hath of his fidelity and conscience accomplished, not omitting any thing of purpose or evil will, that might satisfy the people in any point concerning the premises."
Whilst he was thus reading these answers, objecting against his denouncers such causes and quarrels as he before alleged, for which he would have earnestly had the denouncers to be repelled of the commissioners, the archbishop of Canterbury replied, that if there were any such law, he thought it not to be a good or godly law, but a law of the bishop of Rome. "For," said he, "if my matter and cause be good, what should I care who accuse me, yea, although he were the devil of hell?"
"No, sir," said the bishop of London, "it is the king's law used in the realm?"
"Well, my Lord," said the archbishop, "ye be too full of your law: I would wish you had less knowledge in that law, and more knowledge in God's law, and of your duty."
"Well," answered the bishop again, "seeing your Grace falleth to wishing, I can also wish many things to be in your person."
Then spake secretary Peter to the bishop, as touching these denouncers: "We are not so straited in this matter, but that we may proceed against you, either at their promotion or without them, at our pleasure."
"A God's name, then," said Bonner, "put them by, and then do as your pleasure shall be, so you do me right, for I ask but right."
"Nay," said secretary Smith, "you ask you wot not what: you would have us follow your mind in these quiddities and quirks; and all is nothing else but to delay justice. And you do herein as thieves, murderers, and traitors, not to have the truth known."
"Say you so to me," quoth the bishop? "I thank you. Well, I could say somewhat to you also, were ye not in the place ye be, but let it pass. As for my matter, I fear it not, it is not so evil as you make it; for I have your own hand-writing for my discharge, which when I shall see time, I shall show forth."
"My hand," quoth the secretary. "Let me see it, and let it be read openly." "So it shall," said the bishop, "when I shall see time."
Then said Master Smith, "You do use us thus, to be seen a cunning lawyer."
"Indeed," quoth the bishop, "I knew the law, ere you could read it."
With that, secretary Peter willed the bishop to proceed in reading of his answers; who so did, and when he had finished, Latimer delivered up a writing in paper unto the archbishop and the rest of the commissioners; who then said unto the bishop of London, "Here be certain articles which we intend to minister unto you."
The bishop therewith said, "Do you minister them of your office, or at the promotion of these men, (pointing to Latimer and Hooper,) for I perceive they gave them unto you?"
"Nay," said secretary Peter, "we will minister them unto you, officially only."
The copy of which articles here followeth.
Articles ministered to Bonner, bishop of London, the first time, for him jointly and severally to answer unto.
"I. It is reported that you have received from the king's Majesty, by the hands of my lord protector's Grace, sitting in the council chamber at council with the rest of the lords of the council, the eleventh of August, certain injunctions to be done and followed by you, and articles to be preached there by you; that you did there and then accept the said injunctions, and promise to observe and follow the same.
"II. Item, That you have not truly, sincerely, and wholly, declared all the articles enjoined to you, in your last sermon, as they were put unto you.
"III. Item, Whether ye have written your sermon or no? and if ye have written it, whether of your own counsel only, or by whose help; and who hath seen the same written before and since ye did preach it?
"IV. Item, That ye have not declared in your sermon, that the old rite of prayers, as matins and mass, said after that sort in this realm, by reason of disobedience is naught, although a man have devotion unto it; according as it is in your articles.
"V. Item, That you have not, in your sermon, declared the articles of the king's Majesty's power in his minority, as it was commanded you, to the refutation of the evil opinion and error of the rebels;and, if you have declared it, how and after what sort ye have declared it?
"VI. Item, Whether ye will take upon you to defend the said rebels' opinion or no?
"VII. Item, That ye know, or have heard say, that certain persons within your diocese, since the time that the said injunctions were given unto you, have heard, been at, or celebrated, mass or evensong in the Latin tongue, and after the old rite and manner, other than according to the king's Majesty's book.
"VIII. Item, That ye have not convented them before you, nor inflicted punishment unto them.
"IX. Item, That ye know or have heard say, that there be notable adulterers, fornicators, or incestuous parsons in your diocese; and you cited none of them, or have seen them punished.
"X. Item, That ye were at Master Dr. Cox's, the king's almoner's sermon at Paul's Cross, about Midsummer was twelve months, wherein he declared the great contempt of the bishop of Winchester in not observing the injunction given unto him. And, especially, in that he did not treat as he ought to have done, and was commanded, of the king's Majesty's authority in his minority, additionally.
"XI. Item, That the rites of the common service of the church, now set forth, be, in some parts of your diocese, diversely used; and you, knowing or hearing of the same, have not called any ministers of the service before you for a redress of such diversity, nor corrected the misusers thereof."
Hereupon, after an oath given unto the bishop de fideliter respondendo, he desired a copy of the articles, requiring also a competent time to be given unto him to make answer thereunto.
To whom secretary Peter replied, saying, "My Lord, here be certain of the articles touching your own fact, which you may answer unto forthwith; as whether you wrote your sermon or not before you preached it."
Whereunto the bishop answered, that he wrote it not, but he drew certain notes of it.
"Then whose counsel," said he, "and advice, used you in making your sermon?"
To which he also answered, that he had therein used his own counsel and books; "and yet my chaplains," quoth he, "be much suspected for my doings in many things, and sometimes I for theirs, when there is no cause why."
These words ended, the commissioners assigned him Monday, the sixteenth of September then next, to appear before them, and to make his full answers unto all the articles ministered unto him by them this day; the contents whereof are as followeth.
The form and tenor of the articles ministered unto the bishop of London, by the king's commissioners.
Monday, the sixteenth of September, the archbishop, associated with the bishop of Rochester, secretary Smith, and Dr. May, dean of Paul's, sat judicially within his chapel at Lambeth; before whom there and then appeared the bishop of London, according as he was assigned in the last session; at which time he exhibited unto the commissioners in writing his answers unto the last former articles. But before the same were there read, the archbishop said unto him, that his late answer, made the thirteenth of September, unto the denunciation, was very obscure, and therewith also contained much matter of slander against Latimer and Hooper, and much untruth; and therefore they desired there to purge themselves. Whereupon Latimer, first obtaining leave to speak, said:
"That the bishop of London had most falsely, untruly, and uncharitably accused him, laying to his charge many feigned and untrue matters in his former answers to the denunciation, and such as he should never be able to prove. For where in his said answer he alleged, that Hugh Latimer and John Hooper, with other heretics conspiring against him, did the first day of September, after the bishop's sermon, assemble themselves together unlawfully against the said bishop, that saying of his was most untrue. For neither that day, nor yet before that day, nor until certain days after, he ever knew or spoke with Hooper. And as touching his own preaching there, openly accused by the bishop, he said, he never held, taught, or preached any thing concerning the blessed sacrament, otherwise than he ought to do, nor otherwise than according to the Scriptures, and true catholic faith of Christ's church; and therefore offered himself to be tried by the archbishop, or other such learned men as it should please the king's Majesty, or the said commissioners, to appoint; and further to suffer, to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, if the bishop could justly prove true the things that he had there shamefully laid to his charge."
Then Master Hooper, upon like licence obtained, said to this effect:
"This ungodly man," pointing to the bishop, "hath most uncharitably and ungodly accused me before your Grace and this audience, and hath laid to my charge, that I am a heretic: whereas, I take God to record, I never spake, read, taught, or preached any heresy, but only the most true and pure word of God. And where he saith, I frequent the company of heretics, I do much marvel of his so saying; for it hath pleased my lord protector's Grace, my singular good lord and master, and my Lady's Grace, to have me with them, and I have preached before them, and much used their company, with divers other worshipful persons; and therefore I suppose this man meaneth them. And further, whereas he saith that I have made heretical books against the blessed sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, calling it mathematical, I perceive that this man knoweth not what this word 'mathematical' there meaneth, and therefore understandeth not my book, which, I take God to be my judge, I have made truly and sincerely, and according to his holy word; and by the same his holy word and Scriptures, I am always (and shall be) ready to submit myself to your Grace's judgment, and the superior powers, to be tried:" with many such more words of like importance.
Which ended, the archbishop, to shorten this matter, asked the bishop how he could prove that Hooper and Latimer assembled together against him the first of September, as he had alleged, seeing they now denied it; and therefore willed him to answer forthwith thereunto.
The bishop then answered that he would duly prove it, so that he might be admitted to do it according to law: and with that he pulled out of his sleeve certain books, saying, "I have this varlet's books which he made against the blessed sacrament, which you shall hear." Then, as he was turning certain leaves thereof, Hooper began again to speak; but the bishop turning himself towards him, tauntingly said, "Put up your pipes; you have spoken for your part; I will meddle no more with you:" and therewith read a certain sentence upon the book. This done, he said, "Lo! here you may see his opinion, and what it is." At which words the people standing behind, and seeing his irreverent and unseemly demeanour and railing, fell suddenly into great laughing; whereat the bishop being moved, and not perceiving the cause wherefore they did laugh, turned him towards them in a great rage, saying, "Ah woodcocks! woodcocks!"
Then said one of the commissioners, "Why say you so, my Lord?" "Marry," quoth he, "I may well call them woodcocks, that thus will laugh, and know not whereat; nor yet heard what I said or read."
"Well, my Lord of London," said the archbishop, "then I perceive you would persuade this audience, that you were called hither for preaching of your belief in the sacrament of the altar, and therefore you lay to these men's charge, [meaning Hooper and Latimer,] that they have accused you of that: howbeit, there was no such thing laid to your charge; and therefore this audience shall hear openly read the denunciation that is put up against you, to the intent they may the better perceive your dealing herein." And therewithal he said unto the people, "My Lord of London would make you believe that he is called hither for declaring and preaching his opinion touching the sacrament of the altar: but, to the intent you may perceive how he goeth about to deceive you, you shall hear the denunciation that is laid in against him read unto you:" and thereupon he delivered the denunciation unto Sir John Mason, knight, who there read it openly. Which done, the archbishop said again unto the audience, "Lo! here you hear how the bishop of London is called for no such matter as he would persuade you."
With this the bishop, being in a raging heat, as one clean void of all humanity, turned himself about unto the people, saying, "Well now hear what the bishop of London saith for his part." But the commissioners, seeing his inordinate contumacy, denied him to speak any more, saying, that he used himself very disobediently; with more like words of reproach.
Notwithstanding he, still persisting in his unreverent manner of dealing with the commissioners, pulled out of his sleeve another book, and then said unto the archbishop, "My Lord of Canterbury, I have here a note out of your books that you made touching the blessed sacrament, wherein you do affirm the verity of the body and blood of Christ to be in the sacrament, and I have another book also of yours of the contrary opinion; which is a marvellous matter."
To this the archbishop answered, that he made no books contrary one to another, and that he would defend his books, howbeit he thought the bishop understood them not: "For I promise you," quoth he, "I will find a boy of ten years old, that shall be more apt to understand that matter than you my Lord of London be."
Thus, after much multiplying of like words, the commissioners, thinking not good to spend any more waste time with him, willed him to show forth his answers unto the articles objected the last day against him: whereupon he, having them ready, did read the same openly to them; wherein, after many words of his former protestation recited, with a marvellous lamentation to see that one of his vocation, at the malicious denunciation of vile heretics, should be used after such strange sort, having nevertheless done the best he could to declare his obedience unto the king's Majesty for the repressing and discouraging of rebellion and rebels, and also for the advancement of the verity of Christ's true body and his presence in the sacrament of the altar, for which only the malicious denouncers with their complices had studied to molest and trouble him, he then cometh to answering the articles, and saith, that to the first, second, and fourth, he hath already, in his former answers to the denunciation, sufficiently answered, and therefore was not bound by law to answer any further. As to the third and fifth, he said,
"That he began to write his sermon, but being soon weary, did only make certain notes thereof, without help of any other, saving that he showed them to his chaplains, requiring them to put him in remembrance thereof. Amongst the which, for the better setting forth of the king's Majesty's power and authority in his minority, he had collected as well out of histories, as also out of the Scriptures, the names of divers young kings, who, notwithstanding their minority, were faithfully and obediently honoured, and reputed for very true and lawful kings: as Henry the Third, being but nine years old; Edward the Third, being but thirteen years; Richard the Second, being but eleven years; Henry the Sixth, being not fully one year; Edward the Fifth, being but eleven years; Henry the Eighth, being but eighteen years of age. And out of the Old Testament, Osias and Achas, who were but sixteen years old; Solomon and Manasseh, being but twelve years; Josias, Joachim, and Joash, being but eight years of age when they entered their reigns. All which notes, with many others, he had purposed to declare, if they had come into his memory, as indeed they did not, because the same was disturbed, partly for lack of use of preaching, and partly by reason of a bill that was delivered to him from the king's council, to declare the victory then had against the rebels in Norfolk and Devonshire, which being of some good length, confounded his memory; and partly also for that his book in his sermon time fell away from him, wherein were divers of his notes which he had collected for that purpose: so that he could not remember what he would, but yet, in generality, he persuaded the people to obedience to the king's Majesty, whose minority was manifestly known to them and to all others.
"Then, as to the sixth, (he said,) he knew not the rebels' opinion, and therefore could not answer thereunto. And as for answer to the seventh, eighth, ninth, and eleventh articles, which touched his pastoral office, he said that notwithstanding his manifold and great troubles, as well by his own business and his family's sickness, as also by uncharitable informations made against him, yet he hath not failed to give order unto his officers straitly to look unto such matters; and such as he hath known, which were very few or none, he caused to be punished according to the laws." All which answers, with others written with his own hand, hereunder follow.
The answers of Bonner unto the articles objected to him by the king's commissioners the first time.
"I, Edmund, bishop of London, under protestation heretofore by me made, exhibited, and repeated before you, which, in all my sayings and doings, I intend to have repeated and rehearsed again, to all lawful effects and purposes, for my honest and necessary defence; with protestation also of the nullity and iniquity of your process I had made in this behalf; and likewise of the generality, uncertainty, obscurity, contrariety, repugnancy, variety, insufficiency, and invalidity of the things alleged and deduced before you against me, as well in the commission and denunciation in divers parts, as also touching the articles and interrogatories so ministered unto me: lamenting not a little, that one of my vocation, at the malicious denunciation of vile, heretical, and detestable persons, should be used after this strange sort; having done the best I could to declare mine obedience unto the king's most excellent Majesty, for the repressing and discouraging of rebellion and rebellious persons, and for the advancement of the verity of Christ's true body and his presence in the most blessed sacrament of the altar: for which only the malicious denunciators with their complices have studied to molest and trouble me; although colourably they would be seen to pretend other causes, especially the good and tranquillity of this realm, which our Lord God knoweth they care nothing for, but contrariwise do let and impeach the same; corrupting and infecting with their poisoned and false doctrine, and teaching the king's subjects in this realm, to the great peril and danger thereof many ways: do answer unto certain pretended articles and interrogatories ministered by you indeed unto me the said bishop, the thirteenth day of September, 1549, as followeth
"To the first article objected against me, beginning thus, 'First it is reported,' &c., and ending thus, 'to observe and follow the same,' I do say, and for answer do refer me unto my former answers heretofore, that is to wit, the thirteenth of September, made and exhibited by me before you unto the said pretended denunciation, touching this matter: alleging withal, that a report of things doth not absolutely prove, nor necessarily infer, things to be in very deed true after such a sort, fashion, manner, and form as sometimes they be reported and rehearsed.
"To the second, beginning thus, 'Item, whether
that you,' &c., and ending thus, 'as they were put unto you,' I do answer and say, that this article doth depend on the first article next before, which, after such sort, fashion, manner, and form as it is deduced, was justly by me, in my answer made unto the same, denied; and I therefore now am not bounden by the law eftsoons to make other answer thereunto.
"To the third, being an interrogatory, and beginning thus, 'Item, whether,' &c., and ending, 'thus ye did preach,' I do answer and say, that I began to write a piece of my sermon, and being soon weary thereof, I did leave off, and did make only certain notes of my said sermon, and put the same notes in writing of mine own hand, without help or counsel of any other; and the same notes did show unto my chaplains, Master Gilbert Bourn and Master John Harpsfield, both before and also since my said sermon, only desiring them to put me in remembrance of my said notes and process to be made thereupon, and also to search out for me the names of such kings as were in their minority when they began to reign.
"To the fourth article, beginning thus, 'Item, that ye have not declared,' &c., and ending thus, 'as it is in your article,' I do answer and say, that this article doth depend upon the first and second articles here before denied, deduced in such sort, manner, and form as is expressed in the same; and moreover I say, that already answer is made hereunto by me, in my former answers made to the said pretended denunciation.
"To the fifth article, beginning thus, 'Item, that ye have not,' &c., and ending thus, declared it,' I do answer and say, that this article also doth depend upon the first and second articles; and that answer is made thereunto by me already in my former answers made unto the said pretended denunciation. And moreover I do say, that for the better advancement and setting forth of the king's Majesty's royal power and authority, even in his minority, and for the due obedience of his Majesty's subjects unto his Highness, even during the said minority, I had collected together, as well out of histories as also out of the scripture of the Old Testament, the names of divers kings being in minority, who, notwithstanding their said minority, were faithfully, duly, and reverently obeyed, honoured, served, taken, and reputed, for very true and lawful kings: as Henry the Third, being but nine years old when he entered to reign and govern as king; Edward the Third, being but thirteen years of age; Richard the Second, being but eleven years old; Henry the Sixth, being not fully one year of age; Edward the Fifth, being but eleven years old; Henry the Eighth, being about eighteen years old; and so all these kings, being in their minority as the king's Majesty that now is, and yet having authority and power regal, as appertaineth: and in the Old Testament, Osias and Achaz were very true kings in their minority, being but sixteen years of age; Solomon and Manasses, being but twelve years of age; Josias and Joachim, being but eight years of age; and Joash, being but eight years old: all which things, I say, I had collected in notes, communicating the same with my said two chaplains; and praying them to put me in remembrance, if in numbering of them, or in setting forth in my other notes, at the time of my sermon, I did fail, or have default of memory in any wise. And all these things I would have specially set forth in my said sermon, if they had come to my memory, as indeed they did not, partly for disturbance of my memory not accustomed to preach in that place, partly also by reason of a certain writing that was sent to me from the king's Majesty's privy council, being of good length, to declare unto the people touching the victory against the rebels, especially in Norfolk, Devonshire, and Cornwall, confounding my memory in things which before I had set in good order; and partly also for the falling away of my book in the time of my said sermon, in which were contained divers of my said notes touching the king's Majesty's minority, as is aforesaid: having yet nevertheless otherwise, in generality and speciality, persuaded the people to obedience unto the king's said Majesty, whose minority to them and all others is notoriously and manifestly known; and his Majesty, saving of these late rebels, faithfully, truly, and reverently obeyed of all the rest of his subjects.
To the sixth, which beginneth, 'Whether ye will,' &c., and ending thus, the opinion or no,' I do answer and say, that not knowing certainly of which rebels the article meaneth, nor yet what their opinion is indeed, I ought not to be driven to make answer hereunto, nor yet can make good and perfect answer therein, though I would.
"To the seventh article, beginning thus, 'Item, that ye know,' &c., and ending thus, 'the king's Majesty's book,' I do answer and say, that albeit I have by the space of these five weeks last past and more, been in manner continually in business and trouble, as well in providing for my said sermon, as otherwise, specially by reason of my family, much vexed with sickness, to my great disquietness and charge, and also by reason that I have been so much troubled and encumbered by informations and complaints unjustly and uncharitably made against me, over and besides the having of divers and sundry persons, which daily resort and come unto me for their suits and business, both in matters of justice and otherwise, yet I have not omitted to send forth to my archdeacons and other my officers, to inquireand search diligently in this behalf, and to certify me accordingly; and yet I cannot hear certainly of any that have heard, been at, or celebrated masses or evensongs in the Latin tongue, after the old rite and manner, except it be in the house of my Lady Mary's Grace, or in the houses of the ambassadors, nor yet there, nor in any of them, but by flying and not assured report; and without knowing the names and persons that so have heard, been at, or celebrate the same: and in this behalf how far I can and ought to proceed, and after what sort, I do refer me unto the statute late made in that behalf.
"To the eighth article, beginning thus, 'Item, that ye have,' &c., and ending thus, 'punishment unto them,' I do answer and say, that this article doth depend on the next article going before; and so consequently answer is already thereunto made.
"To the ninth article, beginning thus, 'Item, that ye know,' &c., and ending thus, 'nor see them punished,' I do answer and say, that touching such as either have been denounced or detected for such criminous and culpable persons to me or my officers, there hath been process already made before my said officers, as it appeareth in my register, and the acts of my court; and moreover, I have given express commandment to my said officers, to inquire and search for more such offenders, and to certify me thereof, that I may proceed against them accordingly.
"To the tenth article, beginning thus, 'Item, ye were,' &c., and ending thus, 'the king's Majesty's authority in his minority,' I do answer and say, that as touching the time mentioned in the article, and the declaration to be made by Dr. Cox, I do not well remember either the same time, or yet the special points and substance, of the said Dr. Cox's declaration. Truth it is, I was at a sermon made at Paul's Cross by the said Dr. Cox, wherein he inveighed against my Lord of Winchester; and, as far as I can now call to my remembrance, it was touching disobedience wherewith my Lord of Winchester by the said Dr. Cox seemed to be charged; and for a sermon also that my Lord of Winchester was seeming to have made before the king's Majesty in the court of Westminster.
"To the eleventh article, being by itself delivered unto me the fourteenth of this present September, 1549, in the night, at my house of London, beginning thus, 'Item, that the rites,' &c., and ending thus, 'the misuses thereof,' I do answer and say, that I have already given commandment to my officers to make diligent search and inquire herein, and do certify accordingly, to the intent I may proceed therein as appertaineth; and would before this time myself have also inquired and proceeded, had I not so been of all sides oppressed and pestered with multitude of other necessary business, as I have been, to my great disquietness and trouble."
When he had ended the reading of these answers, the commissioners said unto him, that he had in the same very obscurely answered unto the fifth article, ministered the thirteenth of September; wherefore they willed him there expressly to answer by mouth, whether he had, according to the injunctions delivered unto him, declared the article beginning thus, "You shall also set forth in your sermon that our authority," &c.: whereunto he again answered, that he had already made as full and sufficient an answer in writing, as he was bound to make by law.
The judges then replied, that the answers already made in that part were obscure and insufficient, so that it appeared not certainly whether he had preached indeed according to the same injunction or not; and therefore they eftsoons willed him, as before, directly to answer whether he had so accordingly preached or no, the bishop still answering as before.
The judges again demanded of him whether he would otherwise answer or no? To the which he said, No, unless the law should compel him. Then they asked him whether he thought the law did compel him to answer more fully or no? He answered, No; adding further, that he was not bound to make answer to such positions.
The commissioners then, seeing his froward contumacy, told him plainly, that if he persisted thus in his frowardness, and would not otherwise answer, they would, according to law, take him pro confesso, and, ex abundanti, receive witness against him; and therewithal did recite again to him six of the first and principal articles, demanding his final answer thereunto: who said, as before, that he had already fully answered them by writing; but whereas they requested to have his notes, which he said he had made of his sermon, they should have them if they would send for them. And whereas in his answer to the sixth article, he doubted what the opinion of the rebels was, the judges declared unto him that their opinion was, "that the king's Majesty, before his Grace came to the age of one and twenty years, had not so full authority to make laws and statutes, as when he came to further years; and that his subjects were not bound to obey the laws and statutes made in his young age."
Whereunto the bishop answered, that he was not of the opinion of the rebels mentioned in that article, as did well appear by his answers, as well unto the denunciation, as also unto the fifth article objected against him.
Which ended, they, perceiving his scornful carelessness, presently did admit for witness, upon the articles objected against him, Master John Cheek, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas, and Richard Chambers, whom also they operated with a corporal oath upon the holy evangelists, truly to answer and depose upon the same articles in the presence of the bishop, who, under his former protestation, like a wily lawyer, protested of the nullity of the receiving, admitting, and swearing of those witnesses, with protestation also to object against the persons and sayings of the witnesses in time and place convenient; demanding also a competent and lawful time to minister interrogatories against them, with a copy of all the acts to that day: wherewith the delegates were well pleased, and assigned him to minister his interrogatories against Master Cheek on that present day, and against the rest, on the next day before noon.
After this the judge's delegate assigned the bishop to appear again before them upon Wednesday then next ensuing, between the hours of seven and eight of the clock before noon, in the hall of the archbishop's manor of Lambeth, there to show the cause why he should not be declared as having confessed, upon all the articles whereunto be had not then fully answered, and to see further process done in the matter.
And so Bonner, still protesting of the nullity and invalidity of all their proceedings, they did, for that present, depart.
In this mean while the commissioners certified the king's Majesty and his council, of the bishop's demeanour towards them, and what objections he had made against their proceedings, making doubts and ambiguities, whether, by the tenor of his Majesty's commission, the commissioners might proceed not only at the denunciation, but also at their mere office; and also whether they might as well determine as hear the cause. Whereupon his Majesty, by advice aforesaid, for the better understanding thereof, did, the seventeenth of September, send unto the commissioners a full and perfect declaration and interpretation of his will and pleasure in the aforesaid commission, giving them hereby full authority to proceed at their own discretions.
The fourth session against Bonner, bishop of London, before the king's commissioners, in the great hall at Lambeth, the eighteenth of September.
After this declaration being sent down and received from the king, the bishop of London (according to the commissioners' assignment the Monday before) appeared again before then upon Wednesday the eighteenth of September, in the great hall at Lambeth; where, under his wonted protestation, first he declared, that although he had already sufficiently answered all things, yet, further to satisfy the term assigned unto him, to show cause why he ought not to be declared pro confesso, upon the articles theretofore ministered against him, and to the which he had not fully answered, he had then a matter in writing to exhibit unto them, why he ought not so to be declared, which he read there openly; the copy and words whereof be as follow.
Matter exhibited up to the commissioners by Bonner, why he ought not to be declared for cast and convicted.
"I, Edmund, bishop of London, under protestation heretofore by me made before you, which I have heretofore repeated; and, especially, under protestation of the nullity and invalidity, injustice and iniquity, of your pretended and unlawful process made by you against me; and especially, against your pretended assignation made by you the last session unto me appearing in your pretended acts: do say, that your said assignation is unavailable, nothing worth in law, unlawful, unjust, and unreasonable; and I, therefore, not bound by the law to obey unto it, for just and reasonable causes hereafter following. First, it is true, notorious, and manifest, that the said pretended assignation, in words and pronunciation, was made by you, Sir Thomas Smith, one of the pretended commissioners in this matter, without express consent given unto you by your pretended colleagues in the commission; or, at least, he, as a commissioner, did proceed herein with the rest of the said colleagues, and did induce the acts, prescribing to the actuary or scribe, what he therein should write.
"Item, It is likewise notorious and manifest, that the said colleagues did, in your absence, begin to sit as commissioners and judges, by virtue of the said commission pretended to be sent unto you, and began to make process against me, as appeareth in the acts of the first session in this matter; by reason whereof ye ought not by the law to have intermeddled therein otherwise than the law doth suffer you to do; which ye have done indeed naughtily and unlawfully, contrary to justice and good reason, and are unmet to be commissioner against me in this behalf.
"Item, It is likewise true, notorious, and manifest, that the answers being already given by me fully, lawfully, and sufficiently, so far as the law bindeth me, as well to the pretended denunciation in that matter, as also to all and singular articles, that in any wise against me have been objected in this behalf; and nothing in the least wise sufficientand good in law to be alleged, declared, specified, or apparent to the contrary in any specialty or particularity; by reason whereof I ought not further, without special allegation, declaration, specification, and appearance, to make other or more special answer therein, no cause in law sufficient and reasonable compelling and enforcing me thereunto. I am not by law bound to do further than I have done, referring me as well to my answers given to the said pretended denunciation and articles, as, also, unto the king's ecclesiastical laws, used and observed here commonly within this realm.
"Item, It is likewise true, notorious, and manifest, that in all proceedings hitherto, ye have proceeded so extraordinarily and unduly in this matter, that ye have confounded all kind of lawful process; sometimes proceeding to denounce; sometimes officially; sometimes otherwise; contrary to the king's ecclesiastical laws, and contrary also to the commission directed in this behalf; referring me to all the same. And it may be said herein, that hitherto ye have proceeded against me summarily, against the true sense of the word, and proceeded also cum strepitu, but sine figura judicii.
"Item, It is likewise true, notorious, and manifest, that divers of the articles pretended are superfluous and impertinent, not relevant, though they were proved, containing in them untruth and falsity; some also be obscure, general, and uncertain, nor can have certain answers made unto them. And also others be depending of articles being denied, or at the least way qualified; some also captious and deceitful, to bring the answer into a snare; some also containing matter of divers sorts, part whereof is not true, but false; and some also being articles of the law, and such sort that, by the king's ecclesiastical laws, a subject of this realm is not bound to make answer unto them, but lawfully may refuse and deny to do it, by reason of the said just and reasonable causes being in this behalf.
"Item, It is likewise true, notorious, and manifest, that you, Sir Thomas Smith, when I, Edmund, bishop of London, was last with the council in the council-chamber, at Whitehall: ye, the said Sir Thomas, after the departure of the lord protector from the said council, and after the departure of the rest of the lords from the said council, did write yourself certain articles and injunctions, amongst which was that of the king's Majesty's minority and his authority in the same, which articles or injunctions ye writ yourself; and afterwards, also, ye copied them upon an altar or table within the said council-chamber; and you yourself, and none other, did then write the same, and deliver it to me. By reason whereof it cannot be, nor is, true, that which in the commission, denunciation, articles, and other things is deduced and objected against me in this behalf; referring me as well to the tenor of the said commission, denunciation, injunctions, and articles, as also unto my allegations and answers herein made unto the same, remaining in the acts of this cause and matter."
When these fond and frivolous objections were thus read, the archbishop, seeing his inordinate and intolerable contempt towards them, charged him very sharply, saying thus:
"My Lord of London, if I had sitten here only as archbishop of Canterbury, it had been your part to have used yourself more lowly, obediently, and reverently towards me than you have; but, seeing that I, with my colleagues, sit here now as delegates from the king's Majesty, I must tell you plain, you have behaved yourself too, too much inordinately. For at every time that we have sitten in commission, you have used such unseemly fashions, without all reverence and obedience, giving taunts and checks as well unto us, with divers of the servants and chaplains, as also unto certain of the ancientest that be here, calling them fools and daws, with such like, as that you have given to the multitude an intolerable example of disobedience. And I assure you, my Lord, there is you, and one other bishop whom I could name, that have used yourselves so contemptuously and disobediently, as the like I think hath not before been heard of or seen; whereby ye have done much harm."
At which words the gross bishop (a beast, a man might justly term him) said scornfully to the archbishop, "You show yourself to be a meet judge."
The archbishop, then proceeding, laid to his charge, how indiscreetly, the last day in the chapel, he had called all the people woodcocks.
Whereunto he answered, that the last session Hugh Latimer, one of the denouncers, being there present, had practised with the audience, that when he lifted up his hand to them, they should (and did as it were by a token given them) say as he said, and do as he did; as, at one time, upon the lifting up of his hand, they cried, "Nay, nay;" and at another time, "Yea, yea," and laughed they could not tell whereat; with such-like fashions.
Unto which words Latimer, seeing his vain suspicion, replied, saying, that he lifted not up his nand at any time but only to cause them to hold their peace.
Then secretary Smith said to the bishop, that in all his writings and answers that he had hitherto laid in, he would not once acknowledge them as the king's commissioners, but used always protestations,with divers ink-horn and naughty terms, calling them pretended commissioners, pretended delegates, pretended commission, pretended articles, pretended proceedings; so that all things were pretended with him.
"Indeed," said secretary Smith, "such terms the proctors of churches use, to delay matters for their clients, when they will not have the truth known. But you, my Lord, to use us, the king's Majesty's commissioners, with such terms, you do therein very lewdly and naughtily. And I pray you what other thing did the rebels? For when letters or pardons were brought them from the king and his council, they would not credit them, but said they were none of the king's or his council's, but gentlemen's doings, and made under a bush; with such-like terms. But now, my Lord, because hitherto we cannot make you confess whether, in your sermon that you preached, ye omitted the article touching the king's Majesty's authority in his tender age or not, but still have said that ye will not otherwise answer than ye have done, and that ye have already sufficiently answered, (with many such delays,) so as we can by no means induce you to confess plainly what you did, yea or nay; therefore, I say, to the intent we may come to the truth, we have dilated the matter more at large, and have drawn out other articles whereunto you shall be sworn; and then, I trust, you will dally with us no more as you have done: for, although ye make your answers in writing, yet you shall be examined by us, and make your answers by mouth to the same articles; or else you shall do worse. Indeed I do not, as I said, discommend your protestations and terms of law, if it were in a young proctor that would help his client's cause: but in you, it may not be suffered so to use the king's commissioners."
Then did the delegates minister unto him certain new articles and injunctions, and did there onerate him with a corporal oath in form of law, to make a full and true answer thereunto. The bishop, notwithstanding, still (according to his wonted manner) under his former protestation, protested of the nullity and invalidity of these articles, injunctions, and process, desiring also a copy thereof, with a competent time to answer thereunto. To whom the judges decreed a copy, commanding him to come to his examination to the archbishop the next day at eight of the clock before noon.
Then the commissioners did receive for witness upon these new articles now ministered unto the bishop, Sir John Mason, knight, Sir Thomas Chalenor, knight, Master William Cecil, Armigel Wade, and William Hunnings, clerks to the king's Majesty s council, whom they onerated with a corporal oath in the presence of the bishop, who, still protesting of the nullity of their receiving and swearing, objected against them and their sayings; and therewith, repeating his interrogatories already ministered, said, he had more to minister by to-morrow at eight of the clock.
The same day and time likewise the bishop exhibited unto the commissioners an information, or rather cavillation, against Hugh Latimer, which also I thought to impart unto the reader.
The information given against Hugh Latimer, priest, of St. Laurence Poultney, by Edmund, bishop of London, the eighteenth day of September, A.D. 1549.
"In the said act and session, Edmund, bishop of London, giveth information and saith: that that said Hugh Latimer, priest -- pretending the good and tranquillity of this realm of England, as he saith, and that the same is very greatly and manifestly hindered and impeached, when any of the king's Majesty's people and subjects do believe or say, that the king's Majesty, our sovereign lord, in his minority, hath not full power and authority royal, as fully and justly as when his Majesty doth come to full and perfect age: and, likewise, that it is also hindered and impeached, when any of the king's Majesty's said people and subjects do declare or say, that the king's said people and subjects are not bound to obey the king's Majesty in his said minority -- hath, of late, in open audience reported and said, that the said Hugh Latimer hath, with his ears, heard divers persons of this realm, at sundry and divers times, unreverently, unobediently, and not faithfully, speak of the king's Majesty -- that now is, words in effect and substance as followeth: 'Tush! the king,' meaning the king of England that now is, 'is but a babe or child: what laws can he make? or what can he do in his minority? Let him have a toast and butter, or bread and milk; and that is more meet for him, than to make laws or statutes to bind us to obey them. We are not bound to obey, till he be past his minority, and come to his full and perfect age.'
"And those words were spoken before you, my Lord of Canterbury, my Lord of Rochester, Master Thomas Smith, and Master William May, by the mouth of the said Hugh Latimer at your last session; and the said Hugh Latimer was neither controlled by any of you for these words nor any of them, nor yet commanded to bring in such persons as had uttered and spoken the said words, but passed in silence: saving that I, the said Edmund, did speak against the said Hugh Latimer in this behalf, telling them that I would detect and denounce hereof. By all which it appeareth that the said Hugh Latimer hath long concealed, and not opened the words aforesaid, in such places, and to such persons, as of bounden duty he ought and should; but kept the persons and sayings secret, either not taking this matter of such importance as he pretended, either else unfaithfully and untruly behaving himself towards the king's Majesty and his council; worthy, therefore, to be convented and punished, with his aiders and abettors, favourers and councillors."
These vain cavillations ended, the commissioners for that day finished their session, assigning the bishop to appear in that same place again upon Monday then next following, between the hours of six and nine, in the forenoon, then and there to show a final cause why he should not be declared pro confesso. And so delivering him a copy of the articles, they departed; the contents whereof ensue:
"I. That ye were sent for to the lord protector's Grace, and the rest of the council, and came thither into the court at Westminster the tenth of August, or some other day of the same month.
"II. Item, That at the same time the lord protector and divers other of the king's Majesty's privy council sitting in council, ye were called in; and there the said lord protector did, on the king's Majesty's behalf, declare unto you divers faults and abuses which were found in you, and gave you strait charge to amend them; adding threatening, that else you should be otherwise looked unto.
"III. Item, That the said lord protector's Grace did declare unto you, for better, admonition and amendment of you, that you should have, from the king's Majesty, by his advice and the rest of the privy council, certain articles and injunctions, to observe and follow, given you in writing.
"IV. Item, That there and then the said lord protector commanded Sir Thomas Smith, knight, secretary to the king's Majesty, to read a certain proper book of injunctions and articles unto you, the said secretary standing at the council-table's end, and you standing by and hearing the same.
"V. Item, That the said lord protector there and then willed certain things in the said book of injunctions to be reformed, as whereas ye were appointed to preach sooner, at your request it was appointed unto you to preach the Sunday three weeks after the date of the said writing.
"VI. Item, That in the said articles the lord protector's Grace found fault, because an article or commandment unto you set forth and declared of the king's Majesty's authority now in his young age and of his laws and statutes in the same time, was omitted; and therefore, either immediately before you came into the council chamber, or you being present and standing by, commanded the said secretary Smith to put it in writing, and annex it to the rest of the articles.
"VII. Item, That the said secretary Smith, then and there did, immediately upon commandment, write into the said book or paper, wherein the rest of the articles were written, the said article, namely, You shall also set forth in your sermon, that the authority of our royal power is (as truth it is) of no less authority and force in this our young age, than was that of any of our predecessors, though the same were much elder, as may appear by example of Josias and other young kings in the Scripture; and therefore all our subjects to be no less bound to the obedience of our precepts, laws, and statutes, than if we were of thirty or forty years of age.
"VIII. Item, That the lord protector did so deliver you the book or paper, willing, first, the said secretary Smith to amend all things as be had appointed.
"IX. Item, That ye then and there did promise to the lord protector's Grace, that ye would observe and fulfil all in the said injunctions and articles contained.
"X. Item, That all things in the said book, put in and mentioned by the said secretary Smith, and the same so read to you by him, and you first agreeing that all that was by him so written was by the lord protector's appointment, the said book was so delivered unto you then and there, by the said secretary Smith in the council chamber.
"XI. Item, That you have the said book in your possession, or else know where it is, the true copy whereof in effect is annexed to these articles.
"XII. Item, That ye were commanded in the same injunctions to preach the Sunday three weeks after the delivery thereof at Paul's, and there to treat upon certain articles, as is specified in the said book of injunctions, and especially the said article, beginning, 'Ye shall also set forth,' and ending, 'thirty or forty years of age.'
"XIII. Item, That for the accomplishment of part of the said injunctions and commandment, you did preach the first day of September last past at Paul's Cross.
"XIV. Item, That at the said sermon, contrary to your injunctions, ye omitted and left out the said article, beginning, 'Ye shall also set forth in your sermon,' &c., and ending, 'thirty or forty years of age.'
"XV. Ye shall also answer whether ye think and believe that the king's Majesty's subjects be bound to obey as well the laws, statutes, proclamations, and other ordinances made now in this youngage of the king's Majesty, as the laws, statutes, proclamations, and ordinances made by his Highness's progenitors."
These articles being thus ministered to the said bishop of London, the next day being Thursday and the nineteenth of September, the forenamed commissioners sat in the archbishop's chamber of presence at Lambeth, attending-the coming of the bishop of London; before whom there appeared Robert Johnson, the bishop's registrar, and there did declare unto the commissioners, that the bishop his master could not at that time personally appear before them without great danger of his bodily health, because that he feared to fall into a fever by reason of a cold that he had taken by too much over-watching himself the last night before, whereby he was compelled to keep his bed: nevertheless, if he could without danger of his bodily health, he would appear before them the same day at afternoon. This excuse the judges were content to take in good part. Yet, said Master Secretary Smith, if he were sick indeed, the excuse was reasonable, and to be allowed; "but," quoth he, "I promise you my Lord hath so dallied with us, and used hitherto such delays, that we may mistrust that this is but a feigned excuse: howbeit, upon your faithful declaration, we are content to tarry until one of the clock at afternoon." And so they did, willing Master Johnson to signify then unto them, whether the bishop could appear or not.
At which hour Robert Johnson and Richard Rogers, gentlemen of the bishop's chamber, appeared again before the commissioners, declaring that (for the causes afore alleged) their master could not appear at that time neither. Whereupon Master Secretary Smith said unto them,
"My Lord of London your master hath used us very homely, and sought delays hitherto; and now, perhaps, perceiving these last articles to touch the quick, and therefore loath to come to his answer, he feigneth himself sick. But, because he shall not so deceive us any more, we will send the knight marshal unto him, willing him, if he be sick indeed, to let him alone, for that is a reasonable excuse; but, if he be not sick, then to bring him forthwith to us: for I promise you he shall not use us as he hath done; we will not take it at his hands. And, therefore, Master Johnson, (said he,) you do the part of a trusty servant as becometh you; but it is also your part to show my Lord his stubborn heart and disobedience, which doth him more harm than he is aware of. What! thinketh he to stand with a king in his own realm? Is this the part of a subject? Nay, I ween we shall have a new Thomas a Becket. Let him take heed; for if he play these parts, he may fortune to be made shorter by the head. He may appeal if he think good; but whither? To the bishop of Rome? So he may help himself forwards, I say, he cannot appeal but to the same king, who hath made us his judges, and to the bench of his council; and how they will take this matter when they hear of it, I doubt not. He would make men believe, that he were called before us for preaching his opinion of the sacrament, wherein I assure you he did both falsely and naughtily; yea, and lewdly; and more than became him; and more than he had in commandment to do; for he was not willed to speak of that matter, and perhaps he may hear more of that hereafter: but yet we will lay no such thing to his charge, and therefore we will not have him to delay us as he doth."
Which ended, the delegates notwithstanding decreed to tarry again for him until two of the clock at afternoon the next day, being Friday, and the 20th of September.
Illustration -- Bonner refusing to come before the commisioners
The fifth action or process, the twentieth of September, against Bonner, bishop of London, before the king's commissioners.
At which day and time the bishop appeared himself personally before them in the same chamber of presence; where first he did exhibit his answers unto the last articles ministered unto him the eighteenth of September; the contents whereof hereunder follow:
"The answers of me, Edmund, bishop of London, under mine accustomed protestation given unto the articles of late ministered and exhibited against me here in this court; with special protestation also, that I do not intend in any wise to make answer to any of the said articles otherwise than the law of this realm doth bind me to do, nor to speak or say contrary to any thing that in my former answers I have said or done; and that if it so chance me to do, it is not, nor shall it be, with my good will or full consent; and that so soon as I shall perceive it, I intend to revoke it, and so now as then, and then as now, do so in that case revoke, to all honest and lawful purposes.
"To the first article I do answer and say, that there was a messenger, whose name I know not, that came unto me to Fulham, as I now remember, but I do not remember the day thereof; and he said that my lord protector's Grace required me to come by and by to speak with him. And thereupon, having made the said messenger to break his fast, I repaired to the court at Westminster; but not upon the tenth day of August, but some other day of the said month.
"To the second article I do say, that it is obscure, uncertain, and over general, especially in those words 'at the same time,' which may be referred to the tenth of August, and then answer already is made thereunto; and it may be referred to some other day of the said month of August, either before the tenth of August. or after. And because it remaineth undeclared, I am not bound in law to answer unto it, neither yet to these words and sentences in the said article, to wit, 'then, and there,' for they, without declaration, are uncertain, obscure, and general; and I, before the specification and declaration thereof, not bound herein to make an answer, especially having already made full and sufficient answer in this matter, according to the commission, as I do take it, and according unto the law; which also willeth, that if a certain answer be looked for, the position and article must before be certain.
"To the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth articles, he answereth all after one manner and sort, as thus: That it doth depend on the articles, to which for causes aforesaid, he saith, he is not hound in law to make answer, especially having already made. Saving that in the sixth he addeth thereunto, that he at no time heard the lord protector find fault, nor commanded, as is deduced in the said article, so far as he doth find. Also saving the seventh article, where he addeth, Nevertheless confessing and acknowledging, with heart and mouth, the king's Majesty's authority and regal power and minority, as well and full as in his majority:
"Also saving the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh articles, where he addeth, 'As they be deduced, they are not true; as appeareth in conferring one with another.'
"To the twelfth and fourteenth articles, he addeth, 'As they be deduced, they are not true;' confessing, nevertheless, the king's Majesty's authority and power regal, as before is expressed.
"To the fifteenth article he answereth and saith, that it is a position in law, and that yet both now and heretofore be hath made answer thereunto in effect and substance, as appeareth in his former answers, and so shall do always according to the law and his bounden duty, acknowledging, as he hath already done, the king's Majesty's regal power in his minority to be no less than in his majority; and the subjects bound to obey unto his Grace, his laws, statutes, and ordinances, and his said authority, as well in his minority as in his majority; not allowing, but expressly condemning, the opinion of all rebels holding the contrary."
After this, perceiving that Master Secretary Smith was somewhat more quick with him than others of the commissioners, and that he would not suffer him any longer to dally out the matter with his vain quiddities and subtleties in law, but ever earnestly urged him to go directly to his matter, and therewithal sometimes sharply rebuking him for his evil and stubborn behaviour towards them; Bonner, to deface his authority, (as he thought,) did also then exhibit in writing a recusation of the secretary's judgment against him: the form and manner whereof, as he exhibited it unto the judges, I thought here also to exhibit unto the reader as hereunder followeth:
"In the name of God, Amen. Forasmuch as equity, natural reason, and all good laws, do require that judges shall be of that integrity, wisdom, circumspection, learning, and indifferency, that, exercising the office and room of a judge, they may and shall do it without hatred, malice, or grudge against any person convented or called before them; uprightly, sincerely, and duly executing and doing their office unto them in any wise committed: and forasmuch also as all judgments and process ought to have their due course, and proceed without suspicion or corruption in any wise: and finally, forasmuch as very dangerous it is to appear and make defence before an incompetent judge, who commonly and accustomably, of private and unlawful corrupt affection to the one side, and for malice, hatred, and envy borne against the other side, rather serveth his carnal, corrupt, and wilful appetite, than by any thing else is moved to obedience and keeping of good order, law, or reason, touching him that is convented and compelled to make answer against his will: I therefore, Edmund, bishop of London, having perceived and felt by all the sayings, proceedings, and doings of you Sir Thomas Smith, knight, one of the two principal secretaries to the king's Majesty, in this matter attempted and moved against me, that ye have been, and yet continually are, a notorious and manifest enemy of me the said Edmund, and much offended that I should in any wise allege and say, or use any such things for my most defence, as the law giveth me licence and liberty to do; yea, hearing most favourably and effectually my denouncers and enemies with both ears in any thing that they shall allege, purpose, attempt, or do against me, though their persons in law are not in any wise to be heard or admitted, nor yet their sayings true; and not hearing me so much as with one ear in my lawful sayings and doings in this behalf; but, contrariwise, opening your mouth at large, ye have sundry times, against good wisdom and reason, outraged in words and deeds against me the said Edmund, saying, among other words, 'that I did as thieves, murderers, and traitors are wont to do, being myself, (as ye untruly did say,) inwardly indeed culpable; and yet outwardly otherwise unable to defend the matter against me, but only by taking exceptions, and making frivolous allegations against my judges and commissioners; and that I have been and am as sturdy, wilful, and disobedient, as may be in your judgment and opinion, maintaining and upholding the rebels and their opinions; and that I shall answer by mouth, or else smart and do worse; or else ye will send me to the Tower, there to sit and be joined with Ket and Humphrey Arundel the rebels:' over and besides divers other threatenings and comminatory words by you pronounced and uttered unseemly, and far unmeet to proceed out of the mouth of you, that are in such room and place as ye be in.
"And moreover, increasing your malice, evil will, and grudge borne against me, ye have, amongst other things, untruly surmised, written, alleged, and said, that a certain book of articles and injunctions by the lord's protector's Grace in the full council, after a certain prescribed fashion and form in the denunciation, commission, and articles which, were actually induced, brought in, and objected against me, was delivered unto me: and, moreover, of an evil will and ungodly intent and purpose, contrary to the truth, ye have withdrawn, added, altered, and qualified divers things in the same, otherwise than they were spoken and done; and yet ye are not ashamed to allege, write, and say, that all is true, and one consonant and agreeable in all points with the other, whereas indeed it is not so. And yet have further, against the law, and against the commission to you directed, and against my just and lawful allegations and sayings, proceeded unlawfully and unjustly against me, attempting many things against me unlawfully and unjustly, as appeareth in the acts of this matter, to the which I do refer me so far forth as they make for me, and be expedient by me and for me to be alleged and referred unto yourself also unlawfully and unjustly, de facto, with your colleagues; the which, without you had begun the said matters, proceeding where by the law ye so ought not to have done indeed, but abstained therefrom, as heretofore sundry times I have alleged, appearing in the acts of this court: I do, upon these just and reasonable causes, according to the order of the king's Majesty's ecclesiastical laws, refuse, decline, and recuse you the said Sir Thomas Smith, as an incompetent, unmeet, and suspect judge, against me in this behalf; and decline your pretended jurisdiction in this matter for causes aforesaid, desiring nothing but justice, and offering myself prompt and ready to prove them as far as I am bound, and according to the order of the king's Majesty's ecclesiastical laws of this realm, in this behalf, as time, place, and otherwise shall require."
This recusation ended, the secretary told him plain, that, notwithstanding, he would proceed in his commission, and would be still his judge until he were otherwise inhibited; and said unto him further, "My Lord! whereas you say in your recusation, that I said that you did like thieves, murderers, and traitors; indeed I said it, and may and will so say again, since we perceive it by your doings."
Whereupon the bishop in a great and stout rage replied, saying, "Well, sir! because you sit here by virtue of the king's commission, and for that ye be secretary to his Majesty, and also one of his Highness's council, I must and do honour and reverence you; but as you be but Sir Thomas Smith, and say as ye have said, that I do like thieves, murderers, and traitors, I say ye lie upon me, and in that case I defy you; and do what ye can to me, I fear you not, and therefore, what you do, do quickly."
Whereat the archbishop with the other commissioners said unto him, that for such his unreverent behaviour he was worthy imprisonment.
Then the bishop, in more mad fury than before, said again unto him, "A God's name ye may do de facto: send me whither you will, and I must obey you; and so will, except ye send me to the devil; for thither I will not go for you. Three things I have; to wit, a small portion of goods, a poor carcass, and mine own soul: the two first ye may take (though unjustly) to you, but as for my soul, ye get not."
"Well," said the secretary, "then ye shall know that there is a king."
"Yea, sir," saith the bishop, "but that is not you; neither, I am sure, will you take it upon you."
"No, sir," said again the secretary, "but we will make you know who it is." And with that the commissioners commanded the bishop and all the rest to depart the chamber, until they called for him again.
Now, in the mean while that the commissioners were in consultation, the bishop, with Gilbert Bourn his chaplain, Robert Warnington his commissary, and Robert Johnson his registrar, were tarrying in a void quadrant-place before the door of the same chamber; where the bishop, leaning on a cupboard, and seeing his chaplains very sad, said unto them in effect as followeth:
"Sirs, what mean you? Why show you yourselves to be so sad and heavy in mind, as appeareth to me by your outward gestures and countenances? I would wish you, and I require you, to be as merry as I am (laying therewith his hand upon his breast); for, afore God, I am not sad or heavy, but merry and of good comfort; and am right glad and joyful of this my trouble, which is for God's cause; and it grieveth me nothing at all. But the great matter that grieveth me and pierceth my heart, is, for that this Hooper and such other vile heretics and beasts, be suffered and licensed to preach at Paul's Cross, and in other places within my diocese and cure, most detestably preaching and railing at the blessed sacrament of the altar, and denying the verity and presence of Christ's true body and blood to be there: and so infect and betray my flock. But, I say, it is there in very deed, and in that opinion I will live and die, and am ready to suffer death for the same. Wherefore ye, being Christian men, I do require you, and also charge and command you, in the name of God, and on his behalf, as ye will answer him for the contrary, that ye go to the mayor of London, and to his brethren the aldermen, praying and also requiring them earnestly, in God's name and mine, and for mine own discharge on that behalf, that from henceforth, when any such detestable and abominable preachers, and especially those who hold opinion against the blessed sacrament of the altar, do come to preach unto them, they forthwith depart out of their presence, and do not hear them; lest that they, tarrying with such preachers, should not only hurt themselves in receiving their poisoned doctrine, but also give a visage to the encouragement of others, who thereby might take an occasion to think and believe, that their erroneous and damnable doctrine is true and good: and this eftsoons I require and command you to do."
And then turning himself about, and beholding two of the archbishop's gentlemen, who in the same place kept the chamber-door where the commissioners were in consultation, and perceiving that they had heard all his talk, he spake unto them also and said:
"And, sirs, ye be my Lord of Canterbury's gentlemen; I know ye very well; and therefore I also require and charge you, in God's behalf, and in his name, that ye do the like, for your parts, in places where you shall chance to see and hear such corrupt and erroneous preachers; and also advertise my Lord your master of the same, and of these my sayings, that I have now spoken here before you, as ye are Christian men, and shall answer before God for the contrary."
With this the commissioners called for the bishop again, who did read unto them an instrument, containing a provocation to the king, which he made in manner and form here following:
"In the name of God, Amen. It shall appear to all men by this public instrument that A.D. 1549, the twentieth day of September, the third year of the reign of our most high and renowned Prince Edward the Sixth, by the grace of God king of England, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, and in earth the supreme head of the church of England and Ireland, in a chamber within the palace of the said bishop, situated in London, and in the presence of me the public notary, and of the witnesses hereafter named, the aforesaid bishop did personally appear, and there did show forth in writing a certain protestation and appellation, the tenor whereof ensueth:
"'In the name of God, Amen. I, Edmund, bishop of London, say, allege, and propound, before you being a public notary, and these credible witnesses here present, that although I, the aforesaid Edmund, have attained the bishopric aforesaid by the benevolence of the prince of famous memory King Henry the Eighth, and was lawfully elected and translated to the same, with his rites and appurtenances, and have of a long time possessed peaceably and quietly the same, and presently do possess, being taken as bishop and lawful possessor of the said bishopric, and am lawfully called, taken, and reputed notoriously and publicly; and, moreover, do keep residence and hospitality in the same, according to the order, state, person, and dignity, and as the revenues of the same would permit; and have exercised and done all things appertaining to my pastoral office, as the laws do require, as hereafter I trust by God's grace to do and observe; a man of good name and fame, neither suspended, excommunicated, nor interdicted, neither convicted of any notable crime or fact, always obeying readily the commandment of the church, and other my superiors in all lawful causes; nevertheless, fearing upon certain probable causes, likely conjectures, threatenings, and assertions of certain injurious men my enemies, or at the least, such as little favour me, that great damage may come to me hereafter about the premises or part of them; and lest any man by any authority, commandment, denunciation, iniquisition, office, or at the request of any person or persons, may attempt prejudice or hurt to me or my said dignity, either by my excommunication, interdiction, sequestration, spoiling, vexing, and perturbing by any manner of means; do appeal unto the most high and mighty prince our sovereign lord Edward the Sixth, by the grace of God king of England, France, &c., and in these my writings do provoke and appeal to his regal Majesty. I do also require the apostles, so much as in this case they are to be required, the first, second, and third time, earnestly, more earnestly, and most earnestly of all, that there may be given to me the protection, tuition, and defence of my aforesaid most dread sovereign lord, for the safeguard of me, my dignity and title, and possession in the premises, and to all that will cleave to me in this behalf. I do also protest, that I will be contented to correct, reform, and amend this my protestation, and to the same to add, to take away, and to bring the same into the best form and state that may be devised by the counsel of learned men, or as the case shall require; and the same to intimate according to time and place, and the order of the law, and still shall require.
"Upon all the which premises the aforesaid Edmund, bishop of London, did require the public notary hereunder written to make unto him, and the witnesses hereafter named, one, two, or more copies of this protestation.
"These things were done the year, day, and time above written, there being present Gilbert Bourn, bachelor of divinity, John Harpsfield and Robert Colen, masters of arts, John Wakeling and Richard Rogers, learned men; being of the diocese of Worcester, Westminster, Coventry, Lichfield, and Gloucester, and especially requested to be witnesses of the same. And I, France Harward, of the diocese of Worcester, and public notary by the king's regal authority, forasmuch as I was present when the foresaid protestation, appellation, and other the premises were done, the year of our Lord, the year of the reign of the king, the day of the month and place aforesaid, the witnesses above named being present, and forasmuch as I did enact the same, therefore to this present public instrument, written faithfully with mine own hand, I have put to my mark, being specially requested unto the same."
Which thing after he had read, he did, under his protestation, first intimate unto the archbishop, the bishop of Rochester, and Dr. May, and then, protesting also not to recede from his recusation, did likewise intimate the same unto Master Secretary Smith, requiring the registrar to make an instrument as well thereupon, as also upon his recusation, with witness to testify the same.
Then the delegates did again proceed to the examination of the last answers, and finding the same imperfect, they demanded of him, (according to the first article,) what special day of August he was sent for by the lord protector? To whom he obstinately answered, that he was not bound to make other answer than he had already made, unless they did put their articles more certain: neither would he otherwise answer as long as Master Secretary Smith was there present, whom he had before recused, and therefore would not recede from his recusation.
The secretary, seeing him so wilful and perverse, said sharply unto him, "My Lord! come off, and make a full and perfect answer unto these articles, or else we will take other order with you to your pain."
"In faith, sir," then said the bishop again, "I have thought ye had been learned; but now, before God, I perceive well that either ye be not learned indeed, or else ye have forgotten it: for I have so often answered lawfully and sufficiently, and have so often showed causes sufficient and reasonable, why thereunto I ought not by law to be compelled, (you showing nothing to the contrary, but sensuality and will,) that I must needs judge that you are ignorant herein."
"Well," said Master Secretary, "ye will not then otherwise answer?"
"No," said the bishop, "except the law compel me."
Then said the secretary, "Call for the knight-marshal, that he may be had to ward."
With that all the rest of the commissioners charged the bishop, that he had at that time sundry ways very outrageously and irreverently behaved himself towards them sitting on the king's Majesty's commission, and especially towards Sir Thomas Smith, his Grace's secretary; and therefore, and for divers other contumelious words which he had spoken, they declared they would commit him to the Marshalsea.
By this time the marshal's deputy came before them, whom Master Secretary commanded to take the bishop as prisoner, and so to keep him, that no man might come unto him; for if he did, he should sit by him himself.
When the secretary had ended his talk, the bishop said unto him, "Well, sir, it might have become you right well, that my Lord's Grace here present, being first in commission, and your better, should have done it."
Then the commissioners, assigning him to be brought before them on Monday next before noon, between seven and nine of the clock in the hall of that place, there to make full answer to these last articles, or else to show cause why he should not be declared as having confessed, did, for that present, break up that session.
Now as the bishop was departing with the under-marshal, he in a great fury turned himself again toward the commissioners, and said to Sir Thomas Smith, "Sir, whereas ye have committed me to prison, ye shall understand that I will require no favour at your hands, but shall willingly suffer what shall be put unto me, as bolts on my heels, yea, and if ye will, iron about my middle, or where ye will."
Then departing again, he yet returned once more, and foaming out his poison, said unto the archbishop; "Well, my Lord! I am sorry that I, being a bishop, am thus handled at your Grace's hand; but more sorry that ye suffer abominable heretics to practise as they do in London and elsewhere, infecting and disquieting the king's liege people. And therefore I do require you, as you will answer to God and the king, that ye will henceforth abstain thus to do: for if you do not, I will accuse you before God and the king's Majesty; answer to it as well as ye can." And so he departed, using many reproachful words against sundry of the common people, who stood and spake to him by the way as he went.
The sixth action or process, upon Monday the twenty-third of September, had against Banner, bishop of London, before the commissioners, in the great hall at Lambeth.
It was assigned, as ye have heard, in the fourth act, prosecuted the eighteenth day of September, that upon Monday then next following, being the twenty-third of the same month, the bishop should again appear before the commissioners within the great hall at Lambeth, then to show a final cause why he should not be declared pro confesso, upon all the articles whereunto he had not fully answered.
According to which assignment, the same twenty-third day of September, the bishop was brought before them by the under-marshal, (to whom for his disobedient and obstinate behaviour he was before that time committed,) and there did first declare unto them, that his appearance at that time and place was not voluntary, but coacted; for that he was against his will brought thither by the keeper of the Marshalsea; and therewithal also, under his former protestation, recusation, and appeal, did then again intimate a general recusation of all the commissioners, alleging in the same, that because the archbishop, with all his colleagues, had neither observed the order of their commission, nor yet proceeded against him after any laudable or good fashion of judgment, but, contrariwise, had sundry times, as well in his absence as in his presence, attempted many things unlawfully against his person, dignity, and state, especially in committing him to strait prison, and yet commanding him to make answer: and further, because that he, with the rest, had proceeded in commission with Sir Thomas Smith, knight, supporting and maintaining all his evil doings, (notwithstanding that he the said bishop had before justly recused and declined from him,) he, therefore, did also there refuse and decline from the judgment of the said archbishop and his colleagues, and did except against their jurisdiction as suspect, and they, thereby, unmeet persons to proceed against him. Therefore, according to his former appeal, he intended to submit himself under the tuition, protection, and defence of the king's Majesty; for whose honour and reverence' sake (he said) they ought not to proceed any further against him, but quietly suffer him to use the benefit of all the recusations, provocations, and other lawful remedies before alleged, with other superfluous words, at large to be read and seen, as followeth.
The second recusation made by Edmund Bonner, bishop of London.
"In the name of God. Amen. Forasmuch as both natural reason and all good policies of laws, especially of this realm of England, do admit and suffer him that is convented before an incompetent and suspect judge, to refuse him and to decline his jurisdiction, inasmuch as the law and reason on the one side will process to run uprightly and justly, and that on the other side corruption and malice earnestly labour to the contrary, and need therefore to be bridled; and because you, my Lord of Canterbury, with your colleagues in this behalf, (deputed, as ye say, commissioners against me,) neither have observed your said commission, neither yet proceed hitherto against me after any laudable, lawful, or any good fashion of judgment; but, contrariwise, contrary to your commission, and against the law, good reason, and order, have, at sundry times and in sundry acts, attempted and done many things against me unlawfully, unseemly, and unjustly, and suffer the like to be attempted and done by others, not reforming and amending the same, as appeareth in divers and sundry things remaining in your acts:
"And moreover, because you, my said Lord, with your said colleagues, have, (both in mine absence, being let with just causes of impediment, which, according to the laws of this realm, I have fully alleged, and very sufficiently and justly proved, according to the order of the king's ecclesiastical laws,) injuriously, and much to the hinderance of my name, person, title, dignity, and state, and also otherwise, especially in my presence; against all laws, good order, and reason, without good cause or ground, attempted and done many things against me, especially touching mine imprisonment; sending me to strait ward, and yet commanding me to make answer, as appeareth in your unlawful acts:
"I, for these causes, and also for that ye my said Lord and your said colleagues, proceeding with Sir Thomas Smith, knight, (whom upon just and lawful causer I have refused, recused, and declined,) have favoured, yea maintained, supported, and borne him in his unlawful and evil doings, do also refuse, recuse, and decline you my said Lord, with the rest of your said colleagues agreeing and joining with you; and do except against your proceedings, doings, and jurisdiction, as suspect, and thereby unmeet persons to proceed herein against me.
"And further, I do allege, that having been provoked to the king's most excellent Majesty, as appeareth by the tenor of my provocation remaining in your acts, whereunto I do protest that I intend to adhere and cleave, submitting myself unto the tuition, protection, and defence of his said Majesty in this behalf, ye in any wise ought not (if ye regard the person and authority of his Grace's royal power, as ye ought to do) to proceed herein against me; especially for the honour and reverence ye ought to have unto his Majesty in this behalf. And because it appeareth that ye do not duly and circumspectly consider the same, as ye ought to do, but more and more do grieve me; that not considered, I both here to all purposes repeat my former recusation, provocation, and all other remedies that heretofore I have used and mentioned in your said acts; and also do, by these presents, refuse, recuse, and decline you my said Lord, and your said colleagues, and your jurisdiction, upon causes aforesaid, offering myself prompt and ready to prove all the same, before an arbiter and arbiters, according to the tenor and form of the law herein to be chosen, requiring you all, for that honour and reverence ye ought to bear to our said sovereign Lord, and his laws allowed and approved in this behalf, that ye do not attempt or do, nor yet suffer to be attempted or done, any thing in any wise against me, or unto my prejudice; but suffer me to use and enjoy the benefit of my said former, and this, recusation, provocation, allegation, and other lawful remedies mentioned in your said acts. And in case ye do in fact, where ye ought not by right, attempt, or suffer any thing to be attempted or done against me in any wise herein, I protest herewith, and hereby, of my great grief and hurt in that behalf; and that not only I do intend to appeal from you, but also, according to the king's ecclesiastical laws, to accuse and complain upon you, as justly and truly I both may and ought to do."
Notwithstanding these recusations, and former appellations, the archbishop with the rest told him plain, that they would be still his judges, and proceed against him according to the king's commission, until they did receive a supersedeas, which if he did obtain, they would gladly obey.
Then the bishop, seeing that they would still proceed against him, did there likewise intimate another appellation unto the king's Majesty, expressing therein in effect no other matter, but such as is already alleged in the two former recusations and appeals; saving that he requireth that letters dimissory or appellatory might be given him according to the law, and that for his better safeguard he did submit himself under the protection of the king.
The commissioners for all this stuck still unto their commission, and would not in any case defer; but urged him straitly to make a more full answer to his articles than he had done.
To whom the bishop said, that he would stand unto his recusations and appellations before made, and would not make other answer.
Then the delegates demanded of him what cause he had to allege, why he ought not to be declared as having confessed, upon the articles whereunto he had not fully answered; the bishop still answering (as before) that he would adhere unto his appellation and recusation.
Whereupon the archbishop, with consent of the rest, seeing his pertinacy, pronounced him contumacious, and in pain thereof declared him as having confessed, upon the articles whereunto he had not answered.
This done, Master Secretary Smith showed forth a letter which the bishop of London had before that time sent unto the lord mayor and the aldermen of the city of London, the tenor whereof ensueth as followeth.
"To the right honourable and my very good Lord, the lord mayor of London, with all his worshipful brethren; my very dear and worshipshipful friends; with speed.
"Right honourable! with my very humble recommendations:-- Whereas I have perceived of late, and heard with mine ears, what vile beasts and heretics have preached unto you, or rather, like themselves, prated and railed against the most blessed sacrament of the altar, denying the verity and presence of Christ's true body and blood to be there, giving you and the people liberty to believe what ye list; teaching you detestably, that faith in this behalf must not be coacted, but that every man may believe as he will! by reason whereof, lest my presence and silence might unto some have been seen to have allowed their heretical doctrine, and given credit unto them, betraying my flock of the catholic sort, ye know I departed yesterday from the heretic prater's uncharitable charity, and so could have wished that you, and all other that be catholic, should have done, leaving those there with him that be already cast away, and will not be recovered. For your tarrying with him still, shall not only hurt yourselves in receiving his poisoned doctrine, but also shall give a visage that their doctrine is tolerable, by reason that ye are content to hear it, and say nothing against it. And because I cannot tell when I shall speak with you to advertise you hereof, therefore I thought good, for mine own discharge and yours, thus much to write unto you, requiring and praying you again and again, in God's behalf, and for mine own discharge, that ye suffer not yourselves to be abused with such naughty preachers and teachers, in hearing their evil doctrine that ye shall perceive them go about to sow. And thus our blessed Lord long and well preserve you all, with this noble city, in all good rest, godliness, and prosperity. Written in haste, this Monday morning, the sixteenth of September, 1549.
"Your faithful beadsman and poor bishop,
This letter being read, the secretary demanded of him whether he wrote it not; to whom he would not otherwise answer, but that he would still adhere and stand unto his former recusations and appeals; which the commissioners seeing, determined to continue this case in state as it was until Friday then next following, between the hours of eight and nine of the clock before noon, assigning the bishop to be there at the same time and place, then to hear a final decree of this matter, he still protesting as before.
The seventh session or appearance of Bonner, on Tuesday the first of October, before the king's commissioners at Lambeth.
Upon Friday the commissioners, for divers urgent causes letting them, did not sit in commission according to their appointment, but deferred it until Tuesday the first of October then next following. Upon which day the bishop appearing before them, the archbishop made this declaration unto him:
That although as upon Friday last they had appointed to pronounce their final decree and sentence in this matter, yet forasmuch as they thought that that sentence (although they had just cause to give it) should have been very sore against him, they had not only deferred the same until this day, but, minding to be more friendly to him than he was to himself, and to use more easy and gentle reformation towards him, had also made such suit and means for him, that although he had grievously offended the king's Majesty, and very disobediently behaved himself, yet, if he would in the mean while have acknowledged his fault, and have been contented to make some part of amends in submitting himself according to his bounden duty, he should have found much favour; so the sentence should not have been so sore and extreme against him as it was like now to be; for which they were very sorry; especially to see the continuance of such stubborn disobedience, whereby they were then more enforced to give such sentence against him.
The bishop, nothing at all regarding this gentle and friendly admonition and favour, but persisting still in his wonted contumacy, drew forth a paper, whereon he read these words following:
"I, Edmund, bishop of London, brought in as a prisoner by his keeper, out of the Marshalsea, here before you my Lord of Canterbury and your pretended colleagues, do, under my former protestations heretofore by me made before you and remaining in your act, declare that this my presence here at this time is not voluntary, nor of mine own free will and consent, but utterly coacted and against my will; and that being otherwise sent for or brought before you than I am, (that is, as a prisoner,) I would not, being at liberty, have come and appeared before you, but would have declined and refused to make any appearance at all, and would have absented himself from you, as lawfully and well I might have done; standing to, using, and enjoying all and singular my lawful remedies and defences heretofore used, exercised, and enjoyed, especially my provocation, and appellation heretofore interponed and made unto the king's most excellent Majesty, to whom eftsoons, sufficiently, I have both provoked and appealed, and also made supplication, as appeareth in these writings, which, under protestation aforesaid, I do exhibit and leave here with the actuary of this cause; requiring him to make an instrument thereupon, and the persons here present to bear record in that behalf; especially to the intent it may appear, I do better acknowledge the king's Majesty's authority even in his tender and young age, provoking and appealing to his Majesty as my most gracious sovereign and supreme head, with submission to his Highness (as appeareth in my appellation and other remedies) for my tuition and defence, than some other, (I do mean you, my Lord of Canterbury, and your said pretended colleagues,) who, by law and good reason, ought to have deferred and given place unto such provocation, appellation, and supplication, as heretofore lawfully have been by me interponed and made unto his Majesty's most royal person and authority in this behalf."
As soon as the bishop had read these words, he did deliver as well that paper, as also two other, unto the actuary, the one containing an appellation, and the other a supplication unto the king's Majesty; which appellation beginneth thus:
"In the name of God, Amen."-- Wherein first he showed "how naturally every creature declineth gladly from that thing which goeth about to hurt it; and also seeketh help and remedy to withstand such hurts and injuries."
Further, he showed "that it is found by experience to be hurtful and dangerous to trust him that once hath hurt and beguiled, lest he might add more, rather than to take aught from."
Moreover he showed, "that he had found heretofore, at the hands of the archbishop of Canterbury, and the rest of the colleagues in this matter, much extremity and cruelty, injuries, losses, and griefs, contrary to God's law, and the laws and statutes of this realm, and against justice, charity, and good order; being well assured, if they were not stayed, but proceeded, they would add more evil to evil, loss to loss, displeasure to displeasure; as (said he) their servants have reported, and they agreeably do show the same."
Again in the said appeal he showed, "that the bishop of Canterbury, and the other commissioners, ought to have considered and done better in that matter for honour and obedience to the king's Majesty, which hitherto they have not done, (said he,) in that they have not given place to his provocations and appellations heretofore made unto his Grace justly and lawfully, and upon good and just causes; namely, for the unjust griefs they did against him, which (he said) do appear in the acts of that matter; as in pronouncing him contumacious unreasonably, without good cause; and further in assigning the term to hear the final sentence, and in committing him to strait prison, as appeareth in their acts. Therefore he did not only decline and refuse their pretended jurisdiction as before, but also, by these presents here showed, he did appeal from the said archbishop of Canterbury, and the rest, unto the king's Majesty, asking also those letters of appeal which the law doth admit; saying, he did not intend to go from his former provocations and appellations, but to join and cleave unto them in every part and parcel, submitting himself to the protection and defence of the king's Majesty: and he therein made intimation to the archbishop of Canterbury, and to his said colleagues, to all intents and purposes that might come thereof."
Furthermore, as touching the supplication above mentioned, which Bonner, as we said, put up in writing to the commissioners, the copy thereof hereunder likewise ensueth.
The supplication of Bonner to the chancellor of England, with all the rest of the king's Majesty's most honourable privy council.
"Please it your most honourable good Lordships, with my most humble recommendations, to understand, that albeit I have, according to the laws, statutes, and ordinances of this realm, made supplication, provocation, and appellation unto the king's most excellent Majesty, from the unlawful and wicked process of the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Rochester, Master Secretary Smith, and the dean of Paul's; as also as well from their unjust interlocutory, as also their definitive sentence, whereby in law I ought to have liberty to come abroad and prosecute the same, yet, such is the malignity of the judges against me, with bearing and maintenance of others, which sundry and many ways have sought my ruin and destruction, that I am here penned and locked up, used very extremely at their pleasure, and, for the contentation of the said Master Smith, not suffered to find sureties, or to go abroad to prosecute and sue my said appellation.
"In consideration whereof, it may please your said good Lordship to take some order and redress herein, especially for that it is now the time that the king's subsidy, now due, ought to be called upon, and justice also ministered unto his Majesty's subjects; which, being as I now am, I cannot be suffered to do. And thus, without further extending my letter therein, considering that your great wisdoms, experience, and goodness, can gather of a little what is expedient and necessary for the whole, I do beseech Almighty God to preserve and keep well all your honourable good Lordships.
"Written in haste this seventh of October, 1549, in the Marshalsea.
"Your honourable Lordship's poor orator, and most bounden beadsman,
These things ended, the archbishop said unto him, "My Lord! where you say that you come coacted, or else you would not have appeared, I do much marvel of you: for you would thereby make us and this audience here believe, that because you are a prisoner, ye ought not therefore to answer; which, if it were true, it were enough to confound the whole state of this realm. For I dare say, that of the greatest prisoners and rebels that ever your keeper there" (meaning the under marshal) "hath had under him, he cannot show me one that hath used such defence as you here have done."
"Well," quoth the bishop, "if my keeper were learned in the laws, I could show him my mind therein."
"Well," said the archbishop, "I have read over all the laws as well as you, but to another end and purpose than you did; and yet I can find no such privilege in this matter."
Then Master Secretary Smith did very sore burden and charge him, how disobediently and rebelliously he had always behaved himself towards the king's Majesty and his authority. Whereupon the bishop, under his protestation, answered again, that he was the king's Majesty's lawful and true subject, and did acknowledge his Highness to be his gracious sovereign lord, or else he would not have appealed unto him as he had; yea, and would gladly lay his hands and his neck also under his Grace's feet; and therefore he desired that his Highness's laws and justice might be ministered unto him.
"Yea," quoth Master Secretary, "you say well, my Lord: but I pray you what other have all these rebels both in Norfolk, Devonshire, and Cornwall, and other places done? Have they not said thus? We be the king's true subjects; we acknowledge him for our king, and we will obey his laws, with such like: and yet, when either commandment, letter, or pardon, was brought unto them from his Majesty, they believed it not, but said it was forged and made under a hedge, and was gentlemen's doings; so that indeed they neither would nor did obey any thing."
"Ah, sir," said the bishop, "I perceive your meaning; as who should say that the bishop of London is a rebel like them." "Yea, by my troth," quoth the secretary. Whereat the people laughed.
Then the dean of Paul's said unto him, that he marvelled much, and was very sorry to see him so untractable, that he would not suffer the judges to speak. To whom the bishop disdainfully answered, "Well, Master dean! you must say somewhat." And likewise at another time as the dean was speaking, he interrupted and said, "You may speak when your turn cometh."
Then said the Secretary Smith, "I would you knew your duty." "I would," quoth he again, "you knew it as well as I:" with an infinite deal more of other such stubborn and contemptuous talk and behaviour towards them; which the commissioners weighing, and perceiving no likelihood of any tractable reason in him, they determined that the archbishop, with their whole consent, should at that present there openly read and publish their final decree or sentence definitive against him; which he did, pronouncing him thereby to be clean deprived from the bishopric of London; which ended, the bishop immediately did therefrom appeal by word of mouth, alleging that the same sentence there given against him, was no law; the tenor of whose words I thought here to express, according as they were by him uttered, in this wise as followeth:
"I, Edmund, bishop of London, brought in and kept here as a prisoner against my consent and will, do, under my former protestation heretofore made, and to the intent it may also appear that I have not, being so here in this place, consented or agreed to any thing done against me and in my prejudice, allege and say that this sentence given here against me, is lex nulla; and so far forth as it shall appear to be aliqua; I do say it is iniqua et injusta, and that therefore I do from it, as iniqua et injusta, appeal to the most excellent and noble King Edward the Sixth, by the grace of God, king of England, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, and of the church of England and also Ireland (next and immediately under God here on earth) supreme head, and unto his court of chancery or parliament, as the laws, statutes, and ordinances of this realm will suffer and bear in this behalf; desiring instantly, first, second, and third, according to the laws, letters reverential, or dimissories, to be given and delivered unto me in this behalf, with all things expedient, requisite, or necessary in any wise."
And thereupon also the said bishop required the public notary or actuary, William Say, to make an instrument, and the witness aforesaid and others present to record the same: to whom so appealing, and requiring as before, the said judge's delegate said, that they would declare and signify to the king's Majesty what was done in this matter; and thereupon would defer or not defer to his said appellation, according as his Grace's pleasure and commandment should be given to them in that behalf.
And after all this, the said bishop of London said to them, "You have now discharged your office. What will your Grace do with me now, touching my imprisonment? will ye keep me still in prison? shall I not now be at liberty to prosecute mine appeal?" To whom the archbishop answering, said, that they perceived now more in that matter than they did at first, and that this matter was greater rebellion than he was aware of; and therefore they said that as yet they would not discharge him. And thereupon they committed him again to his keeper in prison.
This talk finished, the archbishop, considering that most of the audience there present did not understand the meaning of the sentence, being read in the Latin tongue, said to them, "Because there be many of you here that understand not the Latin tongue, and so cannot tell what judgment hath been here given, I shall therefore show you the effect thereof:" and therewith he did declare in English the causes expressed in the sentence, adding thereunto these words:
"Because my Lord of London is found guilty in these matters, therefore we have here, by our sentence, deprived him of our bishopric of London; and this we show unto you, to the intent that from henceforth ye shall not esteem him any more as bishop of London."
Then Bonner desired the archbishop to declare likewise what he had done, and how he had appealed. But the other, seeing his froward contempt, refused it, saying, You may do it yourself. Whereupon very disdainfully again he said, "you have now done your duty. What will your Grace do with me touching my imprisoment? will you keep me still in prison?"
To whom the commissioners answered, that they perceived now more in the matter than they did before, and that his behaviour was greater rebellion than he was aware of. And therefore they would not discharge him, but committed him again to his keeper to be kept in prison; where he most justly remained until the death of that most worthy and godly prince King Edward the Sixth; after which time he wrought most horrible mischief and cruelties against the saints of God, as appeareth hereafter throughout the whole reign of Queen Mary. From the executing of the which like tyranny, the Lord of his great mercy keep all other such. Amen!
Now, immediately after his deprivation he writeth out of the Marshalsea other letters supplicatory unto the lord chancellor, and the rest of the king's council, wherein he thus complaineth, that by reason of the great enmity which the duke of Somerset and Sir Thomas Smith bare unto him, his often and earnest suits unto the king and his council could not be heard. He therefore most humbly desired their Lordships, for the causes aforesaid, to consider him, and to let him have liberty to prosecute his matter before them; and he would daily pray for the good preservation of their Honours, as appeareth by the words of his own supplication hereunder following.
Thus after the commissioners had finished with Bonner, he, being now prisoner in the Marshalsea, leaving no shift of the law unsought how to work for himself as well as he might, drew out a certain supplication, conceived and directed to the king's Majesty, out of the said prison of the Marshalsea.
"To the right honourable, my lord chancellor of England, with all the rest of the most honourable privy council:
"Please it your most honourable good Lordships, with my most humble commendations, to understand, that albeit heretofore I have made such suit, and to such persons, as I cannot devise to make more, or to more higher; this is to wit, to the king's most excellent Majesty, and his most gracious person in divers sorts, and also unto your most honourable good Lordships being of his privy council, for redress of such notable and manifest injuries and extremities as have been, contrary to all law, honesty, and good reason, inflicted upon me by my Lord of Canterbury, my Lord of Rochester, Dr. Smith, and Dr. May: yet, because the said Dr. Smith, being a minister to the duke of Somerset, and they both my deadly enemies, hath sundry ways studied and laboured my ruin and destruction, staying and letting heretofore all my lawful remedies and suits, having therein help and furtherance of these two other aforesaid persons, being ready at foot and hand to accomplish all their desires and pleasures, I shall at this present (having for a time forborne to trouble, for good respects, your most honourable good Lordships with any my suits, and especially for your other manifold great affairs in the king's Majesty's business, myself yet, the mean while, neither wanting good will, nor yet just cause, being where I am, to make such suit) renew my suit, and most humbly beseech your most honourable good Lordships to give me leave to make most humble supplication again to your said Lordships, for honest and lawful liberty to prosecute my appellation and supplication heretofore made to the king's most excellent Majesty; and, according to the law, to make my suit for redress of the said great and manifest injuries, extremities, and wrongs, done against me by the said persons. And your said Lordships, over and besides the furtherance of justice many ways herein to me and others, and the collection of the king's Majesty's subsidy now to be levied of the clergy in my diocese, which hitherto hath been and is stayed by reason of the premises, shall also bind me most greatly and entirely to pray daily for the good preservation of your said most honourable good Lordships; in all honour, felicity, and joy, long to continue and endure unto God's pleasure.
"Written in the Marshalsea, the 26th of October, 1549.
"Your Lordships' most faithful
and assured beadsman, EDMUND LONDON."
A supplication made and directed by Edmund Bonner, late bishop of London, to the king's Majesty, out of the prison of the Marshalsea.
In the which supplication, first, after the used form of style, he prayed for the prosperous estate of the king long to reign. Then he showed that his faithful heart and service to him hath, is, and shall be, as it was to his father before.
Then he declared how he had been belied of evil men, and misreported not to bear a true heart to his Grace, but a rebellious mind, in denying his royal power in his minority; whereas indeed, he saith, his Grace should find him always, during life, both in heart, word, and deed, to do and acknowledge otherwise, and to be most willing to show, &c., and to do all other things for his Grace, as willingly as any other subject, or as those that were his denouncers, who, he thought, were not sent of his Grace, but pretended commissioners, &c.
Further, he complained of his denunciation by certain commissioners, (who said they were sent by his Grace,) alleging the same not to be lawful; and of his long and sharp imprisonment; and that the commissioners observed neither law nor reasonable order, but extremity. And whereas he had made appeal to his Grace, and he could not have it; he desired to have law to prosecute and sue his appeal for his remedy, and that he (considering his vocation) might not be shut up and put from liberty, which his meanest subjects have.
Then he desired his Grace's letters of supersedeas against the commissioners, and that the matter might be heard before the council; and then he doubted not but to be found a true faithful man, and herein to have wrong. So in the end he concluded, that this, (prostrating himself even to the very ground, and humbly kissing his Grace's feet,) was the only thing which he humbly desired, &c.
This done, and the supplication perused, the king eftsoons giveth in charge and commandment to certain men of honour and worship, and persons skilful in the law, as to the Lord Rich, high chancellor, the lord treasurer, the lord marquis Dorset, the bishop of Ely, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Herbert, knights, Dr. Richard Wootton, Edward Montague, lord chief justice, Sir John Baker, knight, with Judge Hales, John Gosnold, Dr. Oliver, and also Dr. Leyson, that they, scanning and perusing all such acts, matters, and muniments of the said Bonner by him exhibited, produced, propounded, and alleged, with all and singular his protestations, recusations, and appellations, should, upon mature consideration thereof, give their direct answer upon the same, whether the appellation of the said Bonner were to be deferred unto; whether the sentence defined against him stood by the law sufficient and effectual, or not: who, eftsoons, after diligent discussion, and considerate advisement had of all and singular the premises, gave their resolute answer, that the pretended appellation of Edmund Bonner aforesaid was naught and unreasonable, and in no wise to be deferred unto; and that the sentence by the commissioners against him, was rightly and justly pronounced. And this was the conclusion of Bonner's whole matter and deprivation for that time.